Wednesday, July 25, 2012

Addicted to Plastic

A Crude Awakening: The Oil Crash

Shameless Idealists - Somali Rapper K'naan

K'naan talks to Craig Kielburger about his personal journey from Somalia to Rexdale to international superstardom




A SCHOOL IN MARKA CITY

A SCHOOL IN MARKA CITY




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Al-Ansar Institute
of Islamic Education and Basic Science
Elementary/Intermediate/High
Marka, Somalia
Background
Following the long devastating war in Somalia many innocent Somalis lost their lives. The children became the first victims. Many of them lost their caring and loving parents and other family members. The majority of the children lost their dreams of a life that could have been achieved through education. All government institutions including the educational facilities were completely plundered and destroyed. An entire generation who were fully dependent on government supported educational institutions missed education all together, others ended their schooling prematurely. Regrettably, the rule of gun became the norm in every part of the country. Most of the teachers, technicians and professionals working at various public and private sectors left the country. The few that were left resorted to other means of survival. This has led to an acute shortage of human resources, which hampered recovery and jeopardized long term development. It is against this background that Al-Ansar Institute was conceived by a dedicated and highly motivated team of instructors based in Marka, Somalia.
What is the mission?
  • To provide learning and hands-on-training opportunities to the future generation of Somalia.
  • To enable the youngsters whose education was interrupted through a decade long civil war, obtain a high quality education.
  • To prepare and lead the youth to a higher educational and intellectual level.
Where does it operates.? The institute operates in the coastal and historical city of Marka, located in the southern part of Somalia. Marka is the capital city of the lower shabelle region and is located 70 km south of the Somali capital Mogadishu.
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Who is heading the institute? The non-profit institute is headed by Sheikh Salim Omar Osman, the founder, a former Chemistry teacher of Marka secondary school and a graduate from the faculty of education of the Somali National University.
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What is the level of education?
When the institute was first established (1991), only primary levels consisting of grade one to five were in effect, however, after generous support from caring individuals from the Somali community (inside and outside the country), two additional levels (intermediate and secondary) were added to the institute. At present over 500 students are enrolled.
What are the courses offered?
Science (biology, chemistry and physics), mathematics, geography, history, social studies, English, Arabic, Islamic studies, and physical education.
How are the facilities?
The facilities are very scarce. The building hosting the institute is very old and needs immediate renovation. Because of the extremely high demand, the classrooms are overcrowded. Laboratories are ill equipped and supplies are short. Conventional methods are often used to demonstrate laboratory activities for science and technology subjects. The library is without shelves and good quality books.
Despite the limitations, the institute is committed in producing high quality graduates who are able to compete for further educational advancement and contribute substantially to the future development of the country.
Who funds the institute?
The institute is funded by private donations. Your charitable gifts can make a significant difference to the education of the future generation of Somalia.
What are the needs?
The many needs include rehabilitation and renovation of the physical facility of the institute, teachers retraining, reconstruction of the library, good quality books of various subjects, office supplies, computers, laboratory equipment, incentives for the instructors and the cost associated with the day to day operations.
How can I donate?
Your donation will definitely help overcome the various needs of the institute. You can make your contribution directly to the institute through ALBARAKAT, Marka, Somalia, telephone: 011-2521-549364 addressed to Sheikh Salim Cumar Cusman.
Please note that no administrative fee will be associated to your donation.
Audio
audio.gif (64 bytes)The School Song

The principle of the Institute Sheikh Salim Omar Osman lecturing the students.



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An American in Mogadishu - 31min Documentary Mohammed Aideed

In 1993, militias under Mohammed Aideed triumphantly paraded US corpses through the streets of Mogadishu. Now, in an ironic turnaround, Aideed's son is offering the US strategic bases.


SSC: KHATUMO REBELSAli Sabarey, the deputy leader of SSC,



New armed group threatens Somali violence

 new armed group is threatening to launch a violent campaign for the reunification of Somalia.

The group is known as SSC, the initials of the regions they say that they want to liberate - Sool, Sanaag and Cayn.

These regions are currently disputed over by both the breakaway Somaliland Republic and the Semi-autonomous region of Puntland in North East Somalia.

"Our ultimate goal is to make this area peaceful and prosperous and also seek a united Somalia," Ali Sabarey, the deputy leader of SSC, told Al Jazeera.

However, Somaliland officials dismiss the SSC as ineffective, saying that their threats and claims of victory are hollow.

Al Jazeera's Mohammed Adow prepared this exclusive report from the SSC stronghold of Buuhoodle.

Wareysi Aljeziira: Laba Wajiile Yusuf Indho Cade Wasiirka Difaaca oo la dagalamaya Maxakiimta

Civilians killed in Somali fighting

QABIILO IS SHEEKGTA IYO LUQADAHA SOMALIA


Qabaa’ilka Soomaalidu ma isbahaysi baa,

mise waa dhalasho?

Wq. Maxamed Hirad

April 26, 2010



Muuqaalka oday Soomaaliyeed oo xidhan koofiyaddii duqayda lagu yaqaannay



Arar:

Runtii waa su’aal ay adag tahay in jawaab waafi ah laga bixiyo. Waxa taas daliil u ah, siina adkaynaya innaga oo aan illaa maanta hayn qoraallo ama dokumantiyo taariikhi ah oo arrintaas wax ka yidhi. Waxa keliya ee aynu cuskannaa inta badan waa qoraallo kooban oo dad ajnebi ahi ay qoreen, xilliyo mudada laga joogaa ay aad u yar tahay, marka la barbar dhigo inta ay qowmiyadda Soomaaliyeed soo jirtay. Waxa intaas dheer, kuwaas oo aan dhul badan oo Soomaaliyeed marin, sidaa awgeedna xogta ay ururiyeen ay ku salaysan tahay dad iyo degaanno kooban.



Mar haddii xaal sidaas yahay, qofka doonaya in uu baadhitaan ku sameeyo mawduucan oo kale waxa ku adkaanaya in uu helo qoraallo badan oo uu raadraaco. Marka maqaalkan kooban waxa uu xooggiisu ku salaysan yahay aqoonta duqay Soomaaliyeed oo degaanno door ah oo kala geddisan deggen ama ku barbaaray, aqoon fiicanna u leh qabaa’ilka iyo xogo kale oo aan ka soo ururiyay qoraallo kooban. Waxa intaas dheer oo aan qoraalkan yar iyana u adeegsanayaa suugaanta Soomaalida oo ay ku jiraan sheekooyinka iyo odhaahaha Soomaalida dhexdeeda caanka ka ah.



Aqoonayahanada dersa asalka Soomaalidu waxa ay sheegeen in magaca Soomaali oo qoran ay markii u horraysay ku arkeen hees Xabashi ahi oo ay ku tilmaamayaan qoladaasi sida ay uga guulaysteen dagaal dhex maray iyaga iyo Soomaalida. Marka waxa la dhihi karaa ama muuqata in aan magaca Soomaali laftiisa xog badan laga hayn wixii ka horreeyay dagaaladii Imaam Axmed Guray. Waxase jirta ama laysla garan karaa markii diinta islaamku soo gaadhay dalkan, in dad badani ku noolaayeen degaanka Soomaalida. Kuwaas oo magac, Diin, iyo dhaqan u gaar ah lahaa. Waxa illaa haddeer jira wax badan oo ka sii baaqi ah raadadkii iyo dhaqamadii dadkaas. Waxa tusaale inoogu filan, dab shidka, xabaalaha, sida taallo tiiryaadka, curraafaynta iyo samaanyaha oo dhammaan laga helo ama ka jira geyiga Soomaaliyeed.





