Monday, January 11, 2010

Somali Opposition Groups and their links to Ethiopia: SSDF and SNM

Role Ethiopia Played in Destruction of Somali State: 1978 to 1991


Both the SSDF and SNM, were founded in Ethiopia, under Mengistu Haile Maryama's regime. Both groups received extensive training, financial support, sanctury, and fought side by side with the Ethiopian army. But for diffrent motives and reasons.

The Somali Salvation Front was founded on the eve of the failed coup against Siyad Barre by General Cirro, a Majerteen, Cumar Mahmoud, in April, 1978. Over 500 soldiers died in order to put down the coup and most of these were forces loyal to Barre and followers or supported of of the Majeertain cause. Over 17 millary or police officers were executed accused of coorpation and all were Majertain.

Soon after the unsuccessuf coup, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed formed and Majeertain followers formed the SSF which later became SSDF Somali Salvation Democratic Front. The word Democratic was added in order to ensure that America and Arabs would provide money and cash.

The Majertain were motivated by a calculated ambition to overthrow the Barre regime which took power soon after the assassination of Abdirishid Ali Sharmarke the President of Somalia, who was assasinated by a Majeerten gunman.

The Majeerteen viewed that they are the majority Darood clan and should lead the nation. They dispised the Mareehan as not worth of Darood leadership and as a minority Darood clan. The Majertain believed they were the solo legitimate rulers of Darood since they had a Boqor or Sultan of the Majeertain which most Darood looked up to. Therefore, a major aim of the SSDF was overthrowing Barre and rightfully reclaiming the Somali goverment for the Majeertain who were entitled to this position.

The Mareehan are Sade Darood and that lineage of Darood only produce one clan, Marehaan. The Majeertain taught they came from Harti Confederation which includes Dhulbahante and Wersangali who accepted technically the Majertain Boqor and only maintained Garaads. Moreover the Harti claimed that they were also members of the larger Coalition of clans called Kablalax which includes the majority of Darood clans like Absame (Ogaden-Bartire-Abasguul) and also the small Geri clan. So, most Darood agreed that the Darood should rule Somalia and in particular the Kablalax.

By 1982, SSDF guerilles led by Ethiopian battalions and tanks occupied several district towns in central Somalia. Demoralized Somali army were battling the Ethiopian army and SSDF forces at towns in Galgaduud. The chief and Chairman was Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed. The Ethiopian army succeeded in establishing the SSDF Majertain guerilles in Bari and most of Nugaal by 1988. A major short coming and of was the lack of for the SSDF from non-Majeerten clans, as a matter of fact even not a single Darood clan supported the SSDF. However, the Isaaq SNM was more successful in appealing and enlisting support from the Dir clan-Family to which Issaq belong to(1) and the Hawiye.


1) Established 1981 in London England, proclaimed as nationwide political movement trying to restore democracy, trying to enlist non-Isaaq. Recruited and Appealed to Hawiye and Dir of the South. Also the Dir Issas* joined.

Moved headquartes to Dirra Dhawa a city dominated by Dir clans like Issas, Gurgure, Akisho and Gadabursi which the Isaaq Axmed (Maxd) Xinifter is related to, due to the fear of loyal Absame Darood in Jigjiga

2) Gadabursi created the Somali Democratic Allience 1990's.

3)Mandera prison near Berbera 1983 attacked, one of sensational activites followed by guerilla raids into Waqooyi Galbeed and Togdheer.

4)Ali Wardhiigley, SSNM, and killing of Inna Koosaar in Mudug. Jamac Yare's Book

5)1980s the future presidents of Erithrea, Afawarki and Ethiopian president Meles Zanawi, were two Tigray dissident who refuges and were receiving support from Siyad Barre Regime, they both shared a small room in a Mogdisho hotel, according to one Somali goverment employee they stayed at Hotel Toofiq for a while which is very low class hotel compared to Al Uruba an Juba Hotel, this shows their low profile probably if this source is right.

To be continued Soon

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