Saturday, July 28, 2018

Bimaal Dir Clan's Marka’s anti-colonial struggle 1876- Historical Video Parade in Marka - 1936 - Tariikhdii Boqortoyada Bimaal Maxmaed Xiniftire kula Dagalantay Talyaaniga

Marka’s anti-colonial struggle

When the European ‘scramble for Africa’ began in the late 19th century, the ancient Somali city Marka was infamously known amongst the Europeans as a city hostile to foreigners. Whilst the Darawiish forces were waging anti-colonial campaigns in northern Somalia, similiar campaigns were being conducted in southern Somalia. One particular instance was the Biyomaal anti-colonial resistance.



The resistance was spearheaded by Sheikh Abdi Gafle and Ma’alin Mursal Abdi Yusuf; two prominent local Islamic teachers in Marka. The resistance, albeit clan-based initially transformed in to one with a religious fervour.
A local poet in Marka, at the time of the uprising, lashed out against those who failed to join the religious struggle (Jihad):

Reer Jannah waa jid galeen.
Reer Jahanama iska jooga.
Those who fight are bound for Heaven
Those who submit can stay in Hell
The first colonial governor of Italian Somaliland: Tommaso Carletti wrote on the necessity for the Italian Empire to move from the apparent nominal control of the Somali colony to a physical occupation to reap the financial rewards from the untapped resources of Somalia:


“It is necessary for the government to assert itself materially and morally over the populations surrounding the Banadir stations … and … gradually undertake the peaceful penetration of the interior and extend our direct administration to the line of the Shabelle River”.
This policy gave the colonial administration the green light to subdue the Somalis who failed to submit to colonial rule.


Marka’s anti-colonial resistance lasted from 1900 to 1908. During the resistance period — the ancient city was laid siege by the Somali forces, thereby blocking all land routes to the port. Italian garrisons in Marka barely survived the harassments and skirmishes and reinforcements from Mogadishu suffered considerable loses. This noble resistance caught the attention of Mohamed Abdulle Hassan — the charismatic Darawiish leader — who sent a lengthy message to the Biyomaal (Risaalat al-Biyomaal) in which he commended their efforts and proclaimed the necessity of waging Jihad against the colonial invaders. He attached a supplemental text entitled “Qam’ al-Mu’anidin” (Supression of the Rebellious) that clarified the tenets of Saalihiya order, for which the leader ascribed to.


The resistance came to an end in 1908 when 1500 well-equipped Italian colonial troops faced 2,000 Biyomaal warriors. The battle, also known as Dagaalkii Sabti iyo Axad (The Weekend Battle) or Fiinlow was decisive with the Somali side on the losing end. Roughly 1,000 of these warriors were killed or wounded. The Italians, boasting of their manifested victory renamed the site to ‘Vittorio d’Africa’ — African Victory.


The Somalis — knowing that they could not defeat the superior Italian weapons – succumbed to make peace with the Italian colonial authority — a shaky peace that endured its fragility until Somalia’s independence.
The below video is an excerpt from a wider colonial propaganda video that depicts the ‘subjugated’ Somali warriors who once frustrated the Italians with their warlike and anti-colonial attitude.


The text being read as:




Merca: Caratteristica Cittadina Contesaci, Per Vari Anni, In Aspri Combattimenti Dalle Belligere Tribu Bimal
English (loosely translated): Merca: a troublesome city that witnessed fierce fighting from the warlike tribe of Biyomaal
  1.  
     

''With government approval, Cecchi prepared for an expedition into the interior. By November 25, he was ready to move; his caravan consisted of seventy askaris, Commander Ferdinando Maffei of the Staffetta, Commander Franscesco Mongiardini of the Volturno, and fourteen other Italians, for the most part members of the crews of the two ships. That very night their encampment at Lafolé, some twelve miles inland, was attacked. In the early morning hours, as the caravan once more got under way, it was attacked again. By eight-thirty in the morning of November 26, all but three sailors were dead or dying.''

''First Adowa, then Lafolé; the future of Italian colonialism in the Horn of Africa looked very umpromising at the end of 1896''

Italian Colonialism in Somalia, Robert L. Hess 1966.
-----------------------


This event sparked one of the longest resistance struggles in Southern Somalia (Benadir) against Italian penetration and occupation of Somalia. This long resistance is only second to the heroic great struggle of Sayyid Muhammed Abdulle Hassan and his darawish army.

What happened on that day of November 25-26th of 1896? Who was this Cecchi guy? Who were these mysterious warriors that swiftly defeated this first Italian colonial penetration of the hinterland of Benadir? Why is this event put in the same line as the humiliating defeat of the Italians by Ethiopians in Adowa? And last but not least, what were the consequences of this event in Lafole?


This episode in Somali history is perhaps the least known, although it had crucial impact on the future of Somalia. Instead, most Somalis are not aware of this event while the Italians had built a monument for Antonio Cecchi in Lafole which still stands in the bush unvisited, while throughout the Banaadir 1896 is remembered in the count of the years as Axad Shiiki, the ‘Sunday Year of Cecchi’.


To present an elaborate account of this event, we need to start with the context. Who were the main groups in the Benadir region? Who was Antonio Cecchi and what was his role in the Italian expansion into Somalia? And what were the consequences of this event both for Somali groups and Italy?

In a number of series I'll present the complete story, and show why this event and the shockwave it send throughout Benadir and Southern Somalia is still relevant to this day.