Iimaam Axmed Guray



Waxa ay aqoonyahanno badani iyana isku raacsan yihiin in dhulkii loo yaqaannay Punt uu hadda ka mid yahay degaanka Soomaalida, dadkii ku dhaqnaana ay Soomaalidu asal ku leedahay.



Daraasado lagu sameeyay hiddaha (genetics) Soomaalida ayaa iyana caddeeyay in dadka Soomaaliyeed ay asal la wadaagaan dadyowga kale ee ku dhaqan Itoobiya, Ereteriya iyo Waqooyiga Afrika sida qawmiyadaha Oromada, Canfarta, Berberka iyo xataa Carabta Waqooyiga Afrika. Waxa intaas dheer afafka qowmiyadahaasi ku hadlaan oo ay isku bah yihiin afka Soomaaliga. Daraasadaha hiddaha asalka Soomaalida lagu sameeyay waxa ay caddeeyeen in dadyowga ku dhaqan Geeska Afrika ee ay Soomaalidu ka mid tahay ay yihiin ummad gaar ah (Distinct Seperate Race) oo ka duwan ummadaha la jaarka ah sida Carabta iyo Afrikaanka kale. Waxa intaas dheer oo daraasadahaas koobani sheegayaan in qawmiyadda Soomaalidu ay jirtay muddo ka badan 4,000 oo sano.



Markii diinta Islaamku ka dhalatay Jasiiradda Carbeed oo sida aynu wada ognahay bad yari u dhaxayso iyada iyo Soomaaliya ayaa waxa markiiba ay si hawl yar ugu soo tallowday dhinaca degaanka Soomaalida. Diintaas oo dabcan muddo dheer qaadatay in Soomaali oo dhan ay wada gaadho. Hase yeeshee waxa xaqiiqo ah in ay raad weyn ku yeelatay dhaqanka Soomaalida oo xilligan la joogo dhammaantood wada Muslim ah. Waxase adag in la aamino ama waxa aynu odhan karnaa macquul ma aha dhawr wadaad baa qaran dhan sahal ku qabsaday muddo qaaban. Ama dhawrka Shiikh ee ay Soomaalidu sheegato iyo carruurtiisii baa ka adkaaday oo qaarna dadkii dalkan ka buuxay laayey, intii kalena bara kiciyey oo dhulkii ka qaaday. Midda kale waxa isweydiin mudan meeye dadkii diinta ay u laqimayeen ee dhexdooda diinta ka faafinayeen? Iyagii keliya iyo carruurtoodii baa dalkii oo dhan u hadhay, waa arrin aad cajiib u ah oo caqligu aanu qaadan karin!



Markaynu qodobkan ka hadalkiisa soo koobno, sida la garan karo Soomaalidu waxa ay ka soo jeeddaaa dadkii dalka joogay ee diinta la soo gaadhsiiyay muddo hadda kun sano ka badan laga joogo. Waxa ayse dhaqan badan la wadaagaan muslimiinta ku dhaqan Bariga Dhexe iyo dalalka kale ee caalamka Islaamkaba.



Hayb beddelashada Soomaalida:

Ugu horrayn marka aynu arrintan ka hadalaynno waxa mudan marka hore in aan isweydiinno Soomaalida ma dhacdaa in ay haybtoodii hore ka guuraan? Jawaabta su’aashaas oo koobani waxa ay tahay “Haa”. Waxa hubaal ah kollay in lixdankii sannadood ee aan anigu wax kala garanayey dad badani ay haybtoodii bedesheen oo qolo kale ku biireen. Si aynu arrintaa xaqiiqooyin cad ugu keenno waxa aan halkan ku soo bandhigayaa dhowr tusaale oo innoo iftiiminaya sida qabaa’ilka Soomaaliyeed u hayb bedeshaan.



Waxa haddaba jira qabaa’illo badan oo aan la isku diidanayn in ay yihiin bahwadaag ama isbahaysi. Waxa qolyahaas ka mid ah Digil iyo Mirifle, Jaarso, Ciise, Akisho, Bursuug, Garre, Maalin Guur, Muddulood iyo kuwo kale oo badan.



I970 kii ayaa waxa aan fasax damcay in aan ku tego magaalada Baydhabo. Xilligaas waxa waddanka ka dillaacay cudurka loo yaqaan Daacuun Calooleedka. Taas oo dhalisay in magaalooyinka iyo gobolada la kala xidho. Waxa aan ku xannibmay tuulo yar oo Baydhabo iyo Buur Hakaba u dhaxaysa. Dadkii deganaa ayaan qof keliyana ka af garan waayey. Akhirkii waxaan masaajid yar ka helay oday saagaashan jir ah oo caalim ah oo na tujinayey. Isagii baan isku af garanay luqadda carabiga oo fusxa ah. Laba habeen oo aan wadaadkaas meel la joogay waxyaabo badan baan ka faa’iiday oo ka qortay. Waxaan waydiiyey, dadka dhulkan degani waa ayo? Waxa uu iigu jawaabay waa Soomaali. Yay ka yihiin baan idhi? Waxa uu iigu jawaabay waa Soomaali oo idil. Waxaan weydiiyey Raxan Weyn waa ayo? Wuxuu igu yidhi waa dhulka oo waxa uu magacaasi tilmaamayaa, waa dhulkii raaxada badnaa. Waxa kale oo aan waydiiyey Digil iyo Mirifle waa ayo? Wuxuu iigu jawaabay dadkaa qaarna beeraha ayay ku dhaqmaan oo waa Digil, Miriflena waa xoolalay. Sida odaygaasi qirayo Raxan Weyn waa is bahaysi ka kooban qabaa’illo badano oo Soomaaliyeed.



Waxa sidoo kale iyana ah qabiilka Ciisaha oo waxa la yidhaa waxa ay u kala baxaan jilibadoodu Ciise iyo soo raac oo sida magacaasi tlimaamayo innoo iftiiminaysa in ay isbahaysi yihiin. Jilibada soo raaca ayaa waxa inta badan dhacda in qabaa’il badani yidhaahdaan annaga ayay asal ahaan naga soo jeedaan.





