Friday, January 27, 2012

Starting from scratch Solar Power for sell

Starting from scratch

Jan 24th 2012, 14:05





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SUNNY countries are often poor. A shame, then, that solar power is still quite expensive. But it is getting cheaper by the day, and is now cheap enough to be competitive with other forms of energy in places that are not attached to electricity grids. Since 1.6 billion people are still in that unfortunate position, a large potential market for solar energy now exists. The problem is that although sunlight is free, a lot of those 1.6 billion people still cannot afford the cost of the kit in one go, and no one will lend them the money to do so.

Eight19, a British company spun out of Cambridge University, has, however, devised a novel way to get round this. In return for a deposit of around $10 it is supplying poor Kenyan families with a solar cell able to generate 2.5 watts of electricity, a battery that can deliver a three amp current to store this electricity, and a lamp whose bulb is a light-emitting diode. The firm reckons that this system, once the battery is fully charged, is sufficient to light two small rooms and to power a mobile-phone charger for seven hours. Then, next day, it can be put outside and charged back up again.

The trick is that, to be able to use the electricity, the system’s keeper must buy a scratch card—for as little as a dollar—on which is printed a reference number. The keeper sends this reference, plus the serial number of the household solar unit, by SMS to Eight19. The company’s server will respond automatically with an access code to the unit.

Users may consider that they are paying an hourly rate for their electricity. In fact, they are paying off the cost of the unit. After buying around $80 worth of scratch cards—which Eight19 expects would take the average family around 18 months—the user will own it. He will then have the option of continuing to use it for nothing, or of trading it in for a bigger one, perhaps driven by a 10-watt solar cell.

In that case, he would go then through the same process again, paying off the additional cost of the upgraded kit at a slightly higher rate. Users would thereby increase their electricity supply—ascending the “energy escalator”, as Eight19 puts it—steadily and affordably. Simultaneously, the company would be able to build a payment record of its clients, sorting the unreliable from the rest.

According to Eight19’s figures, this looks like a good deal for customers. The firm reckons the average energy-starved Kenyan spends around $10 a month on paraffin—sufficient to fuel a couple of smoky lamps—plus $2 on charging his mobile phone in the market-place. Regular users of one of Eight19’s basic solar units will spend around half that, before owning it outright. Meanwhile, as the cost of solar technology falls, it should get even cheaper. The company hopes to be able to supply users with a new, low-cost and robust sort of solar cell, printed onto plastic strips, within two years.

The scheme has so far been tried out among a couple of hundred Kenyan families. With the aid of a charitable loan to accelerate its roll-out, Eight19 is planning to disperse 4,000 solar units in Kenya, Malawi and Zambia over the next two months. If the idea works, solar power will have a whole, new set of customers and the days of the paraffin lamp may be numbered.

BOQORTOOYADA AKISHO ALI MADAXWEYNE DIR

BOQORTOOYADA AKISHO ALI MADAXWEYNE DIR

Waa boqortooyo hore oo xoogaha aad moodo baryahan danbe in xoogeedi wiiqmay qaar badana ay konfurta, galbeedka, iyo waqooyiga Itoobiya ku kala firdhatay. Qaar kalen galbeedka Somaliya iyo waqooyiga ay u kala kaceen. Beelo fara badan ayaa Akisho ku abtirsada qaar badan xitaa aan Akisho la moodin sida Obo, Guure, iyo beelo kale.

Magaca Akisho waxaa lagu macneeyaa kii cayilnaa oo afka oromada lagu dhaho (Ayisho) waa naaneys, Sida Gurgurahaba uu magaciisu naaneys macnaheedu tahay (Ganacsade) oo af Somaligii hore la dhihi jiray Gurgure sida kalmada (Gorgortanba) ay halkaas ka soo jeedo. Itoobiyana Gurgure waxaa loo yaqaan ganacsatada afafka Harariga/Oromada.

Boqortooyoyinkii hore ee Gurgure-Layiile-Akisho waxaa ay u bax sheen magalada Diraa Dhabe (ama meeshii uu Dir Waranka ku dhuftay(Dhabey) qarnigii 1400. Akishada iyo Gurgurah iyo beelah Madaxweyne Direed waxaa ka dhashay boqortooyoyinkii Ifat--Adulis iyo waliba halyeeygii weynaa ee Axmed Gurey.