     
      
    The Bimaal were instrumental in mobilizing the Somali Tribes in the south and Formed an alliance with the Darvish movement instilling Fear in the Italian Governor Carletti
     

     
In June 1908 Governor Carletti wrote to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs:
We cannot afford to delay our move inland, since it will be difficult to occupy the river when the rebels who left over two months ago return with guns from the Mullah Muhammad


To give added weight to his pleas for decisive government action, Carletti attached a letter from the sultan of Geledi written earlier that month:
The Biimaal have abandoned their territory and the major part—around 4000—are in voyage to the Mullah. Only the old men, women, and children remain. Even among the Hintire only a few remain…. You must make war without any delay. Don’t remain inactive…. Your enemies won’t obey your orders and say, “We will obey only Shaykh Muhammad Abdullah….”   Hintire, Biimaal, Wacdaan, Jambelul, Daud, and Mobilayn amount to more than 100,000 [ sic  ]. If their messengers return with arms, they will all stand against us and the territory will be lost, since they desire only war
While the letter almost certainly exaggerates the number of Somalis who actually left to contact the mullah in the north, it does give an idea of the extent to which the resistance had become pan-tribal. A united resistance is precisely what the colonials feared.


Therefore, in August 1908, auxiliary soldiers under Italian command marched inland to the Shabeelle. They raised the flag at Bariirey; they fought with valiant Somalis for several hours outside of Mereerey; then their forces marched triumphantly into Afgooye. The colonial occupation of the interior had begun, prompted by the events of the “Year of the Dervishes.”


Source:
Page 250 of Lee Cassanelli’s The shaping of Somali society: reconstructing the history of a pastoral people, 1600-1900


 The Biyamaal arrived in the Lower Shabelle around the end of 17th century and established control over Merca and the hinterlands. The Biyamaal were in constant war with the Geledi Sultanate, and even killed 2 Sultans of Geledi through out the war.
     
     

     
     Italian News depicting the Bimaal Revolt in Images

File:Ancient Biimaal.jpg
     
Image result for biimaal revolt italians
     
     

21-KII NOVEMBER 1876-DII WAXAY KU BEEGAN TAHAY MARKII GUMEYSIGII TALYAANIGA XEEBTA MAGAAALADA MARKA CADEEY LAGU JABIYEY. 

 

 28933455

 

21-kii November 1876-dii, maanta oo kale waxa ay ku taagan tahay markii la jabiyey ciidamo aad u faro badnaa oo ka tirsanaa gumeysigii Talyaaniga oo ka soo degay xeebta magaalada Marka Cadeey.

Dagaalyahano ka tirsan beesha Biimaal oo ay horkacayeen labaddii hogaamiye ee xiligaasi ugu caansanaa oo kala ahaa Allah u naxariistee Macalim Kabtooli iyo Sh Cabdi Abiikar Gaafle ayaa difaacyo adag waxa ay ka sameysteen xeebaha magaalada Marka si ay ugu hortagaan gumeysigii Talyaaniga oo doonayey inay cagta soo dhigaan dhulkii ay ka talineysay Saldanadii Beesha Biimaal. Gumeysigii Talyaaniga oo adeegsanayey xeeladihii military ee xiligaasi ugu casrisanaa waxa ay weerarkooda magaalada Marka ku soo qaadeen kaga yimaadeen laba aag.




Dhinaca xeebta oo maraakiibta dagaalka madaafiic ku soo garaacayey magaalada ka dibna ciidamo boqolaal ku soo daadiyey xeebta iyo dhinaca beriga oo ay ka soo galeen dhinaca magaalada Muqdisho. Shir deg deg ah duhurnimadii 21- November 1902 waxa isugu yimid deegaanka Hareerley (Hareerley waxay aheyd xaruntii ugu weyneed ee taliska ciidmada Biimaal) hogaamiyaashii beesha Biimaal waxa ayna isla qaateen dagaal loogu hortago gumeysiga dhulkooda soo galay. isla maalintaas waxa ciidamo loo kala diray xeebaha magaalada Marka iyo deegaanka Lafoole si loo hor istaago ciidamadii gumeysiga. waxaana halkaani si buuxda ugu bilowday dagaalkii mudda dheer socday ee loo yaqiinay “THE BIIMAAL REVOLT”Buugaag taariikhda dagaaladaasi ka hadlaya ayaa laga qoray oo maanta laga heli karo Libraryada dunida. Waxa xusid mudan sida wararku aan ku heleyno in maanta magaalada Marka shir ay isugu yimaadeen Golaha Guurtida Beesha Biimaal ay kaga hadlayeen xuskani, iyaga oo ka codsaday maamulka magaalada Marka Cadeey in waxii maanta ka bilowda 21 November loo aqoonsado maalin Qaran oo lagu xusayo halyeeyadii dalka u soo dhintay. Iyaga oo Guurtida Biimaal isku raacay si gaar ah deegnada beesha Biimaal laga xuso maalinkan taariikhiga ah. waxa ayna isku raaceen in Schoolada deegaanka gaar ahaan magaalada Marka la fasaxo sanadkasta 21 November si jiilka cusub loo baro taariikhda ay leeyihiin.
Halkan hoose ka daawo siyaasi Dr Saadaq Eenow oo ah aqoonyahan Soomaaliyeed oo ku takhasusay cilmiga caafimaadka, PHd-na ka sameeyey history-ga isaga oo ka hadlaya dagaalkii Biimaal iyo Talyaaniga:



Dagaalkaas intii uu socday taariikhihii ugu caansanaa waxa ka mid ah

Reer jannow waa jidgaleen === People of heaven, have found their way.
Reer jaxiimow iska jooga ==== people of hell, stay where you are.