Sawir ay faraacinadii hore ku muujiyeen xaaskii ninkii xukumi jiray Punt. Punt waxa la rumaysan yahay in ay ku taallay geyiga Soomaaliyeed



Qabaa’ilkan iyagu qirta in ay isbahaysi yihiin sida kuwa aan kor ku soo sheegnay, waa kuwa inta badan ay qabiilooyinka kale bililiqaystaan, gaar ahaan beryahan dambe ee qabyaaladdu siyaasadda aad u gashay ee ay xamaasadda badan yeelatay. Haddaan tusaale kooban kuwaas ka bixiyo jilibo dhowr ah oo Jaarso ah, gaar ahaan Warro Dhaqo ayaa intii ka dambaysay dagaalkii 1977 iyana u digarogtay reer Haaruun (reer, Isaaq, Ogaadeen) iyo Laylkase. Waxa sidoo kale iyana noqday xilliyadan dambe Jibriil Abokor (Sacad Muuse) Warro Oogo oo ahayd Jilib Akisho ah. Waxa iyana sheeko caan ah ka ah Hargeysa iyo inta galbeed ka xigta odhaahda ah Akishadii Cabbanowday. Sheekadaas oo tilmaamaysa qoysas Akisha ahaa oo u hayb bedeshay reer Cabbane (Sacad Muuse). Waxa maanta jira Qoys intooda Jigjiga deggenina yihiin Akisho, inta Hargeysa ku dhaqanina yihiin reer Cabbane.



Hayb bedelashadu kuma koobna beelahaas aan kor ku soo tilmaamay oo qudha. Qabaa’ilada kale sida Daaroodka, Isaaqa, Hawiyaha iyo kuwa kale ee faraha badanba waa arrin si weyn uga jirta. Aan ku bilaabo Shiikhaash (Shiikhaal) oo berigii hore la odhan jiray waxa ay ka soo jeedaan Abubakar Siddiiq, sida ku qoran kitaabka la yidhaahdo Nasrul Mu’miniin ee uu qoray Shiikh Cabdullahi Qudubi, awowgoodna ahaa shiikha ku aasan magaalada Sheekh looguna magacdaray iyo reer shiikh Xasan Kalweyn oo sheegan jiray in ay ka soo jeedaan Cusmaan bin Cafaan. Haddaba Shiikhaash (Loo Boge, Aw Qudub, iyo Gendershe) iyo reer Xasan Kalweyn maanta waa hal reer oo loo bixiyay Martiile Hiraab, ahna qabiil Hawiye ah. Waxa iyana jira qabaa’ilka Xawaadle, Saransoor (Digoodi iyo Gaal Jecel), Gugundhabe iyo Odaajeen oo maanta aynu u naqaan in ay Hawiye yihiin, horese u ahaa qabaa’il iskood u taagnaa.



Waxa sidoo kale isna ahaa qabiillo iskood u taagan oo sheegan jiray in ay Saado yihiin ama Carab, reerka Isaxaaqa la yidhaa ee maanta ka midka ah jilibada Habar Yoonis iyo reer Doodka oo Habar Jeclo ka mid ah. Qolada Isaxaaqu waxa ay haybtoodii hore ka guureen illaa 50 kii sano ee u dambeeyay oo aan aniga laftaydu soo gaadhay, halka ay reer Doodku iyagu beri dhaweyd uun toos u sheegteen Habar Jeclo. Waxa iyana intii xornimada ka dambaysay hayb bedeshay Fiqi Shinni oo ahaa Ajuuraan, haddase ah Ayaanle, Cayr, Habar Gidir. Waxa kale oo la sheegaa qolada la yidhaa Cumar dheer oo maanta ah Wagar Dhac oo Mareexaan ah, in ay asal ahaan ka soo jeedaan Cayr, Habar Gidir. Qolada kale ee hadda la yidhaa Damal Muuse ee dega Galkacayo ayaa iyana illaa 64 kii ka hayb bedeshay Dir oo noqday Muuse Carre oo Habar Yoonis ah.



Waxa halkan malaha mudan in aan ku xuso sheeko beri dhexdii ahayd lagu faafiyay qaar ka mid ah wargeysyada ka soo baxa magaalada Hargeysa. Kaas oo qoray sheeko ku saabsanayd laba reer oo haddeer kala ah Gadabuursi iyo Isaaq in ay wada siyaartaan hal oday oo ay wada sheegtaan in ay ka soo jeedaan. Labadaas reer ayaa qoraalku sheegay in ay istuseen in malaha ay isku asal yihiin, balse qolo weliba ku adkaysatay in ay halkeeda ku negaato.



Qolada Gadabuursiga oo marar qaar dadku ku tilmaamo isbahaysi waxa jira reero badan oo aan lagu murmin in ay qolyo kale yihiin. Waxa reerahaas ka mid ah Xeeb Jire oo la sheego in ay Shiikhaash yihiin, Muuse Fiin oo la yidhaa waa Ogaadeen iyo reer Nuurka oo dadka qaarkiis ku sheego in ay Ciidagale ahaayeen.



Dhinaca gobolada bariga oo dad badani ku tilmaamo meesha Soomaalidu ay asalkeedii ka soo fidday ayaa waxa la sheegaa reero badan oo ku dhaqnaan jiray, maantase aan cidi ka joogin. Waxa qabaa’ilkaas ka mid ahaa Reer Waa Rag, Leg dhufso, Odayo qoyan, Qabsan Dulle, Qayraanshe iyo qolyo kale oo badan. Kuwaas oo maanta dhammaantood ku dhex milmay reerka Majeeteerteen ee Hartiga ah. Reerka Dhulbahantaha ayaa iyana la sheegaa in qolyo badani ku dhex milmeen. Tusaale ahaan waxa Dhulabahantaha dhexdiisa caan ka ah magaca la yidhaa Ilma Halal Gob ah oo la sheego in ay ahaayeen qabiil jiray, balse maanta Dhulabahante uun ka mid ah. Waxa iyana dhowr iyo tobankii sano ee u dambeeyay soo baxay qolada Jambeel oo la yidhi waa Cabdi Koombe. Anigu intii aan wax kala gartay oo 60 sano kor u dhaafay waxa aan maqli jiray Koombe waa 4: Geri, Harti, Xarle iyo Jiiraan. Jambeel waxa aan marar maqlay waa reer Cabdi oo Geri ah. Si kastaba ha ahaatee Cabdi Koombe waa wax aan hore u jirin, qoladaasina waxa suuragal ah in ay ama Geri yihiin ama Harti.



Haddaan qaybtan soo duuduubo waxa aan jecelahay in aan xuso qola Madhibaan ah oo sannadkan horraaantiis qolyo ka mid ah iyaga iyo xubno ka tirsan beesha Habar Yoonis isku dayeen in ay haybtooda u bedelaan qolo ay u bixiyeen Kuul Carre. Sheekadaas oo muddo dhowr bilood ah socotay waxa ay akhirkii ku baaba’day ka dib markii xubno muhiim ah oo ka tirsan labada dhinac ay ka horyimaaddeen mashruucaas.



Runtii halkan kuma dhamma tusaaleyaasha laga bixin karo hayb bedelashada iyo qabaa’ilka Soomaalida. Waxase aan la dafiri Karin in hayb ka guurku uu yahay arrin aan ku cusbayn Soomaalida dhexdeeda, balse loo baahan yahay in si cilmiyaysan loo derso. Waxa xaqiiqo ah in aanu jirin Soomaalida dhexdeeda qabiil odhan kara waxa aannu nahay saafi oo iskuma dhex walaaqnin. Haddii malaha DNA dooda la baadhi lahaa wax badan baa malahayga soo bixi lahaa oo kala caddaan lahaa.





