Thursday, April 26, 2012

Australia's Jacka farms into Somaliland oil block

Australia's Jacka farms into Somaliland oil block

Tuesday, April 03, 2012

HARGEISA (Reuters) - Australian oil explorer Jacka Resources has entered into an agreement with Petrosoma Limited to take a 50 percent equity stake in an oil block in a breakaway enclave of Somalia, Jacka said on Monday.
It said the 22,000 square kilometre Habra Garhajis block -formerly known as block 26 - in southwestern Somaliland was expected to be similar in geology to basins in Yemen and Uganda where billions of barrels of oil reserves have been discovered.
Somaliland declared independence in 1991 and has enjoyed relative stability compared to the rest of lawless Somalia, which has been mired in conflict for two decades. However, although it has held a series of peaceful general elections, it remains unrecognised internationally.
"Jacka's management have held the belief for a long time that Somaliland holds great potential," Jacka's Chairman Scott Spencer said in a statement.
Under the terms of the agreement, Jacka will be the operator, the company said in a statement. The Habra Garhajis block comprises the whole of concession SL6 and parts of SL7 and 10.
Jacka will conduct a gravity survey and a minimum 500 kms of 2D seismic tests, it said.
In November, Somaliland's government said London-listed company Ophir Energy, Asante Oil and Prime Resources had signed deals under which they would have 18 months to explore, conduct seismic tests and identify wells.
Only 21 wells have been drilled in Somaliland, making it under explored even by the frontier standards of the region, where the oil and gas industries are in their infancy.
Kenya announced last week its first ever oil strike, although more drilling is needed to assess commercial viability. (Reporting by Mark Anderson; Editing by Richard Lough).
Source: Reuters

The Rise of Axmed Ibrahim Garaad

The Rise of Axmed Ibrahim Garaad

Iimaam Axmed Ibrahim Garaad is nowadays known by many names.   In the Fatuux al-Xabasha he is given the laqab of al-Ghaazi or The Conqueror, an appropriate laqab for a book that is literally about his conquest of much of Ethiopia.  The Christians of the Ethiopian highlands give him the epithet Gran or Left-Handed, which is a translation of his Somali naaneys of Gureey.

Axmed was born the second son of the Garaad Ibrahim, Garaad of Hubat, a small principality that was part of the Sultanate of Adal  (see the abtirsi of Garaad Ibrahim).  His cousin Abuun Cadaadshe (see abtirsi) was Garaad of Karanle, and was briefly Sultan of Adal.

Axmed lived in a time of great uncertainty.   The king of Adal, Suldaan Maxamed Caashar (see abtirsi), desired to live in peace after nearly a century of devastating warfare with Abyssinia, but Amir Maxfuuz of Harar was determined to make war with Abyssinia and constantly sent his soldiers to recapture territories lost to the Abyssinian kings.  This led to war in 1516 between Adal and Abyssinia and Neegusaa Naagaast ’Aanbaasa Saagaad Dawit  (Leebnaa Deengeel) invaded and destroyed the armies of Amir Maxfuuz and Suldaan Maxamed.  Amir Maxfuuz fought a suicidal rearguard action allowing the Suldaan to escape back to Adal.  Portuguese warships attacked and savaged the virtually undefended town of Zeila.

The devastating loss had great political implications, as the Suldaan was murdered soon afterwards, and Adal descended into civil war.  Three men claimed the throne; Amir Maxamed Abuubakar Maxfuuz (the grandson of Amir Maxfuuz and Amir of Harar), Garaad Abuun Cadaadshe, the Garaad of Karanle, and the “rightful” heir of Suldaan Maxamed Cashar, Abuubakar Suldaan Maxamed.

The first to seize the throne was Maxamed Abuubakar Maxfuuz, but he was defeated and killed by Garaad Abuun Cadaadshe, who then seized the throne for himself.  Garaad Abuun Cadaadshe was himself defeated and killed by Abuubakar Suldaan Maxamed.  The vengeful then-Iimaam Axmed Ibrahim avenged his cousin’s death and killed Abuubakar, but instead of continuing the cycle he decided instead to put Abuubakar’s brother Cumardiin Maxamed on the throne as puppet king.  Iimaam Axmed Ibrahim was already married to Bati del-Wambara Maxfuuz, the daughter of the former Amir of Harar, so Iimaam Axmed Ibrahim managed to bring peace to the nation by uniting all three warring factions together under his leadership

When Himyar Ruled the Banaadir

When Himyar Ruled the Banaadir

Muqdisho is a very old city, older than most people even realize.  The first dynasty to rule Muqdisho was the Tubba’ dynasty of the Himyar kingdom, with the king “Ascad Karb“.  Ascad Karb is most likely As’ad Abu-Karib ibn Malik-karib, a king of Yemen who ruled between 418 and 433 CE and a convert to Judaism by Yathrib’s Jewish community following a military campaign there, this dates the foundation of the old town of Xamar Weyne to roughly 420-430 CE.