Sep. 1904 Waxa Cigale iyo agagaarka Markaba qabsaday Talyaaniga; wuxuuna Cigale ka dhistay Sariibad. Ka dib marki Cigale Talyaaniga qabsaday hogaamiyaashii Biimaal waxa ay isugu tageen magaalada Mooyaale (Galbeedka Laantabuuro) si ay xaalada cusub ee soo korortay ugu wada tashan lahaayeen.
Intii aan Cigale laga qabsan, Biimaal waxa ay mar walba ku kalsoonaayeen awoodooda ciidan iyo dhaqaaleba; hase ahaatee dagaalkaas wuxuu tusay hubka ee Talyaanigu isticmaalayey in aanay u babac dhigi karin, ilaa ay helaan hub u dhigma. Sidaas darteed shirkii Mooyaale hogaamiyaashii Biimaal waxa ay ku go’aamiyeen in ay 500 oo nin oo isugu jiray dagaalyahano iyo culimo u diraan Sayid Maxamed Cabdulle Xasan, si ay ugu so helaan kaalmo hub iyo ciidan. Arrinta kaalmo weydiisiga ma aheyn mid sahal ku ah nimankii Biimaal oo hankooda iyo awoodooduba aad u sareysay. Raggii ciidamadaas (Sayidka aaday) hogaaminayey waxa ka mid ahaa Malaaq Cabdi Juray, Sheikh Jamaal Macallin Xasan, Maxamed Mursal iyo Bilow Ageede. Waxaan la sheegay in ciidankaas Sayidku soo siiyey 300 oo qori. waxa sidoo kale la sheegay in Daraawiishta Banaadir (Koonfurta) gaar ahaan Biimaal ay Sayidka iyo Daraawiishta u geyn jireen hadiyaddo ay ka mid ahaayeen dharka, Alindiga ah oo waayadii dambe loo yiqiin Banaadiri iyo alaabooyin kale.

1904 Biimaal iyo Talyaaniga ayaa dagaal dhex maray, dagaalkaas oo Biimaal kaga soo horjeeday in Talyaanigu u gudbo dhulka xeebaha ka baxsan ( Shabeelaha Hoose) ee Biimaalku ka talin jiray. Talyaanigu wuxuu ku andacoonayey, inaanu dhulka Biimaal xukumo dan ka laheyn, ee uu u gudbayo
meelaha deegaank ka baxsan. Dagaalka Talyaaniga iyo Biimaal wuxuu socday muddo aad u dheer Saldanadii Biimaal waxa ay aheyd midda ugu magaca dheer dhulkii loo yiqiin ” Italian Somaliland”.


Halkan ka dhageyso/Daawo Sheekh Nuur Geelle oo ah Caalim dhulka Soomaalida gaar ahaan Koonfurta Somalia aad loogu yaqaano oo ka hadlaya dagaaladaasi

Dagaaladaasi u dhexeeyey Biimaal oo socday mudo dhowr iyo toban sano waxa lagu dilay saraakiil badan Talyaani ah sidoo kale waxa jirtay dagaaladaasi oo aad u adkaa Biimaal kaga dhinteen dad badan iyada oo laga xusi karo dagaalkii Dhanaane.



Feb. 1907 Labo kun (2,000) oo dagaalyahano Biimaal ah ayaa ciidamo Talyaani oo joogay meel la yiraahdo Turunley oo hadda loo yaqaano (Dhanaane) oo waqooyi ka xigta Marka dagaal ku qaaday. Dagaalkaas waxa ay Biimaalku aad ugu hoobtay oo ilaa 200 oo nin kaga dhimatay. Raggaas dhintay waxa ka mid ahaa toban (10) wiil oo walaalo ah. Dagaalladii hore ee Talyaaniga iyo Biimal dhex mari jiray, badanaaba waxa ay ahaan jireen aarsi ku saabsan falal gumeystuhu Somalida kula kacay, laakiin dagaalki Dhanaane waxa la sheegay in uu keenay naceyb guud oo Talyaaniga iyo joogitaankoodu dhulka Somalida laga qabay. Waxa ayna aheyd markii ugu horeysay ee Biimaal hub isticmaalay, taas oo Talyaaniga mucjiso ku noqotay; maadaama aanu Somalidu wax hub ah gacantoodu ku jiray ogeyn. Isla waqtigaas ilaa 2,100 oo ciidamo Talyaaniga ah ayaa ku sugnaa xeebaha Banaadir.

Dagaalkii Dhanaane ka dib waxa la sheegay in xirriirkii Biimaal iyo kii S MC Xasan aad u sii fiicnaaday. waxa kale oo la sheegay in ugu yaraan 10-15 dagaal yahan ka tageen deegaanka Banaadir oo ay tageen ( u dhoofeen) xarumihii Darawiishta S M C Xasan, si ay kaalmo hub ugu soo helaan. Raggaas waxa ka mid ahaa, ninkii tobanka wiil loogu dilay dagaalkii Turunley.iyo Abokar Ashir (Saacmawaayo) oo ahaa wiilkii uu dhalay Sheikh Ashir Maadow, oo ahaa hogaamiyihii magaalada Mareerey( Galbeedka Afgooye) Aw Jaamac Cumar Ciise oo ah taariikhyahan ahna qoraa caan ah mar sanadkii 2000-dii BBC Laanta Af Soomaaliga ugu waramayey taariikhda dagaalkani halkan ka daawo/dhageyso


Dhamaan dadka Soomaaliyeed waxan u rajeynayaa SANAD GUURO WACAN
Taariikh waliba astaanteeda waxan Ilaahey ugu baryeynaa halgamayaashaasi inay Ilaahey geeyo janadiisa sare. Amiin
Mohamud Idaa Zulzilad

