Thursday, January 14, 2010

BANADIR COAST Arabs: Founding of Qadiriya and Ahmediyya Tariqas amoung Dir


    Bandhabow, Moorshe, dhabarweyn and Iskashato principly live in Hammer Weyn, Mogadisho. Each group has a group that is attached to them. Hatimi, Aydarus, Shanshi, Durqbo, Kalamashube and Gudmane.

    Shanta shangani
    The Shanta shangani are mixed Arab and Kushitic who live in the walled compound of Shangani :Amuudi, Yaquub, Reer Manjo, Sedex Gedi and Asharaf

    Nayruush New year festival and Istunka are crucial in Banadir

Hatimy clan founders of the Coastal town Brave speak Af Brave a northern Swahilli dielect called Mwinii or Chimawiini (the surrounding Bajun who live on Bajun Island off the coast also speak this languege) and Surrounding Somali Digil Shan Gamas Tunni and attached Tunni Torre who are their serfs.

10th and 12th Centuries

Himyariti Arabs and Persians from Shiraz settled in southern cities like Brave, Zaila, Berbera,Mogadisho, and Merka begining in 10th century .

Mogadisho Xadramaut and Biihani sections are named actually after two Yemani tribes. In Mogadisho the Arabs used to elect a jural authority from the Qahtan Ibn Wali sub clan. By 1300 Mogadisho ruled by Muzzafar Dynasty a mixed sultanate of Somali Arab City dwellers.

1600 -1700 Muzzafar Dynasty weakens and township rule of Hamarweyn/Shangani under pressure from nomadic tribes of Somali Dir and Hawiyya. Also by this time the Portugees colonize Swahil coast which became dominated earlier by another Arab group, this time the Ibadi Omanis. Portugees and Omanis ships struggle over coastal area.

Dir clans like Biimaal and the Mudulood/Karanle Hawiye oust the Ajuuran rulers of the region who monopolized the Arab/Persian trade of the Coastal area. Ajuuran Dynasty dominated Hawiye clans until they ousted them from Mogadisho. The Dir pursued the Ajuuran to Merca until all left. The region also becames know as Beynkii Direed or Beenadir after the powerful Bimaal establish a Sultant of their own after defeating successive Silcis, Gobroon, and mysterious Amaarani or Hamranis who ruled parts of the Coast. Banadir like Dira Dhabe are two famous cities that have Dir names.

1300-1400 Shangani and Hamarweyne were in existence and Hamarweyn was the dominant section of Mogadhiso. 1600 Hawiye clans (Karanle and Mudulood) ancestors of Murasade and Abgaal enter the City and the Dir clans ( Bimaal-Dabruube and Qubeys Midkase Afrax clans). By 1600 the Bimaal impose their rule on Arabs of coastal Banadir area from Jazira all the way to Merca and as far as Brave. The Hawiye gained full control of Shangani and Hamerweyn imposing an Abgaal imaam by 1800;the Geledi used to rule before that as Imams.

Qadiriya, Ahmediyya Rifa'yya and Salihiya Tariqas

Some of the "pure" Arabs of Merca Brave and Mogadisho followed the Rifa'iya Dariiqa. Most of pure Somalis like the Dir and Hawiye were Qadiriya tariqas or Salihiyya- Ahmediyya like Biimaal Dir. Qadiriya come to Harrar area and home of the Dir in the 1500's according to most sources the Tariqa was brought to the region by the Sheikh Abu Baker Ibnu Abda Allah Al Aydarusi 1508-1509 know as Al Qutb al Rabanni and Al Adani he was a Sayid of Shia of Yeman where his mosque in today in Yeman, Adan.

Ahmediya and its offshot Salihiyya was brought to the South in 1880s its first Sheikh Ali Maye Durogba and spread amoung the Dir (Biimaal /Dabruube and Suure) of Merca area and later to Ogadeen.

Ahmediya was founded by Sheikh Ahmed Idiris Al Fasi 1760- 1860. Salihiyya founded by Mohammed Ibnu Salah 1887 and Rashidiyya by Ibrahim Rashid a student of Ahmed Idiris.

Salihiyya's first Sheikh

Sheikh Mohammed Guuled, a former "Slave" according to some scholars like I.M Lewis, was first Salihiyya sheikh who founded a Jamaca amoung Shidle Bantu of Shabeel. He died 1908 at Misir amoung Shiidle.

Later Salihhiyya was made popular in Somali by the Darvishes of Mohammed Abdulle Hassan a Bah Gari (Habar Suleymaan) Ogadeen who visited Mecca 1893 meeting Shiekh Mohammed Salah in Mecca. 1895 Sayid gave himself Khalif and later claimed even to be a Mahdi and declaring Jihad against the British it seems Inna Cabdulle Hassan was coping the Mahdi of Sudan whom he heard about on his way to Mecca. The Mahdi of Sudan who was fighting in Sudan against British/ Egyptian rulers also proclaimed himself to be the awaited Mahdi.

Sheikh Salihi later heard of the numbers of Muslim Somalis that Darvishs killed and their looting, raping and inhuman treatment of their enemies and he was condemmed by Salihi retracted his permission to represent his Tariqa in Somalia.

  • Pre Islamic Saints with Baraka Aw Ciiltire- protects against crocadilles attacks and Hippo attacks
  • Aw Mad- protector of Harvests and fertility of Farms amoung Digil/Mirifle Raxanweyn
  • Haddan Maddeer prophetic predictor of the coming of Islam and organiser against Oromo Arsi/Orma/Borana

  • Awqutb Fiqi Cumar with Seven Sons

Founding of Jamacs Sufi settlement in Jubba and Shabeelle

The Dir

Saintly clan ? Reer Sheikh Muumin in the Bay Ancestor's Shrine of Buur Hakaba amoung Eelay are venerated for their Baraka- Italian Colonialist Fernandi 1903 after he sense their hostility to Italian colonialism due to the Italians destruction and war against Biimaal calls them sorcerers .

Saintly Tribal groups in Jubba/shabeelle region

  • Also Sheikhasha Loobagi clan which unlike Au Qutb Fiqi Omar claims to be Herab their ancestor Sheikh Saad is buried in Galadi ??
  • Ashraaf amoung Saarman tribes of Bay- expulsion of Harow and remaining Leysan Bari and Leysan Hore
  • Walamoji amoung Eelay are sheikhs and rulers they say they expelled the previous sheikh rulers the Reer Faqi- Sheikh Hussen shrine Bale area.
  • Waaqbare are made of three sections also claim to be from the Dir controlled sheikh Hussen shrine areas and have connections to Arsi region-- amoung Dabarre
  • Dir rulers amoung chiefs of Geeladle
  • the Ashraaf of shangaani are Ba Alawi of Yeman

Sheikh Ali Kurre 1880s founder of the Bardheere Jamaca which was later destroyed 1843 by Geledi Gobroon Sultan who himself and son both died in a later battle with the Bimaal clan. Bardheere Jamaaca's influence reached Brave, Moolimat and Bay region. Jamaca later recreated by Eelay sheikh Mohammed Eedan (Adan)

Adoption and incorparation into the group of diffrent clans to from Jamaca

Sheikh Ali Afey Durogba of Merka Ahmediyya Sheikh. The Bimaal Resistence against the Italian was mostly led by Dir Ahmediyya Macalimin or Sheikhs

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