Tarikho hore oo tilmamaya ayaa jira in Boqoradii Caraweelo ay aheyd naag Akhisho. Labadii boqol ee sano ee la soo dhafay hase ahaatee boqortoyadii akisho waxaa ku dhacay dib u dhac iyo burbur.


Akisho

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Akisho (var. Akisha, Akishe; also known as Gurre) is a Somali subclan, part of the larger Dir group whose members live in Ethiopia and northern Somalia. The Akisho are a subclan of the Ali Madaxweyn Dir, and they are reputed to be descendants of the eldest sons of the Madaxweyn Dir.

Akisho is one of the oldest clans in the Horn of Africa. According to Somali history, two of the oldest monarchies in the region, the Ifat and Adal Sultanates, were Akisho.[citation needed] However, the inhabitants of the Ethiopian province/kingdom of Ifat spoke a South Semitic language related to Amharic.[1]

The Akisho inhabit both Somaliland and Ethiopia. In Somaliland, Akisho members live in the southern Woqooyi Galbeed Province, Wajaale, Ala’ibaday, and Gabiley. In Ethiopia, where the Akisho are the most widespread Somali group, Akisho members inhabit Jijiga, Baale (Nagelle), Baabule, Fayaanbiiro, Qabri-Bayah, Fiq, Hara-Maaya, Harar, and Dadar.

Akisho members are predominantly adherents of Sunni Islam, though one might find a Christian Akisho in the Shewa area of Ethiopia. Other Akisho groups and their related clans are reputed to have migrated from Somali Ethiopian region all the way up North as far as the country Chad, the Sudan, and Northern Eritrea are said to be inhabited by these lost Dir groups.[citation needed]

The Akisho name is originally derived from "Cayisho" which means in old Somali the (Cayilsan) "Fat One", and in Oromo Akisho.[citation needed] Also the other nickname of the Akisho, Guure, is derived from one who doesn't "hear" because they did not speak the Oromo language when they settled among the Oromo of Bale and Arsi around 1600.[citation needed] Similarly, the Gurgure who are very closely related to the Akisho, use a nickname and were referred to the Oromo and Somalis as the traders or Gurgure from the old Somali and Oromo word "gorgortan" which means one who sales and trades.

According to the folklore historians of the Southern Suure Dir of the Mudug region, the Akisho and the Gurgure madahweyne Dir produced some of the most famous Somali folk heroes like the Somali queen Araweelo who was Warre Miyo. Also the Akisho and Gurgure clans were instrumental in spreading the Muslim faith in the hinterlands of Ethiopia. The Sheikh Abba Hussein in Southern Ethiopia is said to be of Dir, as well as Awbarkadleh and Awbuube who are two major saints of the Somalis.

The Warre prefix in front of many Akisho clans names means "the Clan of" or reer (WaaReer) in proper Somali. For example, the Warre Miyo are referred to Reer Miiyo in Somalia, but Warre Miyo in Ethiopian Somali and Oromo regions. Other clans related to the Aksiho are the Gariire, Warre Dayo,Gurgure, Layiile, and Aw Said's of Lower Jubba.

The Akisho (Gurre) clan consists of 12 major subclans:

Waro-Miyo
Waro-Bito
Waro-Dayo
Waro-Luujo
Waro-Ito
Waro-Kiyo
Waro-Heebaan
Waro-Kurto
Obo
Igo
Asaabo
Eejo



http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,IRBC,,SOM,,3ae6ab6760,0.html

Somaliland: The Akisho[Akesho]: whether they live in the town of Gebileh, their relationship with Isaaks and whether they have political representation in the current government

The information in contained in this Response was provided by Matt Bryden, a consultant and Somali specialist now working with the United Nations Institute for Research on Social Development (UNRISD) in Nairobi (16 June 1998). He stated that the Akisho "are related to (if not part of) the Dir clan family, and live mainly between Jigjiga [in Ethiopia] and Hargeysa, where they tend to live in a somewhat subordinate status to the majority clans, although in Somaliland they have been awarded a seat in the constituent assembly. They face no general threat of persecution in any of the areas in which they live." The Research Directorate was unable to corroborate the Akisho's participation in the constituent assembly nor whether they face "persecution."