     



     
The History of Bimal
 
During 1600-1900 century, the Biimaal monarchy was one of the most powerful tribe in east Africa ruling the cost of benadir to keyan border and had been trading with mascut sultanate. During the 18 century, the geledi clan was the second powerful clans in Somalia, who were ruling large territory in southern somalia. The port of Mogadishu was practically autonomous, the Zanzibar sultans’ authority, like their customs officials, came and went with the monsoons. The hinterland of Mogadishu was controlled by the Geledi clan, whose sultans contracted alliances with many other clans in the region between the Shebelle and juba rivers. Through much of the century, the geledi alliance dominated the ivory trade that ran from luk on the upper juba to Mogadishu; the geledi sultans also collected tribute from the agricultural clans along the Bay and Bakool as far south as Bu’alle. Only the powerful bimal clan, situated in the hinterland of merka, succeeded in resisting the geledi hegemony and overthrowing their rulers in Mogadishu and. The sultans of Zanzibar, in the meantime, were forced to respect the authority of the Bimal rulers. (Africa in the nineteenth century until the 1880)
From 18th to 19th centuries, the Biimaal kingdom played a major role in Somali History. Under Italian colony,the Biimaal people opposed against the occupation of Italian regime, and severely fought against them. During that time, thousands of Biimal warriors lost their lives to stop the invaders to reach somali soil. The Biimaal Kingdom built large castles in the cost of Benadir, lower shabelle and juba to protect somali shores and for trading strategy. In 1895-1902, the Italian leaders tried many times to negotiate a land deal with Bimal king. In 1903, about 2000 Bimalis and 800 Italian soldiers were killed when they attempted to destroy these obstacles against Italian interests which also caused many Italian lives. Though many biimalis armies got killed, but they still insisted to protect Somali shore. After long bloody battles, the Italian leader sleeked alliance with other Somali tribes which finally destroyed Bimalis forces.

According Muslim Brotherhoods in Nineteenth-Century Africa, Cambridge University Press (Martin, 1977)''', the bimal clan were living between the port of marka and the Webi shebelli. The bimal had long resisted the Italians, largely because the Italians had abolished slavery in their district. The bimal used many slaves to cultivate their lands along the webi shebelli, another point of conflict was continuing Italian penetration, which the bimal had opposed since 1896. They had also besieged an Italian garrison at marka 1904 and ambushed and attacked their enemies repeatedly. From 1903 on, there was contact between the sayyid and the bimal, moreover, the salihia had a sufi center in bimal territory headed by a Shaykh abdi gafle, who could through the evil eye, transform men into animals, or change bullet into water, the sayiid sent advice and guidance to the bimal and problarbly weapons as well . 
Even so, the bimal clan was finally overcome by the Italians 1908 (With the help of tens of thousands of Somali mercenaries) , when a number of bimal chiefs had to go to Mogadishu to make their submission to the Italian governor. The guidance sent by the was the risalat al bimal, which is a s statement of their ideas of jihad, relations with the unbelievers, and other points which will be discuss below. The timing and the content of the risalah also show very clearly that the sayyid saw the illig convention as tactical maneuver. Later he would take up and lead the jihad again. His advice to the bimal on the necessity and significance of jihad follow these lines.






Sheikh Abdi Abikar Gafle

Born-1852         'Armadobe, Somalia
Died-1922

Occupation-teacher, preacher, warrior, sheikh and leader

Clan: Bimaal Maxamed Xiniftire

Sheikh Abdi Abikar Gāfle or also more famously known as Gāfle (Somali: Sheekh Cabdi Abiikar "Gaafle"). A famous Bimaal ma’allin (teacher-sheikh) and warrior born in ‘Armadobe village in 1852. He was also a prominent figure in the Bimāl Revolt against the Italians. He met his end in 1922.[1]


Gāfle was a notable Bimal ma’allin. He grew up finishing his Quranic education and studies at home, which afterwards for higher Islamic education he was sent to 'Eel Gaal center close to Merca. He studied the subjects of:

1.Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence)

2.Tafseer (Qur'anic translations and interpretations),

3.Hadith (Prophet Muhammad’s tradition, Sunnah).[2]


Sheikh Abdi Abikar Gāfle learned from well known sheikhs at that time like Sheikh Usman Sheikh Hassan and Sheikh Muhammad Abdalla, also known as 'Baarmawaaye'. Gaafle continued to become a well-known individual in the Bimal community. In 1888, Gaafle started to travel increasingly all over the Shabelle Valley preaching his ideology, teaching and warning the public and his brethren about the menace that is, the Italian colonizers.[3



The Bimal Revolt


Sheikh Abdi Abikar Gāfle contributed heavily to the Bimal efforts and resistance against the Italians. He took part in the Igalle shir(clan council) in June 1896 and was the one to lead an army against the Italians, of which the famous attack on Igalle in 1905 after it was occupied by the Italians. Gāfle was the pioneer behind the alliance with the Dervishes and their leader Sayid Mohamed although the Dervishes did support Gāfle with firearms they would not fight with Gāfle. Gāfle is said to have continued his resistance til 1908[4][5]


For more about the Bimal resistance or revolt visit the following:


References


^ Mukhtar, Mohamed Haji (2003-02-25). Historical Dictionary of Somalia. Scarecrow Press. p. 199. ISBN 9780810866041.

2. Mukhtar, Mohamed Haji (2003-02-25). Historical Dictionary of Somalia. Scarecrow Press. p. 199. ISBN 9780810866041. "SHEIKH ABDI ABIIKAR “GAAFLE”"

3. Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 199. ISBN 9780932415998.

