ALSO VISIT UNITED NATIONS PDF CHART SHOWING DIR CLANS AND REGIONS THEY LIVE IN:
The City Dirra Dhawe (place were the Dir worriors Hit with their spears or conquered) as they named it in the 1450's, after the Gurgura worriors of Adal Kingdom freed the town from Christian invaders of the Ethiopian Higlands and ever since they remain the protectors of that town.
The Oromo call the Maxammed Madaxweyn Dir, Gurgura or Warra Gurgura which in Oromo means the trader, sells men, or merchant. Figuratively, it means in Oroma too, to cheat. Also in the Oroma languege it means Shop, shopper or merchandise and the act of selling.
In old Somali, the word comes from Gorgortan or to sell or barter. Gurgure means also in Somali to carry, for example things or mechandise, therefore, the Somali Isasa and Gadabursi in Zaila area from long time ago called the Gurgure carriers of merchandise to Harrar and as far as the Highlands of Shoa and Wallo. The Oromo adopted that name in 1600 when they invaded Harrar area.
The Gurgure were the dominant trading clan in Eastern Ethiopian Harrar pleatue from the 1500s. They exported to the Middle East, coffee beans, Ivory, Ostrich feathers, slaves, hides of leapords, rhino horns, and gum from hinterland Ethiopia. And returned to Ethiopia salt from Zaila or Djibouti coast. The Gurgure also were were major suppliers to beads, weapons like swords, and other metal utinsiles.
The Dir of the Harrar area say the Gurgure traders didnt only have connections with a network of traders from Arabia, Persia especially Shiraz, but also they purchased from the Akisho Madahweyn Dir, a clan which they say penetrated the Oromo, Sidamo, Gurage, and as far south the Borane country in the era of the Akisho's powerful Queen Araweelo who is said to be Akisho and rules note only Somali cities but also Guraage, Hadiya, and Sidamo towns as far as Bale.
Akisho/Guure/Quranyow Maxammed in Southern Ethiopia and Bale
The remanant Madahweyn Dir of that era, when Akisho acted as a network of collection and the Gurgure specialized in exporting between Zeila and Harrar is probable the Guure clans who today number over 200,000. These Dir speak Arsi and other Oromo dialects well and they are the custodians of Sheikh Hussien Al Bale's tomb where millions of Oromo visit. Also there is a large group of Qurac Mahe Dir deep in Arsi Bale country. The Qurac have a city called Magalo, which in Oromo means Market. The other evidence is the large presence of the Quranyow Maxammed Xiniftire Dir( Furkesho and Kali subclans) in Nageelle, Garissa, Waso, Marsabit and Ceelwaaq area of the NFD. Indeed, there are many Booran, Rendille, and Gabra clans who claim to be Dir. And the Booran section of Dirre which is a Booran Moiet and also territorial group have several Dir clans amoungst them and that whole moiet claims that the entire Dirre section is of Dir origin.
Subclans of the Gurgure
The main Gurgure subclans are:
1)Habar Daar which includes:
2)Guwaah and Liibaan
Also to this day the Gurgure live in the Somaliland state not far from Zaila, in Arabsiyo, Ijaara, Awabarre and Wajaale areas there are large populations of Gurgure . Many still maintain there ancient trade of carrying merchandise between Northern Somalia and Ethiopia. Also those Gurgure traders of Zaila shifted their trade to Djibouti in 1700s. Unfortunatly, the Gurgure lost this art of trade and business in the last 150 years and many young Gurgures have not adopted the art.
Other Dir groups like the Dudub of Gadabuursi and Reer Gullen of Issas took over where the Gurgure left from 1820s. By 1902 the Dira Dhawe-Djibouti train was built the Gurgure ceased to be active in Somali trade and concentrated in trading with Oromo Muslims like the Itu and Ale who were ancient partners and who trained under them, today the Ale and Itu are more involved in trade then the Gurgure or Akisho. Even in Dirra Dhawa a Gurgure town you will find very few Gurgure traders.
The Oromo Bareentuma of Harrar region, call the Gurguras Maanguuda, or the wise ones. The Gurgura are surrounded by the Itu, Ale and Anniya who they trade with since the 1600s and they speak their langueges fluently, many Gurguras as many as 20% dont even speak Somali even though they maintain their Dir identity. There are other sections of the Gurgure numbering tens of thousands in Afar region across Awash and into Ause, who speak the Afar languege where they traded with them and intermarried with the Odey Ali- which is the name the Dir refer to the Afar, who occupied parts of Zaila in the era of king Salah Din the King of Adal/ Zaila who is buried in the Island of Zaila where Somalis visit and they consider him a Saint, who died at the hands of the Christian invaders from Highlands of Shewa in 1600.
Noole Group Gurgure saved from Oromo destruction
The Noole, one group that is very Somalized and at times claim to be Madaxeweyn Direed are on group that is allied to the Gurgure and lives in the Gurgure region. The closest kinsman of the Gurgure in the region are the Akisho.
Fatuuh Al Habas mentions Gurgure name
The Gurgure Dir were well known as traders and their name was in fact used as early as the 1550's, as they are mentioned in Fatuh Al Habash, the book that described the campaigns of Ahmed Guray ( Ahmed Grange). The Fatuh Al Habash a book written by Shihab Al Din, who left use a full description of Gurey's Campaigns, depicts the Gurgura as fierce worriors who were the best horsemen who contributed 4,800 of their fiercest worriors on horse back, who stuck terror on the infidels hearts and the Gurgure's colorful display and wild chanting of Allahu Akbar probably impressed Shihab Al Din, at the Shimbir Kurey Battle.
Another Madaxweyn Dir clan mentioned by name is the Barsuug clan. The Akisho are mentioned as Subclans, Reer Warjeeh is one such clan which is not that important today.
Gurgure Political Organizations
The Gurgure became the leading worriors of Ahmed Ibrahim Qazi or Guurey and at the battle of Shimber Kurey (near Addis Abbaba which was Finfinley at this time)March 17, 1529 they saved the Muslim worriors with their numerous horsemen and are mentioned in Fatuh Al Habash of Shihab Al Diin
MORE UPDATES COMING SOONPictures of the Gurgure