Reer Guuraanimadu waa dhaqan qadiimi ah oo Soomaaliyeed



Sheekooyinka caanka ka ah Soomaalida dhexdeeda:

Soomaalidu wax badan taariikhdeeda qoraal laguma wada hayo. Ha yeeshee waxa in badan laga heli karaaa suugaanta oo tix iyo tiraabba leh. Waxa iyana aad u badan sheekooyin iyo odhaahyo si weyn innoogu iftiimin kara mawduucan maqaalku ku saabsan yahay ee ah hayb ka guurka.



Haddaan qaar kooban ka xusno sheekooyinkaas tilmaamaya in dadku isku dhafan yihiin waxa ka mid ah: Ogaadeen waa wiil tagoogo iyo wiil talo. Taas oo macanaheedu yahay dadka reerkaas wada sheegta qaybina waa dhalasho, inta kalena heshiis bay Ogaadeen ku noqdeen. Waxa odhaah taas la mid ah iyana laga sheegaa reerka Abgaal oo waxa la yidhaa: Abgaal waa Abgaal iyo muggiis oo laga wado inta dhalasho Abgaal ku ah iyo inta kale wey isle’eg yihiin. Dadka qaar baa magaca Abgaal ku fasira waa Gaalle oo dhan. Kuwa sidan dambe wax u tilmaamaa waa kuwa qaba in Soomaalidu ay Oromada asal ahaan ka soo jeeddo.



Waxa iyana Soomaalida dhexdeeda caan ka ah beyd gabay ku jiray oo la yidhaa “Sacad waa Ogaadeen haddii loo abtirinaayo” oo tibaaxaysa sheegashada ah in reerka Sacad la yidhaa aanu ahayn Habar Gidir oo uu yahay Makaahiil, Ogaadeen. Waxa sheekadaa barbartaal mid kale oo wax ka sheegta reerka kale ee Habar Gidir ee la yidhaa Saruurka. Waxa la yidhaa Odaygii Madar Kicis Hiraab ahaa ee Habar Gidirta dhalay oo wiilkiisii bahal ka cunay ayaa ku ducaystay in kan Eebbe uga dhigo inankiisii. Odayga oo la sheego in uu indha la’aa baa la yidhaa waxa uu ku ducaystay sidan: San weynaa oo sarara weynaa Ilaahow Saruur Madar Kicis iiga dhig. Waxa iyana dadku aad u yidhaahdaan Odaygii Daarood ahaa weli waa dhalaa. Taas oo looga jeedo in xilli walba aad arkayso qolo cusub oo Daarood ah.



Si kastaba ha ahaatee waxa aan shaki ku jirin in qabaa’ilka Soomaalidu yihiin dad isku dhafan, haybsooca ay isku samaysaana aanu sal iyo raad toona lahayn. Waxa kale oo iyana xaqiiqo ah sida lagu xusay daraasado kooban oo lagu sameeyay hiddaha Soomaaliyeed in ay Soomaalidu tahay qawmiyad ka da’ weyn odayada ay sheegato in ay ka soo jeedaan.



Gabagabo:

Ugu damabayn waxa dhab ah in aan maqaalkan yar ee kooban oo aan ka soo dheegay buug yar oon aan qoraalkiisa ku guda jiro, kana hadlaya Hayb Takoorka in aan lagu soo koobi karin arrinta ku saabsan hayb bedelashada. Runtii waa mawduuc weli dihan, una baahan in daraasdo badan lagu sameeyo. Waxase xaqiiqo ah oo aan la iska indho tiri karin in qabaa’ilka Soomaalidu aanay sal mug weyn leh ku fadhiyin, khaasatan dhinaca sheegashada isirka.



Raadraac:

1- Risch et al. (1999), Categorization of humans in biomedical research: genes, race and disease, Genome Biol. 2002; 3(7): comment2007.1–comment2007.12.

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somali_people



3. http://somalitalk.com/2009/11/18/baaq-uu-soo-saaray-af-hayeenka-beelaha-kuul-carre



3. http://somalilandinfo.com/node/6362



4. http://wardheernews.com/News_09/November/19_Beel_u-diga_roganaysa_beel_kale.html

Maxamed Hirad

E-mail: xagar2000@yahoo.com



----

* Maqaalkani waxa uu qayb ka yahay buug yar oo aan qoraalkiisa ku guda jiro oo la yidhaa Hayb Takoor.

Maqaalada kale ee Maxamed Hirad ee lagu daabacay degelkan:

* Wadaadadda Cusub: Colaaddeer Dami weydey & Cidhib Dambeedkeeda

* Casharada Wadaadadii Hore & Kuwa Cusub Camaladooda



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http://www.abtirsi.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=849







Jilo on Thu Nov 26, 2009 6:16 am



Hi James,



so far I've only been looking into the Somali genealogy, and I was quite surprised to see how the Oromo genealogy fits into the Somali one. Is this from a Somali perspective or an Oromo one? Could you give me some more information on the Oromo genealogy, maybe the sources you've used, etc.?Jilo



Posts: 11

Joined: Wed Nov 25, 2009 7:30 am

Location: Nairobi, KenyaTop

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Re: Oromo genealogy

by James Dahl on Thu Nov 26, 2009 8:49 pm



Both groups claim the connection, but in very indirect ways.



The first connection is with Dir. Tradition lists 4 sons of Dir: Maahe, Madaxweyne, Madoobe and Maaladuqu. However Dir usually also include a fourth group, the "Qalho Dir", who include the Afran Kallo, a group of Barentuma Oromo clans. Oromo likewise consider various Dir to be Oromo, such as the Akishu (Maxamuud Cali Madaxweyne Dir).



This is made more complicated as Oromo do not organize their confederations based on lineage, but rather on geographic proximity. 'Barentu' for instance means east-facing, and may not even refer to a historic person.



Now this could be chalked up to adoption or assimilation, but genetic studies have shown that many Somalis and Oromos share a paternal ancestry as well.



However I was happily surprised to learn that Oromos do actually keep precise records of their lineages, they just have no political significance so they are much less well known compared to Somali lineages. And I almost fell out of my chair when, while reading the Tuulama lineage, the name before Boorana is Saamaaloo. None of the other names I could see match up.



For a time I considered this interesting, if impossible to prove, until I found a copy of a Kenyan Ajuuraan abtiris that traced back many generations before Ajuuraan, all the way to a 'Shimaal'.



It all fell into place, the lineage had many names, with slightly different spellings, on the Tuulama Borana AND the Afran Kallo lineages, tied into Irir Samaale, and essentially tied up the entire Samaale lineage.



To prove it however I would need to test the Y chromosomes of Tuulama, Hawiye, Dir, Jaarso and Ajuuraan men, who if my hypothesis is correct, should all share a common ancestor who lived 40-50 generations ago.James Dahl

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Re: Oromo genealogy

by Jilo on Fri Nov 27, 2009 6:18 am



Your discoveries are exciting. Yet I'm still a bit confused.



In your post http://www.abtirsi.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=9#p12 you say that genetic evidence will give you an accuracy of 100-500 generations (the time between mutations). So you might prove a common link with Aqee bin Abu Talib but you can't pove he is the link.