4. Kusow, Abdi (2004-01-01). Putting the cart before the horse: contested nationalism and the crisis of the nation-state in Somalia. Red Sea Press. ISBN 9781569022023.

5. Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 199. ISBN 9780932415998.




Bīmāl Revolt


The Bimal Revolt, Bimal Resistance, Merca Revolt or Banadir Resistance was a guerrilla war against the Italian Somaliland in southern Somalia. It was fought from 1896 to 1926 and largely concentrated in Lower Shebelle, Banadir and Middle Shebelle.


It is compared to the war of the Mad Mullah in northern Somalia.[1][2] Named after the Bimal clan since they were the major element in the resistance.[3]


History


In the 1890's Italy occupied Marka the center of the Bimal culture. This sparked the beginning and outrage among the Bimal clan, many of them joined the Bimal resistance.


An Italian resident of the city was assassinated in 1904 , his name was Giacomo Trevis. In response Italy occupied the port town of Jazira about 30 miles south of Mogadishu[4]


^ Ciisa-Salwe, Cabdisalaam M. (1996-01-01). The collapse of the Somali state: the impact of the colonial legacy. HAAN. p. 19. ISBN 9781874209270.

2. Kusow, Abdi (2004-01-01). Putting the cart before the horse: contested nationalism and the crisis of the nation-state in Somalia. Red Sea Press. p. 82. ISBN 9781569022023.

3. Kusow, Abdi (2004-01-01). Putting the cart before the horse: contested nationalism and the crisis of the nation-state in Somalia. Red Sea Press. p. 86. ISBN 9781569022023. "the Bimal clan was the major element in the resistance. See: Gherardo Pantano, Nel Benadir: La Citta di Merca e la Regione Bimal,"

4. Kusow, Abdi (2004). Putting the cart before the horse: contested nationalism and the crisis of the nation-state in Somalia. Red Sea Press. ISBN 9781569022023.

5. to: a b Hess, Robert L. (1964-01-01). "The 'Mad Mullah' and Northern Somalia". The Journal of African History. 5 (3): 415–433, page 422. JSTOR 179976.


One of the Italian`s greatest fears was the spread of 'Dervishism' ( had come to mean revolt) in the south and the strong Bimaal tribe of Benadir whom already were at war with the Italians, while not following the religious message or adhering to the views of Muhammad Abdullah Hassan, understood greatly his goal and political tactics. The dervishes in this case were engaged in supplying arms to the Bimaal.[5]


The Italians wanted to bring in an end to the Bimaal revolt and at all cost prevent a Bimal-Dervish alliance, which lead them to use the forces of Obbia and the Mijertein as prevention.[5]

======================================


OQORTOYADA BIMAAL DIR QEYBTII 1
TAARIKHAHA DIR EE LA AASAY WAXAA UGU WEYN TA BOQORTOYADII BIMAAL IYO KACDOONKOODI AY SOMALIA ISKU DAYEEN IN AY KA XOREEYAN GUMEYSTA NOOC WALBA GAAL, CARAB IYO DABADHILIF SOMAALIYEED

1857 BIMAALKA WAXA AY KU BILAABEEN DAGAAL BOQORTOYADII SICIID BARQASH EE CUMAANIYINTA AHAYD IYAGOO U DIIDAY IN AY DALKA KONFURTIISA BANADIR XUKUMAAN.

SULDAANKA BIMAAL AYAA WAXA UU U DIRAY WARQAD BOQORKA CUMAAN OO UU KU LEYAHAY CARABTU SADEX SIYAABOOD AYAY AFRIKA KU SOO GALAAN: DACWA DIIN FAFIS, ISHTARAK GANACSI AMA FATUUX QABSASHO XOOGA AH. SULDAANKA BIIMAAL WUXUU U SHEEGAY IN CUMAAN DIIN FAFIN KARIN WAAYO WAA CIBADI, GANACSI KA FURI KARIN WAAYO SULDAANKA BIIMAAL FASAX KAMEY HELIN, XOOGNA IN AY WALIGEED SOMAALI CARAB KU QABSAN ISKA DAA DIR E.

1)DACWA- IYAGOO DIIN WADA, WAXA UU CUMAANIDA KU YIRI DIIN IYO DACWA KAA AKHRISAN MEYNO OO WAXAAD TIHIIN (CIBAADIYIIN) IBAADITES WAA MADHAB DALKA CUMAAN KALIYA KA JIRTA OO UU UGU YEERAY MADHAB AAN SAX EHEYN ISAGUNA ISKU TILMAAMAY SHAFICI GAADIRIYA HAYSTA IYO AHMADIYA

2)FATUUXNA DAGAAL CARAB WALIGOOD SOMALI UGAGA MACAASHIN

3)WARQADA WAXAA KU QORNAA IN GANACSI AY KA SAMEYN KARIN CUMAANIDU ISKA DAA QALCADO IN AY KA DHISTAAN IYO HIRZ (FORTES) BIMAALKU CUMAANIDA IN AY DHULKA JOOGAAN WAAY U DIIDEEN XAMAR IYO WARSHEEIKHNA AYAY U CARAREEN. CUMAANIDU WAXA AY ADEEGSADEEN BOQORTOYADA GOBROON OO XUKUMI JIRTAY XAMAR BEELAHA HAWIYE EE DAGA IYO RAXANWEYN. GOBROON WAXA AY KA MID AHAYEEN GALADIGA IYO BEELWEYNTA RAXANWEYN DIGIL.