According to the Ethiopian Review the Akisho may be more numerous in Ethiopia than they are in Somalia (30 Apr. 1996). For additional information on the Dir clan and the Akisho sub clan, please consult Patrick Gilkes' The Price of Peace: Somalia and the United Nations 1991-1994 pages 144-148, and the appendix of Somali clan families.

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum.

Reference


Bryden, Matt. UNRISD, Nairobi. 16 June 1998. Letter received by electronic mail.

Gilkes, Patrick. September 1994. The Price of Peace: Somalia and the United Nations 1991-1994. Bedfordshire, UK: Save the Children Fund, UK.

Additional Sources Consulted


Africa Confidential [London]. January - May 1998. Vol. 39. Nos. 1-11.

Somali Galbeed mise Ogaadeeniya

Qabiilada Daga Dalka Somaali Galbeed iyo Cidey Kala Yihiin


Dhaq dhaqaaqa dib u xoreynta Somali galbeed waxaa baryahan danbe af gambi ku samayay beesha Ogaadeen oo dalkii Somali Galbeed u bixisay "Ogaadeenya" arrinkaan oo bilawday 1995 tii ayaa cajaaib ah in meel ay Somali weyn ku nooshahay loo baxsho magac beeled ma sax baa

Marka **** Salaan, salaan ka dib suáal aad u qiimo badan ayaad keentay. Dalkan Somali galbeed la yiraahdo waxaa daga dhamaan qabiilada Somaaliyeed oo dhan marka ma haboona in loogu yeero magac beel (Ogadeenya)ee waxaa haboon in loogu yeero Somali Galbeed. Saan ognahay cadoowga Somaalida wuxuu mar walba isku dayaa in la kala qaybiyo umada Somaaliyeed oo qas iyo casaabiyad qabiil lagu beero.

Anigoo sharaf weyn u haya beesha Ogaadeen ee Somaliyeed iyo doorka dheer ay ka cayarto xoreynta dalkaa Somali Galbeed hadana dadka ku nool dalkaa Ogadeenku kama badna boqolkiiba 20%.


Soomali galbeed waxaa ku nool:

1)Waqooyiga Somali galbeed Beesha Dir oo ay ka mid yihiin Ciise,Gurgure,Akisho,Isaaq,Barsuug,Gadabuursi,Jaarse,Gaadsan,Guure,Gariire,Fiqi Muxumad,Fiqi Khayre,Qubeys,Jiido,Obo,Mandaluug,Madigaan,Bajimaal iyo qaarkale oo badan.

2)Qaybaha Dhexe waxaa Dagan Daarood:
Abasguul, Bartire,Yabare, Ogadeen,Gilimeys,Dhulbahante,Mareexaan,Majeerteen(baciyahan),Harti gaab iyo beelo kale oo badan.

3)Waxaa daga dalkaa Gabooyo (Madiibaan-Midgaan)

4)Hawiye: Karanle Hawiye,Gaaljecel,Sheekhaal,Hiraab,Jajeele iyo beelo kale oo badan.

5)Beelaha /Samaale /Dir/Hawiye ayaa u badan Koonfurta iyo aaga Mooyaale oo ay ka mid yihiin: Gare, Dogoodi, Gadsan,Guure, Gariire,Bajimaal,Xawaadle,Ajuuran,Suure,Fiqi Muxumud.

6)Raxanweeyn fara badan oo ay ka mid yihiin Gasar guudo/Hadame iyo beelo kale oo badan ayaa dalkaa dagan.

7)Beelaha Shebeele,Reer baare, Kaboole,Duubo,iyo beeralay kale oo fara badan ayaa ku sii nool oo Ogaandeka barkii ka badan.

8)Ugu danbeen waxaa jira dad Muslimiina oo Somalida la dhaqan iyo af ah oo ka soo jeeda qowmiyada Oromada ayaa meel walba ku dhex baahsan oo dhex dagan Somalida oo ay ka mid yihiin Caruusada, Booranta,Gabrah, iyo Guuji.