The area of Banaadir (the traditional region including Muqdisho, Baraawe, Marka and other coastal cities) is described in the Greek document the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (written around the year 460 CE) as part of “Azania“, a region subject to Charibael of the Homerites (who can be identified with ‘Amir Sharahbil Ya’fir ibn As’ad Abu Karib, the son of the aforementioned king), so the Muqdisho tradition is backed up with documentary evidence.  Sharahbil was a Christian, as was his branch of the Tubba’ family, and the religious differences in the country of Himyar would seal the doom of the nation.

Himyar was in this time the strongest state in Arabia, and they would remain a strong state for nearly a century, but on the death of ‘Amir Sharahbil’s son Ma’adi’Karib Yan’um ibn Sharahbil in 516, Himyar faced religious turmoil as Christians and Jews fought murderous battles.  A Jewish zealot and member of the Tubba’ dynasty named Yusuf Asar Yathar (better known as Dhu Nuways) seized the throne in 518 attacked and butchered the Christians of Najran (the martyrs of Najran are mentioned in the Qu’ran in Surat al-Buruj).  The slaughter shocked the Christian nations of the time, and the Christian Emperor of Aksum, Negusa Negast Kaleb Ella Atzbeha invaded Himyar in 522 and conquered their lands in Yemen in 525.  Other lands under the Tubba’ dynasty were not conquered and fought a long resistance against the kingdom of Aksum.

One member of the Tubba’ dynasty, Sharah’il Ya’abul (known as “Dhu Yazan“) petitioned the king of the Sassanid dynasty of Iran to help him drive the Aksumites from Yemen, and Shahenshah Khosrau was only too happy to oblige.  An Iranian army under General Vahriz invaded Yemen in 577 and were victorious, but the Himyarites were only successful in replacing one occupier with another, as the Sassanids ruled in all but name.    His son Sayf Abu Murrah ibn Dhu Yazan would succeed him in 587 but he was murdered by the Sassanids in 608 and Yemen was annexed into the Sassanid Empire.

It is possible that a branch of the Tubba’ dynasty then established itself in Muqdisho.  There are mentions of Shingani being founded by a “Shingan ibn Hami ibn Ma’adi-Karib”, who could have been either the aforementioned Ma’adi-Karib or another Ma’adi-Karib who was another son of Sharahbil.

Islam arrived in Muqdisho shortly after the Hijra, and became a city within the Ummayad Caliphate 77 years after the Hijra or 696 CE, thus definitively bringing to a close the Himyar Era.


JIDWAAQ absame
by Garaad salah on Wed Sep 29, 2010 9:05 pm
Jidwaaq Absame
1 Barre (Bartire)
2 Roobe ( Abasguul)
3 Shahrudin (Yabare)
1 Quwaaxde
2 Tiimocase
3 Tuurcase
1Yacquub Quwaaxde
2 Wadi Quwaaxde
3.Yusuf Quwaxde
1 Sacaad Yacqub
2 Laagmadoobe Yacqub
3 Laagcase Yacqub
4 Yonis Yacqub
Habar sacad
1 Samatar Sacaad
2 Hassan Sacaad
3 Ahmed Sacaad
4 Adan sacaad
Samaatar Sacaad
1 Adan Sacad
2 Ahmed Sacad
3 Ibrahimsacaad
Adan Sacaad
1 Ahmed Adan
2 Ali Adan
3 Hirsi Adan
Ahmed Adan
1 MOhamud AHMED
1 Guleed MOhamud
2 Omar MOhamud
3 Hirsi Mohamud
Garaad Guled Mohamud
1 Garaad Abdulle Guled
2 Hussein Garaad Guleed
3 Noor Garaad Guleed
4 Yusuf GaraadGuleed
5 Ahmed Garaad Guleed
Garaad Abdulle Garaad Guleed
1 Garaad MOhamed Garaad Abdulle
2 Amiin Garaad Abdulle
3 Diini Garaad Abdulle
4 Ibrahim Garaad Abdulle
5 Hassan Garaad Abdulle
Garaad Mohamed Garaad Abdulle
1 Garaad Ali Garaad MOhamed Garad Abdulle
2 Abdi Garaad Mohamed Garad Abdulle
3 Hussein Garaad MOhamed Garaad Abdulle
4 Omar Garaad Mohamed Garaad Abdulle
5 Mohamud Garad MOhamed Garad Abdulle
Garaad Ali Garad MOhamed Garaad Abdulle
1 Garaad Mohamud Garaad Ali Garaad MOhamed
1 Garaad Cilmi Garaad Mohamud
2 Hassan Garaad MOhamud
3 Caalin Garaad Mohamud
4 Faraah Garaad MOhamud
5 Omar Garaad MOhamud
6 Noor Garad MOhamud
7 Ibrahim Garad Mohamud
8 Hussein Garaad Mohamed
Garaad Cilmi Garaad Mohamud
1 Garaad Hussein Garaad Cilmi
2 Hassan Garaad Cilmi
3 Ahmed Garaad Cilmi
4 Farah Garaad Cilmi
5 Rooble Garaad Cilmi
6 Xuble Garaad Cilmi
7 Adan Garaad Cilmi
8 samaan Garaad Cilmi
Garaad Hussein Garaad Cilmi Garaad Mohamud
1 Garaad Ahmed Garaad Hussein
2 Adaan Garaad Hussein
3 Abdullahi Garaad Hussein
4 Ali Garaad Hussein
5 Abdi Garaad Hussein
6 Bulle Garaad Hussein
7 Noor Garaad Hussein
 Garaad Ahmed Garaad Hussein
1 Garaad salah Garaad Ahmed Garaad Hussein
2 Abdi Garaad Ahmed Garaad Hussein
3 Idris Garaad Ahmed Garad Hussein
4 Ali Garaad Ahmed Garad Hussein
5 Omar Garaad Ahmed Garaad Hussein
6 Noor Garaad Ahmed Garaad Hussein
Garaad salah Posts: 1Joined: Wed Sep 29, 2010 8:19 pm