1890 MAJEERTEENKA TALYAANIGA AYAY ISKU DHIIBEEN- TALYANIGUNA SACIID BARQASH WIILKIISI AYAY KU QANCIYEEN IN AY KA KIREEYAAN GOBOLKA BANAADIR MAADAMA AY XUKUM KARI LA YIHIIN BIYAAMAALKA DARAADOOD. KONFURTA BANAADIR TALYAANIGA AYAA KIREYSATAY OO BILAABAY GOBROONTA IN AY HUBEEYAAN.

SAYID MAXAMMED CABDULLE XASAN XITAA TALYANIGA AYUU ISKU DHIIBAY OO TALEEX AYAA LA SOO DAJIYAY WAXAAN HESHIISKA KU QORNAA IN UU JOOGO ITALIAN SOMALILAND KADIB TALYAANIGU KIREYSTAY.

BIMAALKA SADEX GOBARNATOORE GOVERNERS IYO BOQOLAAL TALYAANIYA AYAY DILEEN. XAFADA XAMAR EE KAAMBO AMXAARO AYUU TALYANIGU KEENAY 4000 OO ASKARI OO ERITERIA LAGA KEENAY, 340 CARABA, IYO 10000 OO CIDANA OO GOBROONTU HOGAMINAYSO. BIMAALKU 21 SANO AYAY TALYAANIGA LA HALGAMEEN. GOOBAHA LAFOOLENA UGU YARAAN 46 ASKARI OO GENERAL SEECHI (CEECHI) KU JIRO AYAY KU DILEEN.

TALYAANGU GOOB TAALA AYAY KA DHISEEN SHALAMBOOD OO LA DHAHO VICTORIA DEL AFRICA AADNA ULA YAABEEN GEESINIMADA IYO XAMASADA MUJAHIDIINTA. XILIGII SIYAAD BARRE IYO DOWLADIHII KA HOREEYAY LAGAMA HADAL HALGANKA BIMAAL OO KA DHEERAA KII SAYID CABDULLE XASAN,XITAA SAYIDKA MARKII UU ISKU DHIIBAY TALYAANIGA EE TALEEX SOO DAGAY BIMAALKU DAGAAL KULUL AYAY KULA JIREEN BEEL AHAAN.


The Geledi Confederacy  of 16 Clans Attempt to Destroy The Bimaal Dir .
 
1750 The Geledi Sultanate, later know as Afgoy, emerges in Ay Ulay in the Southern Shabelle Valley.
1819 Sh. Ibrahim Hassan Yeberow establishes a rformed Jama’a in Bardheere in Upper Jubba region.

 1843 Yusuf Mahamud, Sultan of Geledi, Captures and burns Bardera. The expedition is a counteroffensive to the political and economic impact of the reforming Jama’a. Secondly the Geledi vow to destroy the Bimaal for once and for all and mobilizes the Geledi confederacy containing over 16 clans.

1848 The sultan of Geledi, Yusuf Mahamud, is killed at Adaddey Suleyman, a village near Marka, in a battle between the Bimaal and Geledi confederacy of 16 clans deep in Bimaal territory.

1878 Second Sultan Ahmed Yusuf is killed at Agaaran, near Marka, by the Bimaal. The Geledi army retreats.
(Source ) Historical Dictionary of Somalia By Mohamed Haji Mukhtar



See the source image


https://somalivoicedotcom.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/28933455-1.jpg

The Sheikh Hussein Shrine in Bale the Custodians of the Shrine are from the Dir clan Surre who moved from Merca long ago Aba xuseen of Bale

This ancient shiekh was a Somali - prof. Andreski (the famous linguist) interviewed his descendant in Merca - the head of the main mosque is a direct descendant. Merca is a Somali town on the Indian Ocean (inhabited the Somali Dir clan). The custodians of the shrine/tomb of shiekh Hussein are Somalis - the tradional custodians have always been Somali. Again the role of Somalis in propergating Islam has never been recognised by Western Scholar? Why? Even the Maldive Islands off India rembere how the Somali Sheikh (13th century) called Shiekh. Awbarkhadle came and converted them - he is remembered in Somalia - and also appears in Arabic/Ethiopic MSS. in associating with the Walsama Dynasty (Muslim Dynasty eastern Shoa/Hawas - old Somali-Afar Sultans of Awfat/Adal) - Waqooyi Galbeed Holy shrine of Shiekh Hussein is an extremely impotant Islamic > centre - This ancient shiekh was a Somali - prof. Andreski (the famous > linguist) interviewed his descendant in Merca - the head of the main mosque is > a direct descendant. Merca is a Somali town on the Indian Ocean (inhabited the > Somali Dir clan). The custodians of the shrine/tomb of shiekh Hussein are > Somalis - 

 



Tomb of the Saint


The town is named after what, in some Ethiopian Muslim eyes, is the most sacred place in that country: the tomb of the thirteenth century Somali saint called Sheikh Hussein, who introduced Islam to the Sidamo people living in the area at the time, and is said to have performed many miracles. A number of these miracles have been recorded in a hagiography published in Cairo in the 1920s, entitled Rabi` al-Qulub. Although this town is now within the homelands of the Oromo people, it has continued to be the destination of approximately 50,000 pilgrims from Muslim Ethiopia twice a year during the Muslim months of Hajj and Rabi' al-Awwal.[3] The first pilgrimage is to celebrate his birth, the second his death. They traditionally carry cleft sticks known as "Oulle Sheikh Hussein", which are too small to serve as walking sticks and are not utilized for any practical purpose. Once they arrive at the shrine, the pilgrims take their turns entering the saint's tomb by crawling through a small doorway.[4]


