Wednesday, February 28, 2018

The Mandaluug Dir of Southern Somalia and their Past Migrations From the North West to the South


1. Daauud Madaluug (Gadabursi Madaluug Dir)
2. Isaaq Madaluug (Isaaq Madaluug Dir)
3. Reer Ahmed (Ahmed Madaluug Dir)
4. Reer Xasan (Xasan Madaluug Dir)
5. Jire Madaluug Dir
6. Irrable Madaluug Dir
7. Geelwaaqle Madaluug Dir
8. Masalalay Madaluug Dir
9. Xuseen Madaluug Dir

The Madaluug Dir in Western Somali Region (So-called Ogaden) were in the 1870s pushed South in large numbers during the Menelike Amhara invasions from Tug Fafaan down to Beledweyn and Dolow region where they settled with other Dir groups.

The 1880 famines which caused Amahara millitias of Menelike to reach as far South as Beledweyn and Eel Buur in order to raid Somali herds to finance his invasion of Southern Muslim lands, pushed the Manadaluug in large numbers, dispersing them, mostly found other Dir groups and settled with their kinsmen even though impoverised.

This coupled with Ogaden/Absame raids who lost their life stock to Amhara dwindelled the once powerful Madaluug today they are about 120,000 strong but very dispersed over large territories in Western Somalia and Jubba / Shabeelle valley.

In 1880s, the Menelik forces who were expanding and raiding the farming villages of upper Shabeelle and exacting tribute from Somali nomads in villages of upper shabeelle and exacting tribute from nomades at the dry-season watering sites

These raids led to the destruction of many Dir groups which included the Mandaluug, Bajimaal, Gadsan and Suure, which caused many to move futher south.

These raids also motivated many Darood clansman like the Ogadeen and Mareehan to move inland fearing the vicious Amhara Christian raids,these Darood Somali clans fled into Somalia and away from these aggressive blood thirsty Christian Amhars.

There are nine distinct Southern Madaluug Dir in Kenya, Doollo/ Nageele and Jubba Shabelle Valley. The remaining are in Harrara and Western Somali regions.

 Makahil Mikadore and Reer Idleh

Reer Isaaq ( Largest group) Live in Godey, Qabri Dahare, Shilaaba Jarati and Jubba Shabeele valley. The Mekhaahil subclan lives in Jilib -Kismaayo area

Reer Ahmed- Shilaaba, Jarati and large numbers in Kismayo,Jamaame, Afmadow mixed with Bimaal, Suure and their Gadsan Kinsman

Reer Hassan are in Godey, Qallafe and Nageelle. Large numbers live in Hiiraan and own farms with their Suure (Fiqi cumar and Fiqi Muxummed) The Reer Nuure live West of Baladweyn. The Reer Maajuun live in Bay Region with the Quranyow Maxammed Dir and some settelled amounf Rahanweyn Eelay. The Reer Majuun and a Madaxweyn Dir group the Reer Aw Said live in this are.

Jirre Madaluug- only group remaining in Tog Faafan, Jigjigga

Masalalay- NFD Kenya Bardheere Dollow

Reer Xuseen

Samaroon Saciid of Awad proper Gadabuursi

Reer Majjuun amoung Eelay and Quranyow Maxammed Garre Dir of Bay

Makahiil large numbers amoungst Dir Bimaal and Surre of Jammaame and spreading out as far as Afmadow and Kismayo. Also in NFD amoung Quranyow and Dir of Bardheere and Doolow Ado. In this region the Mandaluug live closely with the Reer Yaxye, Dheere Madaxweyn and R. Dayo

Buufow Ethiopia near great bend of Shabeelle Xamaro Xaddad

Angoolle and Xeeble and Reer Nuure all live in Dollow but own large farms West of Beledweyn this group alone numbers about 22,000 souls.

Even though most Dir geneologies record that Dir had 4 Sons Madaxweyn, Madoobe and Mahe Dir and Mandaluug Dir which includes the Samaroon Saciid and Mandaluug clans of the south. I was suprised by the Lower Jube and Shabeelle account of the Mandaluug Dir. And this was observed in Kenya, most Mandaluug identify themselves as Mandaluug Maxammed and they Say that Mandaluug and Samaroon are the sons of Mahe Dir Maxammed Xiniftire. This claim would make the Mandaluug of south direct cousines of the Biyomaal Maxammed, Baajimal Maxammed, Quranyow Maxammed (Garre) and Dabruub. Also the Surre ( Cabdalle and Qubeys clans of South and Mudug). I was also suprised to see quite a number of Madiigaan clans who referred to Mandaluug as Abti (maternal uncles because they said their lineages were Baho Samaroon. The Madigaan and Barsuug (Barsuuk I saw identified with the numerous Mahe Dir in the region stated they were Curads of Dir because they are Madaxweyn Dir) especially the Mandaluug their are part of the same Diya groups of Madaxweyn Dir Hordare (Alaab weyne clans)

 Kismaayo: Murashax Cali Cusmaan Xirsi Oo Ku Guuleystay Kursiga Beesha Madaluug/Dir Ee Xildhibaanada Aqalka Hoose Ee Laga Soo Dooranayo Gobolada Jubbaland

November 23, 2016

waxaa shaley magaalada Kismaayo dib uga furmay doorashadii xildhibada Aqalka hoose ee Baarlamaanka Federalka gaar ahaan xildhibaanada laga soo dooranayo deegaanada Jubbaland.