I would think in the same way you could prove that there is a link between Oromo and Somali, but you wouldn't be able to narrow it down to 40-50 generations. And you wouldn't be able to prove whether it happened before or after Saamaalo.



I don't doubt that there is some link between the Oromo and Somali (after all, they speak related languages, live in the same region and even physically resemble each other!). But I would assume that this link is at least 100 generations in the past, if not more.



I still don't quite understand how the genealogical history links in with the linguistic history. You might have come across all those articles written by historical linguists that show how the Oromo and Somali languages both originated at least 3000 years ago in south-eastern Ethiopia, and how they then split and moved into different directions. Of course you can't prove that the people who spoke the language then are the ancestors of the people who speak the language now. But it would seem quite likely to me that (especially with the big groups like Somali and Oromo) that language and ethnic groups roughly correspond to each other.



So if the Oromo and Somali languages split at least 3000 years ago, how could the genealogies split only less than 1500 years ago?



Also. I would be really careful with a genealogy found among the Kenyan Ajuuraan. In Kenya, the system of sheegad was practiced very extensively, and the Ajuuraan, for example, were vassals of the Borana for probably around 300 years. I wouldn't be surprised if the oral traditions got mixed up a bit during that time, or if quite a number of Kenyan Ajuuraan are actually Borana who married into the clan.



I've also come across the theory that the Kenyan Ajuuraan are not actually Ajuuraan but part of the Garre-Rendille group that has inhabited Kenya for a very long time. According to this hypothesis, some of the "true" Ajuuraan came to Kenya and intermarried with these people. When it was politically convenient, the whole group then adopted the ancestry of their (minority) Ajuuraan elements and thus became the Kenyan "Ajuuraan". During this process, obviously, there would be quite a bit of manipulation of genealogies.



It was fascinating for me to come across a statement made by a Kenyan Ajuuraan some 50 years ago: "We used to be Borana, but now we are Somali"!







I would still be very interested in the sources you used for the Oromo genealogies. If they are published, maybe I can get access to them here. I do have to read more about Oromo history...Jilo



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Re: Oromo genealogy

by James Dahl on Fri Nov 27, 2009 7:18 am



I'm very sceptical about anthropologists claiming that the Somali and Oromo languages differed so long ago. Languages can change very rapidly, especially in invasions. The English were conquered by the Normans who changed the English language drastically in about 400 years. Somalis were as influenced by Arabs as the English were by the Normans.



Also haplogroups are very distantly related but you can do more accurate tests that can show high statistical probability of common paternal ancestry to within only a few generations, and with precise accuracy to within 10. 40-50 would be no problem at all.



I'll write more later.James Dahl

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Re: Oromo genealogy

by Jilo on Tue Dec 01, 2009 5:45 am



I totally agree with you, that languages can change rapidly during an invasion. The Borana invasion of Northern Kenya is a nice example, of how Somali groups switched to speaking Borana within a short period of time. I would also agree that the strong Arab influence might have changed Somali language quite rapidly.



Nevertheless, I don't think we can attribute the major differences in language between Oromo and Somali to Arab influence. If the classification of the Eastern Cushitic languages is at all correct, the split is not between Oromo and Somali alone, but between Oromo and Omo-Tana. Omo-Tana includes the Rendille, the Boni, the El-Molo and the Dhassanach. All of these groups have had little if any Arab influence, yet their languages are closer to Somali than to Oromo. So I would assume that the major language shift that divides Oromo and Somali today was not due to Arab influence.



I would also say that of all the Somali dialects it is Standard (Northern) Somali that is most influenced by Arabic, whereas among all the Southern languages - Maay, Jiddo, Tonni, Garre, Dabarre - there is a lot less Arabic influence. Somalis would generally say these languages are closer to Oromo (because they don't have the harsh sounds of Standard Somali, for example), but linguists would say, they are closer to Rendille, Boni, etc., but still clearly within the Omo-Tana group of Eastern Cushitic.



If it is true that the El-Molo and Dhassanach along the Lake Turkana are linguistically closer to the Somalis than the Oromo, the split between these two language groups must have happened a long time ago to allow for all this (pre-Arabic) differentiation.Jilo



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Re: Oromo genealogy

by James Dahl on Thu Dec 03, 2009 6:32 pm



Most Oromo dialects have been heavily influenced as well, but by Amharic and Omotic languages rather than Arabic. The root language of both Somali and Oromo is what linguistic anthropologists refer to as "Proto East Cushitic". The influence of Omotic on Oromo is why Omotic languages are often times included in Cushitic but most linguists today dispute their relatedness due to other factors, and consider the Omotic languages to be their own family.



Omotic's original classification as Cushitic was, argued by Harold C. Fleming (1974) and M. Lionel Bender (1975), based on bad science, and proposed that the language be reclassified as it's own branch of Afroasiatic, while more recent work by Rolf Theil (2006) places Omotic outside of even Afroasiatic as an isolate language.



At the same time as Omotic has been steadily reclassified further from Cushitic, work has at the same time been showing that South Cushitic is actually a branch of Lowland East Cushitic. From wiki:

"Hetzron (1980:70ff) and Ehret (1995) have suggested that the Rift languages (South Cushitic) are a part of Lowland East Cushitic. Kießling & Mous (2003) have suggested more specifically that they be linked to a Southern Lowland branch, together with Oromo, Somali, and Yaaku-Dullay".





Baaq uu soo saaray af-hayeenka beelaha kuul carre

Daabaco
Print
Faafin: SomaliTalk.com: Wednesday, November 18, 2009 // 2 Jawaabood



Qoraallo La Xiriira

KU CIBRO QAADO CAYNABA!!{Mohamed Nuur Mooge(Somali6)

Shir Saxaafadeed Lagu Qabtay Magaaladda Minneapolis, MN oo lagu Cambaareeyey Falkii Foosha Xumaa ee Ka Dhacay Magaaladda Caynabo

Beesha Maxaad-Barre oo soo saartay Bayaan ay ku Cambaaraynayaan in…

QM oo Heshiiskii Is-Afgarad ee Badda (Somalia & Kenya) ka dhigay Waxba kama Jiraan....

Baaq uu soo saaray af-hayeenka beelaha kuul carre



Bismillaahi raxmnnaani raxiim.



Anigoo ah, af-hayeenka beelaha Kuul Carre mudane Maxamed Jaamac Cawil.



Waxaan ku wargelinayaa dhammaanba beelaha Kuul Carre, ee ku kala hoyda dunida hareereheeda



Inay u dyaargaroobaan sidii ay uga qayb gelilahaayeen shirweynaha, ka dhici doon magaalada Burco

Somaliland 20/1/2010.



shirkaasi oo beelweynta Habar Yoonis ku soo dhoweynayso walaalahooda Kuul Carre.



Waxaan beelaha Kuul Carre ku wergelinayaa inay dhowaanahan soo shaac baxeen, shakhsiyaad

Tira yar oo doonaya inay carqaladeeyaan, ama is hortaagaan shirweynaha ka dhici doona magaalada Burco ee gobolka togdheer Somaliland, ee ay hore ugu heshiiy een, guurtida iyo salaadiinta Beelweynta Habar Yoonis iyo cuqaasha iyo waxgaradka beelaha Kuul Carre.



