Saturday, October 13, 2018

The Biimaal Clan ( The Gadsan and Dabruube) Beesha Biyomaal

The Biimaal is a subclan of Dir and “the Dir

The Biimaal is a subclan of Dir and “the Dir are the oldest and least cohesive of the Somali clans. Their original homeland in northwestern Somalia was the starting point for the subsequent southward expansion of the nomadic Somali clans. The Dir comprise four sub-clans; the Issa and the Gadabursi who still live in the northwestern Somalia and neighbouring areas of Ethiopia and Djibouti, the Bimaal on the coast of Southern Somalia, and the Gadsen subclan of bimal along the Jubba valley, Ethiopia and Kenya.” (Jane’s, 28. Mai 2008)
The Bimaal clan is a major clan in what is today settle in lower Shabelle, lower Jubba, Bakool and Gedo. Today they are the most numerous ethnic group in Somalia, settling the most populated area from Mogadishu to kismayo, and roughly are estimated of over 2 million people. In addition, large numbers of Biimaal subclans are also found in Kenya and Ethiopia. Their language, is Somali and Hamatic language; more specifically 80% of their language content is Arabic, 90 percent of biimal can read and write Arabic language. The Biimaal or (Jamal) has three Brothers (1) Isaaq Mohamed and (2) Bajamal Mohamed and (3) Dabrube Mohamed.
The real name of Bimal is JAMAL, but nicknamed as 'Bimal' meaning 'being handsome' in Arabic, or ‘purified’ in Urdu. The Biimaal clan ascends to Mohamed known as Ahmed in Somaliland, and then ascend to Dir ethnic group to Aqiel bin-abittalib. descendant: Biimaal(Jammal) Mohamed/Ahmed - Xiniftire - Mahad - Dir - Aji - Irir - Samaale - Hiil - Abroone to Aqil - Ttahlib.

The Biimaal clan has five major subclans, whose there mnemonics is: DHSWW and Uncle Dabruube: the bimal family tree is as following:
The Mathigaan or Madigaan is a sub subclan of Dabrube, the Subclan of Biimaal, and is one of the tribes that inhabits in Ethiopia and Somaliland. Historically, the Mathigaan were mainly pastoral and farmers who separated from other Bimal in nearly 400 years ago, however, the record of written documents and inherited information from ancestors is well reserved in lower shabelle. The Dabrube tribes lived in different parts of somalia and Ethiopia, but they each had their history and blood connected.
Gaadsan (or Gadsan) is one of the subclan of Biimal who is mainly inhabit in Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia, but largely found in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia Gaadsan clans reside three districts: the Af-dher district (Jarrati, Waladaya, Doolow and Guuredhamole), Godey district (Iimey and Boola), and Gashamo district (Nusdariiq, Marsin, Kabtinuur and Qabridhare). There is also other large group of Gaadsan, known as Gaadsan-Qalaawileey in Shabelle and Jubba regions, living with other Biimals group. In Kenya there is a third division of Gaadsan, known as Gaadsan-Kenya, found in many cities such as Bangal, Garseeni, •and Hoolla.