Waxaa las doortey shaley hal kursi kaliya kaasoo ah kursiga beesha Madaluug Direed ee gobolada Jubbaland.

Waxaa kursiga beesha Madaluug ee Jubbaland ku tartamay musharax Cali Cusmaan Xirsi iyo Dr. Axmed Aadan Axmed oo soo noqday wasiirka caafimaadka iyo xildhibaan hore.

Waxaa kursiga kusoo baxay Cali Cusmaan Xirsi oo heley 27 cod halka Dr. Axmed Aadan Axmed uu helay 23 cod.

Doorashada xildhibaanada aqalka hoose ee Baarlamaanka Federalka ee Jubbaland ayaa maalmihii la soo dhaafay hakad la geliyey kadib markii la ogaaday in murashaxiinta qaarkood adeegsanayeen laaluush si ay ugu guuleystaan kuraasta beeshooda, shaley ayaa doorashada dib looga bilaabay markale magaalada Kismaayo.

You can also find in smaller numbers today  Makador sub-clan's among the Mandaluug Dir, who the Gadabuursi belong to and the Gorgorah Dir who also partook in the Jihad along with the Habar Makador of the Gadabuursi..
 Futuh Al Habasha page 123
Concerning the Makador among the Mandaluug. 
From the Scottish Geographical Society 1885

In the table above you can see "Medelluke" and "Rer Makador". One should note that the Medelluke do not claim descent from Ogaden, but rather came to be allied to them after being dispersed by the Christian Abyssinian invaders.

These Makador segments prove that the Habar Makador/Makador of the Gadabuursi partook in the jihad and they ended up isolated from the Gadabuursi Habar Makador.

Especially the one in the southern Madaluug, which a southern Madaluug brother himself explained to me that there is among them a subclan called "Reer Maxamed(Axmed) Guray of the Muse Makador"

In the future  I will mention more about the Conquest of Abyssinia and  I will discuss a controversy. Stay

Tuesday, February 27, 2018

The Surre Dir subclan The Qubeys and their Distribution in Somalia Deeganada Beesha Qubeys

 Qubeys قبيس سر در is a member of the Surre (clan). Surre is one of the sons of the greater Mehe Dir Tribe. Qubeys is brother to Abdalle Surre Dir. Surre (Abdalle & Qubeys)

Qubeys قبيس, along with Abdalle, are a subclan of the Surre (clan). Surre Mehe is a member of he Royal Dir tribe.
The Word Qubeys is an ancient Somali word which was once common amongst the traditional Somali population. The word itself means cleanliness. With the introduction of Islam and the Arabic language to Somalia over 1000 years ago, Somalis changed the tradition of naming their sons Qubeys to Dahir or Tahir or طاهر in Arabic which also means cleanliness.
The Qubeys and Abdalleh Surre Dir clans are known to have spread and taught the Islamic religion in southern and central Somalia. With the modern Somali society, it is believed that the Surre, both Qubeys & Abdalle have a large number of Faqīh (Islamic Jurists) and Islamic scholars
It is believed by various historians the Qubeys Surre & Abdalle Surre migrated from the northern part of Somalia currently known as Somaliland approximately 1316 A.D. The Surre Clan migrated to parts of southern and central Somalia as well as parts of Ethiopia and Kenya. However a small fraction of the Qubeys clan remained in Somaliland and reside in Togdheer Somaliland till this day.
Currently the Qubeys Clan reside in the following cities. Some which they inhabit alone and some where they are the majority or a significant population of the city:
  • Bacadweyne Mudug
  • Ceel-Xagar Puntland
  • Significant amount reside in Galkacyo Mudug
  • Marajiicley Galgaduud
  • Kabxanley Hiiraan
  • Baraag Ciise
  • Qaycad
  • Dhaah - Hiiraan
  • Wardheen - Hiiraan
  • Buuloburte - Hiraan
  • Dheen
  • Gawaaney
  • Jaqey
  • Qobor
  • Jamaame
  • Labaceel
  • jiicdheere
  • shabeelow
  • Golweyn
  • significant amount reside in (merca) lower-shabele
  • Significant amount reside in Mogadishu Banadir
  • Small cluster reside in Burco Togdheer Somaliland
  • Koolo Ethiopia
  • Bangale Kenya