Shakhsiyaadkaas oo caadaystay beenabuur, iska horkeen iyo xasard joogto ah, inay kula dhex wareegaan beelweynta Habar Yoonis iyo beelaha Kuul Carre oo isir walaaleeyey.



Isla markaana ku been abuurtay magacyada dad Kuul Carre ah,kuna sheegay qabiilk aanay isir ahaan ka soo jeedin. Iyo weliba dad aan beelaha Kuul Carre u dhalan Sida;



1.khadiija Cabdi

2.Xaliimo Cabdi Axmed.

Dadka lagu been abuurtay magacyadoodana sida qaldan loo isticmaalay, isla markaana la siiyey derejooyin iyo magac dhaqameedyo aanay lahayn raalina ka ahayn, sida, caaqil, Dr., nabad doon

Abwaan, sheikh, prof. iwm, magacyadoodu waa kuwa hoos ku taxan, iyagoo dacwad qaba’;

1, Maxamed Muuse Xayir Afjar

2,Axmed Mustafe Abdi Aw-Ali Siraad

3,Yuusuf Muuse Xayir

4,Dr. Ali Abdisalaan ALazhar

5,Yaassin Jama Adan

6,Bashiir Jama Adan

7.Xuseen Xaashi

8,Dr. Xasan Maxamed Cismaan

9,Ibrahim Xasan Yool

10.Dr. Xasan Ali Maxamed

11,caaqil Daahir Saalax

12,caaqil Maxamed Tarabi.



Haddaba kadib markaan samaynay baadhitaan aad u qotadheer, waxaa noo caddaatay oo aan xaqiiqsanay sida kor ku xusan in dadkaas magacyadooda lagu been abuurtay, isla markaana beelaha

Kuul Carre iyo beelweynta Habar Y oonis fidmo iyo fadqalalo ay kula dhex meeraysanayaan canaasirta u soo tafa xaytay inay dadkan is helay ee isir ahaan walaalaha ah kala dilaan.



Af-hayeenka beelaha Kuul Carre

Mudane Maxamed Jaamac Cawil

Phone 206 778 9512.



Waxaa soo tebiyey

Jama Guled

gulledd@yahoo.ca



Faafin: SomaliTalk.com // Halkudheg: madhibaan, maxaad-barre



________



Muran ka taagan beel ka mid ah kuwa la haybsooco oo la sheegay in ay u xuub siibatay beel kale



London, November 19, 2009 (WDN) - Waxaa isa soo taraya muran xooggan oo ka taagan beel Soomaaliyeed oo ka mid ah beelaha la haybsooco, oo la sheegay inay u digarogatay isir ahaan beel kale oo ka mid beelaha laan dheeranimada sheegta.

Beesha Maxaad Barre oo ka mid ah beelaha la haybsooco ee Madhibaan, ayaa lagu soo warramayaa in ay hadda u xuubsiibatay beesha Kuul Carre oo iyadu ka soo jeedda Habar Yoonis, Isaaq.



Suldaan Yuusuf Muxumed Xiiray oo ka mid ah Salaaddiinta magaalada Hargeysa oo la sheegay in uu isagu lafdhabar u yahay ololaha beesha Maxaad Barre ugu digaroganayso Habaryoonis oo hadda booqasho ku maraya dalka Biritayn, ayaa dhawaan ku baaqay in magaalada Burco lagu qabto shir ballaadhan oo lagu soo dhaweynayo beeshan ku soo biirtay jilibada Habaryoonis.



Warka ayaa waxa uu intaa ku darayaa in Salaaddiin, odayo iyo waxgarad kale oo ka tirsan beesha Maxaad Barre ay arrintaasi gaashaanka ku dhufteen, iyagoo islamarkaana ku tilmaamay wax aan loo dul qaadan karin oo been lagaga sheegayo Isirka beeshooda.



Qoraal dheer oo ay saxaafadda u kala direen oo ku socday salaaddiinta, odayada iyo waxgaradka beesha Habar Yoonis, ayay ku canbaareeyeen wax ay ugu yeedheen marin habaabinta lagu samaynayo abtirsiinyaha beesha Maxaad Barre ee Madhibaan.



“Annaga oo ah Odayaasha iyo Waxgaradka Beesha Maxaad Barre ee dagan Somaliland iyo Soomaaliyaba, waxaan halkan ku caddaynaynaa in aysan waxba ka jirin, arrimo beryahan lagu marin habaabinayo abtirsiinyaha beesha oo ay Yurub ka wadaan koox yar oo ka tirsan beeshayada iyo koox ka tirsan beesha Habar Yoonis”, ayay waxgaradkaasi ku sheegeen bayaankooda.



Salaaddiinta iyo waxgaradka beesha Maxaad Barre, ayaa waxay kaloo bayaankooda ku xuseen in kooxdan yari ay ku andacoodeen, in beesha Maxaad Barre ay tahay Kuul Carre, Habar Yoonis, arrintaasna aanay waxba ka jirin. “Arrimaha la yaabka leh ayaa ah in beel isirkeeda la yaqaan, oo qarniyaal soo jirtey in maanta la isku dayo in taariikda isirkeeda la khaldo, ayadoo laga faa’iidaysanayo dhibaatooyinka gaarka u haysta beesha iyo beelaha la midka ah, iyadoo dad kooban loo dirayo dhaqaale si loo jahawareeriyo sooyaalka taariikheed”, ayay salaaddiinta iyo waxgaradkaasi kale ku caddeeyeen bayaankooda.



Salaaddiinta iyo odayaasha Maxaad Barre ee bayaankan soo saaray, ayaa sidoo kale waxay sheegeen in ay xidhiidh la sameeyeen salaaddiin iyo waxgarad ka tirsan beesha Habar Yoonis. Kuwaas oo sheegay in wararka hadda la faafinayo aanay waxba ka jirin, laguna marin habaabinayo taariikhda iyo abtirka beesha Maxaad Barre, isla markaana aysan raalli ka ahayn. Waxa ay qireen cuqaashaasi sida bayaanka lagu sheegay in beesha Maxaad Barre aysan isir wada dhalasho la wadaagin beelaha Isaaq, gaar ahaan beesha Habar Yoonis.



Shir isna ka dhacay magaalada Nayroobi oo ay isugu yimaadeen mas’uuliyiin, siyaasiyiin iyo wax garad ka tirsan beesha Gabooye ee bariga Afrika ayay ku cambaareeyeen wax ay ugu yeedheen kala qaybinta ay salaaddiin ka tirsan Somaliland ku hayaan beesha Gabooye. Waxa isna lagu taageeray bayaanka salaaddiinta qaoraallo ay warbaahinta u gudbiyeen qaar ka mid ah madax dhaqameedka beelaha kale ee Gabooye



Dhanka kale bayaan uu soo saaray Maxamed Jaamc Cawil oo isagu isku tilmaamay afhayeenka beesha Kuul Carre ee Habar Yoonis, ayaa waxa uu ugu baaqay dhammaan xubnaha beesha ee ku kala nool dunida dacaladdeedu in ay u diyaar garoobaan ka soo qaybgalka shirweynaha dhawaan la filayo in uu ka dhaco magaalada Burco, ee xarunta gobolka Tog Dheer ee beesha Habar yoonis ku soo dhawaynayso walaalahooda Kuul Carre.