            The History of Bimal
During 1600-1900 century, the Biimaal monarchy was one of the most powerful tribe in east Africa ruling the cost of benadir to keyan border and had been trading with mascut sultanate. During the 18 century, the geledi clan was the second powerful clans in Somalia, who were ruling large territory in southern somalia. The port of Mogadishu was practically autonomous, the Zanzibar sultans’ authority, like their customs officials, came and went with the monsoons. The hinterland of Mogadishu was controlled by the Geledi clan, whose sultans contracted alliances with many other clans in the region between the Shebelle and juba rivers. Through much of the century, the geledi alliance dominated the ivory trade that ran from luk on the upper juba to Mogadishu; the geledi sultans also collected tribute from the agricultural clans along the Bay and Bakool as far south as Bu’alle. Only the powerful bimal clan, situated in the hinterland of merka, succeeded in resisting the geledi hegemony and overthrowing their rulers in Mogadishu and. The sultans of Zanzibar, in the meantime, were forced to respect the authority of the Bimal rulers. (Africa in the nineteenth century until the 1880)
From 18th to 19th centuries, the Biimaal kingdom played a major role in Somali History. Under Italian colony,the Biimaal people opposed against the occupation of Italian regime, and severely fought against them. During that time, thousands of Biimal warriors lost their lives to stop the invaders to reach somali soil. The Biimaal Kingdom built large castles in the cost of Benadir, lower shabelle and juba to protect somali shores and for trading strategy. In 1895-1902, the Italian leaders tried many times to negotiate a land deal with Bimal king. In 1903, about 2000 Bimalis and 800 Italian soldiers were killed when they attempted to destroy these obstacles against Italian interests which also caused many Italian lives. Though many biimalis armies got killed, but they still insisted to protect Somali shore. After long bloody battles, the Italian leader sleeked alliance with other Somali tribes which finally destroyed Bimalis forces.
According Muslim Brotherhoods in Nineteenth-Century Africa, Cambridge University Press (Martin, 1977)''', the bimal clan were living between the port of marka and the Webi shebelli. The bimal had long resisted the Italians, largely because the Italians had abolished slavery in their district. The bimal used many slaves to cultivate their lands along the webi shebelli, another point of conflict was continuing Italian penetration, which the bimal had opposed since 1896. They had also besieged an Italian garrison at marka 1904 and ambushed and attacked their enemies repeatedly. From 1903 on, there was contact between the sayyid and the bimal, moreover, the salihia had a sufi center in bimal territory headed by a Shaykh abdi gafle, who could through the evil eye, transform men into animals, or change bullet into water, the sayiid sent advice and guidance to the bimal and problarbly weapons as well . Even so, the bimal clan was finally overcome by the Italians 1908, when a number of bimal chiefs had to go to Mogadishu to make their submission to the tialian governor. The guidance sent by the was the risalat al bimal, which is a s statement of the sayyid’s ideas of jihad, relations with the unbelievers, and other points which will be discuss below. The timing and the content of the risalah also show very clearly that the sayyid saw the illig convention as tactical maneuver. Later he would take up and lead the jihad again. His advice to the bimal on the necessity and significance of jihad follow these lines.
The Biimaal and Benadiri in Merka, Lower Shabelle According to Danish Refuge council, the predicament of Oday (2006).The old sultanate of the Biimaal around Merka has all but disappeared. Since their defeatto the Italians, the lineage of the

Biimaal Suldaan has lived a quiet existence. Furthermore,the Biimaal people suffered a heavy set-back during the civil war as much of their land wastaken over by non-resident Hawiye coming from northern regions, and many Biimaal either fled or was killed. Today, the Suldaan is still the highest rank for the Biimaal in and aroundMerka, and in Jaamame, where many  Biimaal also reside.After the civil war the Biimaal revived their xeer system. For example, the first attempt tocreate more peace and security in Merka area involved a meeting of traditional elders whoestablished the first new xeer between them. Each district then established a committee of elders and intellectuals with the purpose of overseeing the peace on one hand, and tointerlocute with international humanitarian agencies on the other in order to addresssocial welfare issues. However, they did not have military or strong policing power, whichmeant that they could not handle the armed freelance militias who erected extortiveroadblocks and who were outside the control of the traditional leaders. Prior to the civilwar, all Biimaal paid mag together. However, after the complexities of the civil war, eachsub-clan formed its own mag -paying group! This is perceived as a good development, be-cause it gives more pressure to the most immediate family to control its members as mag becomes more expensive when it is a smaller group that has to pay it. The migration of the Biimaal is thought to have begun some 700 years ago due to conflicts with the Danakil 
(in the present area of Djibouti). The migration process towards the south took some five centuries. Now the Biimaal has resided in the present area for the last 2-300 centuries

According to The Price of Peace: Somalia and the United Nations 1991-1994, the Biyamal are the majority clan in the Lower Shebelle (Gilkes 1994, 144). Gilkes distinguishes between the northern Dir and the southern Dir and notes that although the Biyamal were known for their struggle against the Italians, as a southern Dir group, they "were previously ignored." (144). Gilkes states that the Dir and particularly the Biyamal, supported the Southern Somali National Movement (SSNM), but adds that the SSNM had split. "Early in 1993 its chairman, Colonel Abdi Warsame, broke with General Aydeed and took part of the SSNM with him when he aligned himself with Ali Mahdi" (147). For additional information on the Biyomal and the SSNM please consult Responses to Information Rquests SOM24908 of 4 September 1994 and SOM18537.E of 4 October 1994, which are available at Regional Documentation Centres.
„In Lower Shabelle, the Habr Gedir clan rivals the (Dir) Bimaal. The competing claims of territorial ownership between ‘Mudulod’ and Habr Gedir over Mogadishu, and Bimaal and Habr Gedir over the Lower Shabelle, are played out over significant populations who have stronger claims to ‘autochthony’ but little military or political might.“ (RDCI/UNHCR, August 2007, S. 11)