Clan tree

  • Dir
  • Mehe
  • Surre
    • Qubeys
      • Tolweeyne
        • Axadoowe
          • Abdalla
          • cusmaan
        • Reer Toonle
          • mohamed abti-udug
          • waqantiile abti-udug
      • Yabadhaale
        • Midkasse
          • Idiris
          • Cusman afey
        • Wayaagle
          • reer baani

Dir clan, including how the Dir subclans compare commonalities and differences, the political representation

Somalia: The Fiqi Omar subclan of the Dir clan, including how the Dir subclans compare commonalities and differences, the political representation they have enjoyed leading to the "Cairo Declaration," and subsequent National Reconciliation Conference, whether they have a militia and where, with whom and against whom it is currently involved

Publisher Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
Author Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada
Publication Date 1 April 1998
Citation / Document Symbol SOM29248.E
Cite as Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Somalia: The Fiqi Omar subclan of the Dir clan, including how the Dir subclans compare commonalities and differences, the political representation they have enjoyed leading to the "Cairo Declaration," and subsequent National Reconciliation Conference, whether they have a militia and where, with whom and against whom it is currently involved, 1 April 1998, SOM29248.E, available at: [accessed 28 February 2018]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

Information on the Fiqi Omar subclan of the Dir clan including the manner in which Dir clans compare commonalities and differences could not be found among the sources currently available to the Research Directorate. For detailed information on the  Dir clan and their family tree, please consult pages 144-148 of Patrick Gilkes' The Price of Peace in Somalia, and the appendix on clan genealogies,  which is available at Regional Documentation Centres.
The Dir participated in the Sodere Conference which took place on 3 January 1997 at the Ethiopian hot-spring resort of Sodere, and is one of the major clan families represented in the 41-member National Salvation Council (NSC) created at Sodere and charged with the responsibility of organising a transitional government (Africa Confidential 17 Jan. 1997).
The Cairo Peace Agreement, which was a follow-up to the Sodere Agreement, was reportedly signed in the presence of Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak in Cairo on 22 December 1997 (Africa News 23 Mar. 1998), by delegates of  Hussein Farah Aydid's Somali National Alliance (SNA) and the NCS headed by Osman Ali "Atto" and Ali Mahdi Mohamed (The Indian Ocean Newsletter  6 Dec. 1997, 3). The Cairo Declaration called for another follow-up conference of national reconciliation to be held in Baidoa on 20 December 1997 but this has been repeatedly postponed and is now scheduled to take place on 15 May 1998, funds permitting, although "the real obstacle stems from the refusal of faction leader Hussein Mohamed Aydeed to pull his militia from Baidoa, as agreed in Cairo" (ibid., 4 Apr. 1998).
A 30 March 1998 Agence France Presse report states that two people were killed and five others injured during fighting between Habr Gedir and Dir clans in the Qeyder village in southern Somalia.
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum.
Africa Confidential [London]. 17 January 1997. "Somalia: The Sodere Spirit."
Africa News. 23 March 1998. "Somalia: Somali Peace Advocate Calls for Grassroots Approach." (NEXIS)
Agence France Presse. 30 March 1998. "Plus de 30 morts dans des combats à Kismayo." (NEXIS)
The Indian Ocean Newsletter. 4 April 1998. No. 806. "The Impossible Reconciliation."
_____. 6 December 1997. No. 790. "Somalia: Pipes of Peace."
Gilkes, P.S. September 1994. The Price of Peace: Somalia and the United Nations 1991-1994. Bedfordshire, U.K.: Save the Children's Fund.
Additional Sources Consulted
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series [London]. Vols. 34 & 35. Nos. 1-12.  January 1997 - March 1998.
Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1997. 1998.
Horn of Africa Bulletin [Uppsala]. January 1997 - February 1998. Vols. 9 & 10. Nos. 1- 6.
The Invention of Somalia. Edited by Ali Jamale Ahmed. 1995. Lawrenceville, NJ: The Red Sea Press.
Lewis, I. M. 1994. Blood and Bone: The Call of Kinship in Somali Society. Lawrenceville, NJ: The Red Sea Press.
_____. 1988. Rev. ed. A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. Boulder, Col.: Westview Press.
New African [London].  January 1997 - March. 1998.
Electronic sources: DIRB Databases, Global News Bank, LEXIS/NEXIS, Internet, REFWORLD (UNHCR database), World News Connection (WNC).
Copyright notice: This document is published with the permission of the copyright holder and producer Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB). The original version of this document may be found on the offical website of the IRB at Documents earlier than 2003 may be found only on Refworld.

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