“Waxaan beelaha Kuul Carre ku wergelinayaa inay dhowaanahan soo shaac baxeen, shakhsiyaad tira yar oo doonaya inay carqaladeeyaan, ama is hortaagaan shirweynaha ka dhici doona magaalada Burco ee gobolka Togdheer ee Somaliland, ee ay hore ugu heshiiyeen, guurtida iyo salaadiinta Beelweynta Habar Yoonis iyo cuqaasha iyo waxgaradka beelaha Kuul Carre”, ayuu afhayeenku ku sheegay qoraalkiisa.



Warku waxa uu intaa ku darayaa in sidoo kale ay qurbajoog badan oo ka tirsan beesha Habar Yoonis ay taageereen, soona dhaweeyeen shirka lagu soo dhawaynayo beesha Kuul Carre oo la filayo in uu ka dhaco magaalada Burco 20 ka bisha January ee sannadka foodda innagu soo haya.



Beelaha la hayb sooco oo aalaaba ay Soomaalida inteeda kale ku hayaan dulmi iyo xaqiraad, ayaa taasi waxay ku keentaa in shakhsiyaad ka mid ahi, si ay uga badbaadaan bahdilka iyo quudhsiga ay mararka qaar sheegtaan beelo kale. Hase yeeshee waa markii ugu horreysay ee beel dhan oo ah kuwa la hayb sooco ay u xuub siibato beel kale, loona qabanqaabiyo shirweyne soo dhawayn ah.



Aqoonyahan deggen magaalada London oo ay WardheerNews arrintan wax ka weydiisay ayaa sheegay in beelaha la hayb soocaa aanay u baahnayn in la isir gediyo, balse ay mudan yihiin in laga daayo dulmiga iyo quudhsiga, loona arko in ay la mid yihiin beelaha kale ee Soomaaliyeed, loona ogolaado in ay xidhiidh is dhexgal iyo xididtinimo la yeeshaan beelaha kale siiba dhinaca guurka.



Wararka gobolada Somaliland oo waayadan dambe ay aad ugu badnaayeen beel ka soo digarogatay xisbi siyasaadeed oo ku biirtay mid kale iyo xaflado lagu soo dhaweeynayo, ayaa la isweydiin karaa in xaalku hadda wixii ka dambeeya isku bedeli karo beel ka soo digarogatay beel kale, kuna soo biirtay mid kale oo xaflad lagu soo dhaweeyay.



WardheerNews







Muqdisho 2011/2012 QURUXDA DOWLADNIMADA

Western Somali Somali Galbeed War With Ethiopia





Ethiopia's war with Somalia in 1968-1970




In 1968 our calender Somalia invaded Ethiopia, because, Somalia was well prepared for 18 years and had modern weapons. And had 70,000 solders.
in contrast, Ethiopia had 40,000 solders poorly equipped and unprepared to a large scale war. Also, Ethiopia was in the grip of internal conflict ; in addition, in the north west ,Sudan militarily started to attack Ethiopian garrison towns , also there was a strong rebel movements in the Sahel Eritrea, Begemder and Tigray regions . All these stretched Ethiopia's army beyond its capacity. thus, the condition was ideal for Somalia's plan.

In 1967- to the -middle of 1968 Somali's invading army took several cities across vast area of Ogaden region. in the late 1968 Ethiopia's army by paying ultimate price manged to stop the advancing Somali, therefore, for the following 6 months the war was in stall-mate. This bought time for Ethiopia and by 1969 the Durge government manged to raise the number of solder to 300,000 strong. At this time a massive Russian military aid, 15,000 Cuban solders and few hundred south Yemeni solders came to Ethiopia's aid.

In Somali's side the united state government massively supplied ammunition and military equipments. Egypt sent military advisers , used experts in military intelligence gathering , military related equipments and firing weapons to Somali . China also sided with Somalia and supplied weapons and materials.

15,000 Cuban solders , Russian advisers and Yemenis played significant role for which we are grateful. Let us say, if no solders arrived from Cuba , Yemeni and if no adviser came from USSR would that mean Ethiopia would have lost the war completely and permanently as one of a speaker seems to suggest in this video? i don't think, because the arrival of modern weapons from USSR was though crucial or the missing element, zeal of the gallant Ethiopians for whom ethiopia is a holy land worth fighting to the last man, it is this mind set that turned out to be as crucial as the ammonations.

Baed on the out come of the war Somalia learnt that it miscalculated the whole thing. But there is irony here. The irony is that the victory Derge had achieved in Somalia made it to miscalculate in its own part about the war in the north, which was totally different from the east. the war in the north is gorilla not conventional, the train is not low land but impenetrable mountains region, above all,the war in north required more of political wisdom than military might.

The out come of the war in the north brought another irony.The other irony is that Shabi or the government of Eritrea miscalculated its ability and inveded Ethiopia. Shabia thinks that it had managed to achieve its goal because of its military brilliancy and undying fighting zeal. As a result, it felt unstoppable and invaded the northern tip of Ethiopia. As it turned out , Ethiopians were not only able to recaptured what had been captured by shabia, but the Ethiopians were able to advance as close as 90 kilo meter to Eritrea's capital. Had it not been a sudden oppression stop order by the government of Melese Zenawi, Ethiopian army would have travelled the 90 kilometres and capture the capital city.

Of course one can argue that Eritreans would have fought back and prevent that from taking place. but we should not forget that at that time Eritreans army was in the loosing side and Ethiopia's advancement was swift. This is because, now shabia fights conventional not gorilla, now it has defined space not suspected area, now it can not be illusive as it used to be, now its responsibility is not only fighting but providing all services and running the day to day civilian activity. All these are burden that it did never had. As a result, shabia lost what it captuerd' hence, it miscalculated.

Inside Freemasonry Secret Society P2 PROPAGANDA DUE





An unique and intimate interview with a few Freemasons who discuss the Lodge from the inside. As well as viewpoints from Prince Hall Freemasons.








In the Middle Ages, a secret society lay behind many events which shaped the course of history.


The first name of that society was 'The Knights Templars.'

Initially founded as a Crusader order which vowed to fight for Christianity, they gradually became caught up in perverted teachings and became entirely divorced from Christianity.

The members of the order became consumed by their worldly interests and ambitions and forgot God and His religion.

Using their military strength and political connections they acquired vast fortunes.

To such an extent, in fact, that in the Middle Ages they achieved greater material power and wealth than the Church and the states of Europe.

Thanks to that great power, the Templars became capable of imposing their will on rulers and the Church authorities.

They acquired a great many privileges and immunities.

They were behind all forms of corruption and wickedness.

They performed perverted and degenerate ceremonies and rituals.

For all these reasons, they were eventually arrested, tried and banned.

Yet they still continued to organise underground. A while later, they re-emerged under a different name: the Freemasons.

In this film we shall be examining the true origin of Freemasonry, in other words the Knights Templars, which had been kept secret for hundreds of years.