My sources give the descendants of Telemoge as:
Telemoge - Sinwaaq - Cabudwaaq - Sinwaaq - Aw Mahadle - Cabdiqariim - Yaxye - Nagaaye
The database gives the following lists (number of entry in brackets):
Talamuge (417) - Cabdi - Sunwaaq - Siin Waaq - Cabudwaaq (422) - Siin Waaq - Aw Mahadle - Cadbikariin - Yaxye (426) - Nagaaye
Tolomoge (3653) - Cabudwaaq (3672) - Yaxye (3679)

Here is the Telemoge family tree according to documents I found in the Kenya National Archives (approximately 1930-1950). The names were given in English spelling, those that I could recognize I changed into Somali spelling, the others I left. You might generally have to double-check the spelling.
1. Telemoge
1.1. Samwodel
1.1.1. Ibrahim Cabdalla
1.1.2. Maxamed
1.2. Sinwaaq
1.2.1. Cabudwaaq Sinwaaq Aw Mahadle Isaaq Haruun Samatar Cali Cabdi Guleed Ways Koshin Maxamed Yaquub Ibrahim Muusa Cabdi Qariim Yaxye Mahad Jala Nagaaye Qasim Adan Cali Maxamed Gadid Suleyman Ibrahim Mahad
1.2.2. Samajali Cabdalla Samatar Yussuf Ochur

Here is what the Kenya National Archives give as the Awlyahan Bahaale Genealogy. I don't quite know how it fits in with what you have in your database (and which is more accurate). But maybe you will figure out how to incorporate a few of the names and connections. The spellings, again, are "pre-Somali-script" and quite inaccurate.
1. Awlyahan
1.1. Tur Adi
1.1.1. Hawis
1.1.2. Songat
1.1.3. Aboukir
1.2. Jibrail
1.2.1. Aboukir Ali Afwa Khassim
1.2.2. Mumin Hassan Wafatta Aden Kheir Afgab

For Maqaabul Barwaaq Tegelwaaq Ogaadeen I have found two genealogies in the Kenyan Archives. They match for the most part, but there are a few differences that I can't fit together. The first one is nice and short:
1. Sacad
1.1. Hassan
1.2. Ibrahim
2. Makahiil
2.1. Mohamed (Habr Eli)
2.1.1. Gumcadle
2.1.2. Garwayn
2.2. Mohamed
2.2.1. Ibrahim
2.3. Yussuf
2.3.1. Samatalis
The second one is quite elaborate:
1. Sacad
1.1. Hassan
1.1.1. Indagud
1.1.2. Yussuf
1.1.3. Abdallah
1.1.4. Ugad
1.2. Ibrahim
1.2.1. Abdiraxman Yussuf Ahmed Ali Hussein Tibril
1.2.2. Deiryere
2. Hatti Abdiraxman (Makahiil)
2.1. Muhammed
2.1.1. Hussein Mohamed Ismail Yunis Ismail Adan Abuker Dukit Muusa Abukir Qaasim Abukir Muhammed Muusa Talharer Cusman Suliman Qaasim Harun
2.2. Muhammed
2.2.1. Ibrahim Eli Abdallah Wasrmogi Mohamed Sarmani Makahiil Negeyah Yunis Kuul Ismail (Afweyne) Adan Ibrahim Muusa Hussein Omar Hussein Omar Hassan Abdallah Edidera Waksemeya Beyd
2.3. Yussuf
2.3.1. Muhammed Tamar Samatar Khayr Koshin
2.3.2. Maxad Roob
2.4. Hassan
2.4.1. Sacad Nuukh Adan Zamani Hassan Ubaxleh Mohammed Muusa
1.4.2. Abuker
Jilo Posts: 11Joined: Wed Nov 25, 2009 7:30 amLocation: Nairobi, Kenya