The Darod tribes had migrated down to lower jubba in the middle of 19 century for better life as prolonged lack of rain caused their regions largely dry. By that time, the Biimaal tribes provided all their hospitalities, generosity to the Darod clan and granted to stay temproraly as guest expecting them to move out. From 1960 to 1991 the Darood regimes of Sharmarke and Barre had unfairly treated with Bimal clan and promoted thier clans to dominate and torture the local people as bimal clan was previously dismantled by the colonial power during the long time of war. After 1991, the Habargidir clan had also made a master plan by occupying the lower shabelle and mugged farms of residents, used by force displacement, looted properties by displacing and killing hundreds of local biimaal.

Prominent figures Political/social activist

 President of Udubland: Professor Ibrahim Cabdulahi Adow
 Abdullahi Sheikh Ismail, Former Somali Ambassador to Russian federation and EU, Former foreign minister 1990 and 2004 - 2006, Deputy prime minister and minister of constitutional affairs of TFG 2006.
 Abdirahman Adan Ibbi, former minister of fishery and marine resources of TNG 2000 - 2004, state minister 2004 - 2006
 Abdi Aluuq, senior general, Officer in Charge, Has the highest rank in SOMALI FORCES C.E.O has descended from the Gadsan tribe. His name is referred to ABDI ALUUQ (abdi the general).
 Abdi Warsame Isaq, one of Somali Socialist Supreme Council and positioned different ministerial posts during Bare's regime, one of influential founders of USC and chairman of SSNM, MP TFG 2004 - 2006.
 Ahmed Hussein Tifow worked differnt Lower shabelle 1960 - 1970, Speaker ssnm and politacal
 Cornel Abdi Ali Jamame. High ranking Cornel in former Somali Armed Forces.
 Professor Ahmed Omar Abdi, former WSLF leader
 Mana Haji, prominent peace activist.
 Elmi Abdulle Hussein, prominent peace activist
 Isse Sheikh Ismail, prominent peace activist
 Mohamed Amin Addow, Senior journalist
 Mohamed Fowsi, promising leader. Descendant of previous Chief General Abdi Aluuq also referred to Abdi Osman.
Religious and Traditional leaders

 Sheekh Abdurahman Mubarak, one of the most famous schollars in somalia
 Sheekh Xassan Yusuf, one of the famous Somali cleric, educated thousands scholars.
 Sheekh Macalin Shiikheey one of the famous Somali cleric, educated
 Sheik Mohammed Kulale, Islamic teacher and cleric
 Sheikana Shamsa Mohamed Fowsi , teaching Arabic (beginner)to the younger generation.
 Suldan Abdiwali Sh. Abdirahman Sul. Mubarak

Biimaal are the majorty clan of lower shabelle and lower juba, but there are some other tribes such as Digil in lower shabelle and shikhal, Galjecel and Darood in lower juba. Lower Shabele is bordered with Banaadir, Middle Shabele, Bay and Middle Juba and the Indian Ocean. this is the most populated region in somalia . Districts • Afgoi • Barawe • Janale • Kurtunwarey • Marka (Merca) • Qoriyoley • Sablale • Walaweyn • Lambar konton

Clans in Lower Shabebele

Biimaals tribes form about 55% of the population:

Dabruube (Garweyn and Garsis)
Digil clan about 40% Other clans form about 30% of the regions population: • Reer Marka • Reer Baraawe • Reer Shabelle •

Biimaal are the majorty clan of lower shabelle and lower juba, but there are some other tribes such as Digil in lower shabelle and shikhal, Galjecel and Darood in lower juba. Lower Shabele is bordered with Banaadir, Middle Shabele, Bay and Middle Juba and the Indian Ocean. this is the most populated region in somalia .

• Afgoi • Barawe • Janale • Kurtunwarey • Marka (Merca) • Qoriyoley • Sablale • Walaweyn • Lambar konton

Rahanwein (Digil & Mirifle) clans form about 40% of the population: • Geledi • Goobroon • Bagedi • Tunni • Jiiddo • Garre • Shantacaleemood (e.g Reer Daafeed, Barbaaro) • Dabarre • Boqolhore • Eelaay

Blog Archive