The extensive religious complex dedicated to the saint includes the town and the nearby valley of Kachamsare. In the 18th century, Emir `Abd al-Shakur ibn Yusuf of Harar constructed a shrine to the Baghdadi saint `Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani near the tomb of Sheikh Hussein, inside the shrine compound. A graveyard has also been consecrated as part of the complex.[3] Other landmarks of the complex include the pond of Dinkiro, 300 meters south of the mosque, built in dry stone masonry; associated with the pond is a spring with "miraculous" water. At the entrance of the holy area are two wild fig trees called kiltu (identified as Ficus sycomorus) in the Oromo language. Near another pond, of Imaro, there is the mosque of Sheikh Hussein's father, both with a gubba of Harar type. Also nearby are several caves—a "cave of serpents", a "cave of herbs", and a "cave of honey"—and rock formations said to be petrified persons.[4]





Posted: Mon Sep 24, 2007 5:36 am Post subject: HOW ISLAM CAME TO SOMALIA AND ROLE DIR PLAYED


________________________________________
quote="Muddane Warsame"]E-mail Uu ii Soo Diray nin Direed (Surre)


qoraalada iga yaabshay oo uu dhalintaan ka qoreen islamka iyo doorka suuban ay Dir ka dheeshay fiditaanka Dinteena Suuban iyo fiqiyaasha Suure/

1)Qorahan waxaa uu sheegayaa in nin Direed oo looyaqaanya Sh. Yusuf Al Kownin ama ka weyne uu alifay qurmada Quraanka xafihiisa sida-- Alif la kor dhabee, La hosdhabe-- iyo higaada ku saleysan af keena hooyo ee Somaliga ah. Waxaa uu sheegayaa in xitaa magacayada Surre ee Fiqi (uu ka yimid Qareen diinta Islamka iyo Shareecada) madaama uu odeyga Surre ahaa wadad ku fidiyay Diinta Islamka oo uu wiilashiisa oo Fiqiyo ah u kala diray daafaha Somalia


HOW ISLAM CAME TO SOMALIA AND ROLE DIR PLAYED

According to our noble Dir brothers of Somalia. The eldest son and most ancient clan of the Somalis. 1) Islam came to Somalia in the first Hijra when the followers of the prophet fled to East Africa and came to Ethiopia as refugees. 2) So Islaam come to Somalia before Mecca was recaptured from the pagan Qurishi. The eldest Son of the Dir Ali madaxweyn who lived at this time around 643 Ad accepted the faith and sent a delegation to the Khilifa in 732-67 Ad. Shortly after that period even the illustrious Sheikh Ahmed (Mohamed Xiniftire studied in Yamen and returned to Somalia via the Dahlak Island where he fathered the Maxamed Xiniftire branch of the Dir which includes The Isaaq Axmed(Maxamed), Biyomaal maxamed ,Gadsan clans.

(Posted by guest: W.A)
reply
posted at Tue Feb 08 03:59:07 EST 2005 wax is weydiin
abdi taariikhda aad noo sheegtay waa taariikh xiiso leh ee tixraac maleedahay?

(Posted by guest: abraac)

Agoon History of Islam in Somalia from the Time of Mohamed (Saws)

Shortly after the Hijra (670's) the Quraish or prophet's tribe started persucuting muslims and hundreds of the prophets followers fled across the Indian Ocean to present day Zaila and through Erithrea.

It was in this period that the Somalis and their cousines the Afar-Oromo-Harararis and other nations of the horn of Africa converted to Islam.

According to most Historians the people of Zaila who were of Dir origin and Issas-Gadabursi-Isaaq origins, Islam became well established by 800 A.D. By the 1300 century the whole horn of Africa up to Kenya and Zanziber we have Muslim cities flourishing and Muslim sulltanes like Ifat and Adal all over Somali.


As a matter of fact, it was in 1300's that the ancient Somali Dir saint Sheikh Yusuf Alkownin (Aw Barkadle) innvented the Alif-La-Kordhabee or Somali way of reading and learning to read the Quran scriptures. And around this time, another Sheikh by the name of Sheikh Hussein Al Bale of the Bale Oromo Arsi region left Northren Somali and Islam was well established in Southren Ethiopia all the way to northren Ethiopia.

So the Islam of Somalia dates back to the time of the Hijra and many Somalis became muslims even before the Prophet Islamized the Arabs and Islam succeded in Arabia.

Later in he 1400 AD, the Qadiriya Sufi order of Sheikh Cabdul Qadir Al-Jilani spread to Somalia and Ethiopia revitalizing the ancient faith and further incorporating more Kushitics. The earliest leaders of Qadiriya Order were mostly from the saintly Dir sub-clan of Surre. The earliest Surre rulers were called Fiqis (Islamic Scholars of Diin and Lawyers of Sharia). The Oldest of the Surre clan the Qubeys and his younger brother, the Abdalles fathered some of the best Islamic Scholars in the 1600 century and they spread the Islamic faith all over the Somali coast. Imam Surre sent his numerous sons whom he named Fiqis to central Somalia, South, and North.


By 1456 AD, he Muslim Kings of Ifat, led by a Somali worrior, Imam by the name Imam Axmed Gurey (Left-Handed) was fighting Ethiopian Christian Habasha kings who tried to conquer Somalilands. W.A.



="Muddane Warsame"]E-mail Uu ii Soo Diray nin Direed (Surre)

Muddane Warsame


Beelah Direed ee konfurta Somalia (Mudug/Galgaduud/Sh.Hoose) dagan waxa
ay sheegan in odeyga Direed uu dhalay Afar wiil oo kala ah:

Madaxeyne Direed oo curad ah, Mahe Direed oo ku xigeen ah, iyo labada
kale oo kala ah Madoobe Direed iyo Mandaluug Direed oo ugu yar da'a
ahaan marka la eego.