Marka walaalo waa Khalad iyo gardaro in Ogaadeenya loo bixiyo dal loo wada dhan yahay. Beena ma fiicna Dir ayaa u qalanta in loo baxasho dalkaa intii Ogadeen la oron lahaa.


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Replying to:

Inta badan Saxaafadda Caalamka iyo Dadka ka warhaya Siyaasadda Soomaaliya waxaa ay ugu wacaan Gobolka Soomaalida ee dalkaasi Ethiopia (Soomali Galbeed ama Killilka 5aad) sababtoo ah waxaa ay ku dabaqayaan magaca Soomaalinimo iyo in dhamaan beelaha wada daga Gobolkaasi ay hal hadaf ah yeeshaan si looga gudbo dhibaatada gumaysiga ee Ethiopia.

Arinkaasi waxaa si wayan usoo dhoweeyay dhamaan soomaalida iyo inta jecel in laga ahortago kuwa wada qabiilka ee damiirkooda ku koobay in ay ku faanaan Beel ama waqtiga lagu lumiyo iyadoo aan la ixtiraamin dadka markaasi kula dagan oo iyagaba Beelo uun kasoo jeeda.
Dhulka Soomaalida ee Ethiopia waxaa dagan Beelo Soomaaliyeed oo ay kamid Yihiin Ogaadeen, Sheekhaal, Isaaq, Duubo, Dir, Karanle, dhulbahante, majeerteen iyo kuwo kale oo aad u fara abdaan oo ilaa 30 ka badan lagu qiyaaso oo dhamaantood ah Soomaali ka soo jeeda Beelaha Soomaalida oo dhan maadaama uu dhul soomaaliyeed yahay waana dhul aad u balaaran oo Malaayiin qof ay ku noolyihiin.

Hadaba Iyadoo taariikh ahaan la ogyahay dagaaladii ka dhashay Gobolkaasi ee dhexmaray Ethiopia iyo Soomaaliya si Gobolkaasi uu soomaali Weyn wax ula qaybsado ayaa waxaa hadana wax lala yaabo ah in Dhul Soomaali oo dhani ay dagantahay loogu magac daro Beel Magaceeda halkii magacii Soomaali uun la sii wadi lahaa.

Ururka ONLF ee uu Hogaamiye Maxamed Cusmaan ayaa waxaa ay dastuurkooda ku saleeyeen in ay Gobolkaasi ka badalaan Magaca Soomaalyeed loona bixiyo Magaca Ogadenia iyadoo Taliskii **** ee Ethiopia uu dhaqaale ku siiyay Ururkan in ay Magacaasi qaataan si uu ugu tuso dad qabiil ka doorbiday Soomaali.

Waxaana nasiib daro ah in ilaa hadda Ururka ONLF uu sheego in dhulkaasi ay Beeshooda leedahay isla markaana ay ka qaybgalayaan dagaal walba oo looga hortagyo cidii aan Magacaasi ka tirsanayan.

Mar aan la kulmay Maxamed Cusmaan waxaa aan waydiiyay maxaa idinku wata arinkaasi waxaana uu sheegay in ay ogyihiin in Qabiilo badan ay dagaan Gobolka hase yeeshee uu magacaasi hirgalay kuna dadaalayaan in ay ku badalaan mid aan ahayn Qabiilka.

hadaba waxaa Soomaalida lagu tiriyaa dadka ugu beenta badan aduunka maadaama Beel walba ay sheegato in ay xaq u leeyihiin waxyaabo xaq daro ah oo aan ku wanaagsnayn Islaamka

Waxaa kaloo aan la yaabaa sida Beelaha Soomaalidu ay ugu dhaqmaan qabiilka iyo in qof walba uu iska dhaadhiciyo waxyaabo aan jirin oo Jahli laga dhadhansanayo sida anagaa ugu badan iyo anagaa ugu xoog wayn.

Dhibaatada kale ee Soomaalida haysata ee jahligu uu kamid yahay waxaa iyana kamid ah in soomaalidu aanay waxba isku ogolayn isla markaana ay u fahmeen dagaalka iyo dhiiga la daadiyo mid sharaf lagu gaarayo , waxaana maanta la dhihi karaa waa Umadda ugu liidata caalamka marka la eego qaabka ay u fikirayaan.

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