Through Unknown African Countries: the First Expedition from Somaliland to Lake Rudolf

Through Unknown African Countries: the First Expedition from Somaliland to Lake Rudolf


  • A. Donaldson Smith was an American medical doctor and amateur big-game hunter who, in 1894-95, undertook an 18-month expedition from Berbera, Somalia (then British Somaliland) to Lake Turkana (then Lake Rudolf) in Kenya. He explored the headwaters of the Shabeelle River in Ethiopia and, on his return journey, descended the Tana River to the Kenyan coast. This book is his account of the expedition. Its appendices contain detailed descriptions and illustrations of the fishes, spiders and scorpions, moths, geological specimens, fossils, plants, and ethnographic objects collected on the expedition. Also included are maps of the expedition’s route, glossaries of words collected from several African tribes, and his correspondence with Emperor Menelek, from whom he sought permission to travel through southern Ethiopia. Lake Turkana National Park in Kenya is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Message from President Hassan Gouled Aptidon to the Nation on the Occasion of May 8th, 1977: Peace-Unity-Fraternity

Title: Message from President Hassan Gouled Aptidon to the Nation on the Occasion of May 8th, 1977: Peace-Unity-Fraternity

This booklet, published in Paris in March 1977, contains text excerpted from a declaration, signed by Hassan Gouled Aptidon (1916-2006), president of Djibouti’s leading political movement, the Ligue populaire africaine pour l'Ind├ępendance (Popular African League for Independence). The declaration was aimed at the people of Djibouti on the eve of the historic referendum for independence from France, which took place in May 1977. Hassan Gouled Aptidon was one of Djibouti’s chief negotiators for independence during roundtable talks in Paris in 1977. He became the country’s first president, a position that he held until his retirement in 1999. The Republic of Djibouti is the former French Somaliland, which in 1967 became the French Territory of the Afars and Issas. It is located in the Horn of Africa, and is bordered by Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.

The Royal Bimaal Sultanat of Merca

The Biimaal ( Gaadsan, Ismiin, Da’ud and Sa’ad) are a Somali ethnic group of about 1 million people who live mainly in the province of lower Shabelle, lower Jubba, Bakool and Gedo, large numbers also live in Kenya and Ethiopia. Their language, is Somalia, is a Hamatic language; more specifically, similar to the Arabic. The Biimaal Kingdom played a major role in Somali History during the 18th and 19th centuries. Under Italian colony, Biimaal people opposed against the invaders and severely fought against Italian troops. During that time thousands Biimalis lost their life to stop invaders to touch our soil. Today, they are the most numerous ethnic group in Somalia, settling the most populated area from Mogadishu to kismayo and as mentioned above in Gedo and Bakool region. However, they are not armed, not even ready to involve in this civil war. Origins The Biimaal were originally a major clan in what is today lower Shabelle, lower Jubba, Bakool and Gedo, founded. 1400-1900 Biimaal kingdoms were having a good trading with Arabs particularly Omanian and Yemenis. In the interpretation of Biimaal name is means Bin malik, which other cajami people named him Biimaal. Some people assume that the meaning of the name is water user, which is not close to the fact because Biimal has other Arabic name as I mentioned above. At that time, the land of Biimaal was occupied by many other tribes and clans during the civil war. Daarood tribes had migrated down Jubbaland in early time when they fled from the droughts in their lands and settled Biimalis lands and because the previous Darood president they planted their roots in biimalis land. Habargidir of Hawiye subclan also decided to claim lower shabelle, trying to settling every small village, but the complication faced them was that if three hundred thousands people how you can displace two million people. That mission has failed In 1900-1907, the Italian leaders tried many times to negotiate a land deal with Bimal king. In 1905 about 2000 Bimalis and 1000 Italian soldiers were killed when they attempted to destroy these obstacles against Italian interests which caused many Italian lives before. Though many biimalis armies got killed they still dominated to protect Somali shore. After a long bloody battle, the Italian leader sleeked alliance with other Somali tribes which finally destroyed Bimalis forces.

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