Taarikhiyan waxa ay rumeysanyihiin Dirka Galbeedka iyo Konfurta dagan
dhoor qodob oo ku saabsan tariikhda hore:

1)Dadka Direed in ay ka yimaadeen dhankan Galbeedka bilawgii, kunsano
ka hor.

2)Magaca Dir in uu macnahiisu yahay "Fir" ama Ab. Oo lagu macneyn karo
geesi ama Dhiire.

3)Konfurta Dirta dagan wexey rumeysan yihiin in ay Dirka xukumi jireen
Saladiin loo yaqiin ROOBLE oo ahaa ilaaliyaasha Xeerka iyo caadada
beesha.

Rooble- Xeerbeegti,Qareemo, amanduuleyaal,Roobdoonayal,iyo mareynta
reerka ayaa lagu aqoon jiray.Guud ahaana waxa ay ilaalin jireen xeerka
oo Dirku rumeysnaa in ay ka dhaxleen Dir Aji abkoodi hore.

Madaxdan oo loo aqoon jiray Roobleyaash dadku wey ixtiraami jireen ila heer xitaa
isha laguma godi jirin, oo xitaa "ILKULULe" ayaa loo aqoon jiray.

4)Waxa kaloo ay rumeysan yihiin in Zeylac magalada la yiraahdo ay Dir
badan soo jidatay qarnigii (700 AD) halkaas oo ay ka soo dageen Asxaab
badan oo Rasuulka(Caleyhi salatu wa salaam) u soo diray magaalada
Zailac Hijradii koowad. Oo dadka Direed iyo Canfarta (Oday Caliga) ay
waagii danbe ka wada asaseen labo boqortooyo oo la kala dhihi jiray
CIFAT iyo CAdal.

5)Dirta koonfurta iyo Galbeedka dagan waxa ay rumeeysan yihiin oo kale
in 1400 ay dhaceen dagaalo far badan oo xabashida iyo muslimiinta is
dagaaleen. Ilaa ay xabashida oo adeegsaneysa (Portugees)burtaqiis ay
cagta mariyeen boqortooyoyinkii Musliminta oo kuwa Direed ee Cifat iyo
Awda ka mid ahayeen

6)Dhamaan waxa ay rumeysan yihiin Dirka in ay door weyn ka ciyaareen
fidinta diinta Somalia iyo Ethiopia dhexdooda.

Sheekhyada waaweyn ee geeska Afrika sida Sheikh Xuseen Bali, Aw
Barkadle, Awbarre iyo qaar kale ay Cadal iyo Cifad ka soo jeedan
4)Beelaha Biyomaal iyo Suure iyo Guure waxa ay sheegan in 1600-1750 ay
u soo guureen duleedka dalka (Gobalada dhexe iyo labada wabi dhexdooda)
mudo yar ka dib dagaladii Axamed Gurey iyo Amxaarada.

Dir Somali clan members in Djibouti. DNA analysis of Dir clan members inhabiting Djibouti/ Ethiopia all of the individuals belonged to the Y-DNA T1 paternal haplogroup



In the age of enlightment and science there is no need to believe in the Arab man with the flying carpet myth arriving at the Somali shores and breeding with the locals .

 DNA of West Burco/East Hargeisa/Sanaag community - T1 Haplogroup




  
Somalis (Dir clan) Somali (East Cushitic) Djibouti 24/24 100% [76] Dir Somali clan members in Djibouti. DNA analysis of Dir clan members inhabiting Djibouti found that all of the individuals belonged to the Y-DNA T1 paternal haplogroup.[49] All genetic analysis carried out on Gadabuursi male clan members have so far shown that they exclusively belong to the T1 paternal haplogroup.[50][51][52]

DNA analysis of Dir clan members inhabiting Djibouti found that all of the individuals belonged to the Y-DNA T1 paternal haplogroup.

-M184 (xM70) 2.1; T1-L206 (xM70) 2.2; T1a1-L162 (xL208) 2.3; Northern ..... The paternal haplogroup T-M70 varies between 3% and 24% of male lineages in Germany. ...... Bauris are thought to be descendants of a native tribe of the Central ... 14/17, 82.4%, Dir sub-clans of Dire Dawa are Issa, Gurgura and Gadabuursi.

DNA analysis of Dir clan members inhabiting Djibouti found that all of the individuals belonged to the Y-DNA T1 paternal haplogroup

DNA of Gabiley/West Hargeisa community - E1b1b Haplogroup

 The full document: Somali Demes

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1MWpljgkrKUhJZUFnzB5nboKRE28BgiBLGTSGHe4fRVY/pub?gid=6#

Maakhiri 20-25% of Somalis have T Haplogroup it is not rare.

Basically the GX community, Galbeedi's Borama community,

Waraabe community of Djibouti and Dhire Dhaba, the water

folks of Merka, the Shower folks of central Somalia (many from

those communities have been tested and came out as T

haplogroup). It seems Galbeedi is closer to me DNA wise than

someone from Gabiley who happen to share the "flying Arab

man" myth with me.





T Haplogroup is found in the highest frequencies among

Northern Somalis around 70-90% specially the "D" community

and the GX folks. But yes T is rare in other Somali communties

if you are not one of those two groups.

"The maximal worldwide frequency for Haplogroup

T-M184 is observed in the "D" Clan of Somalia,

Djibouti and Ocaden region, where it accounts for

approximately 70 to 90% of the male lineages"


Blog Archive