To date, a great deal has been said about the Knights Templars, and a great many books written about their activities.

Who were these Templars? Where did they come from? What were their aims?

How did they turn into Freemasonry?

How did they manage to continue their activities, carried out so silently and secretly, right up to the present day?

We need to seek the answers to all these questions in the pages of history.

And that history goes back a long, long way, right back to the time of the Crusades.



THE CRUSADES

When the Muslims entered Jerusalem in 637 AD, they brought with them peace and plenty.

That peaceful environment, however, was destroyed by the invaders who entered the region at the end of the 11th century.

These were the Crusaders.

The wealth and prosperity of the East had for long attracted Christians.

Heading these was the Pope, Urban II. The Pope made an announcement at the Council of Clermont, which convened under his leadership.

He claimed that holy sites in the east had been disrespected and that Christian pilgrims had been assaulted. He called all of Europe to wage war under a single banner.

The fact is however, that these claims were a complete violation of the truth. The Christians of the Middle East were living in freedom and toleration, and were fully able to practice their beliefs.

In fact, the pretext for war was merely an excuse. Both the Pope and those who heeded his call actually had very different expectations from the war.

The historian Donald Queller describes this in these terms:

The French knights wanted more land. Italian merchants hoped to expand trade in Middle Eastern ports. . . Large numbers of poor people joined the expeditions simply to escape the hardships of their normal lives. (World Book Encyclopedia, "Crusades," Contributor: Donald E. Queller, 1998.)

In order to increase the effect of his words, the Pope also told the lie that the sins of all those who joined in the war would be forgiven.

His words served their purpose. Caught up in a wave of fervour, his listeners emblazoned their garments with the fabric crosses distributed to them.

Within a very short space of time, that call had an extraordinary effect all over Europe.

A large army was formed.

These people, who called themselves the Crusaders, looted a great many places on their journey and finally met up in Constantinople.

The Crusaders then began moving through Anatolia. After putting the Muslims whose gold and jewels they dreamed of finding to the sword and pillaging their cities they reached Jerusalem, where the Crusaders' savagery continued.

They slaughtered all the Muslims and Jews in the city, sparing neither women nor children.

In his book The Monks of War, the researcher Desmond Seward describes that savagery thus:

Jerusalem was stormed in July 1099. ... The entire population of the Holy City was put to the sword, Jews as well as Moslems, 70,000 men, women and children perished in a holocaust, which raged for three days. In places men waded in blood up to their ankles and horsemen were splashed by it as they rode through the streets. (Desmond Seward, The Monks of War, Penguin Books, London, 1972.)

After capturing Jerusalem, the Crusaders made it their own capital, establishing a Latin Empire the borders of which stretched from Palestine to Antioch.

They needed to organise if the state they had founded were to survive.

To that end they set up military orders.

The members of these orders lived a monastic life on the one hand, and were trained to wage war against Muslims on the other.

One of these orders were the Templars.


The Knights Templars and freemasonry (Harun Yahya)










"... a former Masonic lodge known as Propaganda Due, or P2, a lodge originally formed by the Italian Grand Orient as a lodge of research. In 1975 an Italian fascist named Licio Gelli was made the Venerable Grand Master of P2 ..."




"Then, in 1977, [Michele] Sindona brought in Roberto Calvi, head of the Banco Ambrosiano in Milan, which was closely associated with the papal bank, one of its major shareholders."



"After Calvi was in with Gelli and Sindona, the Banco Ambrosiano helped to set up foreign shell companies, including ten in Panama, which were controlled by the papal bank."



(Robinson, John J. Born In Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry. New York: M. Evans and Company, 1989, pg. 314)



Banco Ambrosiano was an Italian bank which collapsed in 1982. At the centre of the bank's failure was its chairman, Roberto Calvi and his membership in the illegal masonic lodge Propaganda Due. Vatican Bank was Banco Ambrosiano's main shareholder, and the death of Pope John Paul I in 1978 is rumoured to be linked to the Ambrosiano scandal, giving one of the subplots of The Godfather Part III. Vatican Bank was also accused of funneling covert United States funds to Solidarity and the Contras through Banco Ambrosiano.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banco_Ambrosiano



PROPAGANDA DUE, or P2 MASONIC LODGE:

Propaganda Due, or P2, was a Masonic lodge operating under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient of Italy from 1945 to 1976 (when its charter was withdrawn), and a pseudo-Masonic or "black" or "covert" lodge operating illegally (in contravention of Italian constitutional laws banning secret lodges, and membership of government officials in secret membership organizations) from 1976 to 1981. During the years that the lodge was headed by Licio Gelli, P2 was implicated in numerous Italian crimes and mysteries, including the nationwide bribe scandal Tangentopoli, the collapse of the Vatican-affiliated Banco Ambrosiano, and the murders of journalist Mino Pecorelli and banker Roberto Calvi.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propaganda_Due



ROBERTO CALVI:

Roberto Calvi (13 April 1920 17 June 1982) was an Italian banker dubbed "God's Banker" by the press due to his close association with the Vatican. A native of Milan, Calvi was the chairman of Banco Ambrosiano which collapsed in one of modern Italy's biggest political scandals, and his death in London in June 1982 has been the source of enduring controversy. Calvi's death was ruled as murder after two coroner's inquests and an independent investigation, and, in June 2007, five people were acquitted of his murder after a trial in Rome.



Claims have been made that Calvi's death involved the Vatican Bank (Banco Ambrosiano's main shareholder), the Mafia (which may have used Banco Ambrosiano for money laundering), and the Propaganda Due or P2 masonic lodge.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roberto_Calvi



LICIO GELLI:

Licio Gelli (born April 21, 1919) is an Italian financier, chiefly known for his role in the Banco Ambrosiano scandal. He was revealed in 1981 as being the Venerable Master of the clandestine Masonic lodge Propaganda Due (P2).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Licio_Gelli



MORE INFO:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/19/newsid_3092000/30926...

http://www.freemasonrywatch.org/calvi_fourcharged.html

http://wikicompany.org/wiki/911:Financial_scandals









Wie gefährlich Geheimbünde sein können, die ein enormes Machtpotential vereinen, zeigt uns ein Blick nach Italien. Es begann 1877:


Giuseppe Mazzoni, Großmeister des Großorients von Italien, gründete in Rom die Propaganda Massonica Loggia. Das Ziel dieser Loge: Die größten Geister des Landes in einer eigenen Bauhütte (Synonym für Freimaurerloge) zu vereinen. Mitglieder wurden bedeutende Politiker, Dichter und Gelehrte:

Aurelio Saffi, Giosue Carducci, Francesco Crispi, Agostino Bertani, Nicola Fabrizi, Giuseppe Zanardelli, Giovanni Bovio, Quirico Filopanti, Giuseppe Ceneri, Oreste Regnoli, Luigi Orlando, Francesco Magni, Gaetano Tacconi, Giacomo Sani, Emilio Cipriani, Pietro Ripari, Eugenio Chiesa u.a. Nur der normale Bürger hatte keinen Zutritt. Giuseppe Mazzonis starb im Jahre 1880.

Die Loge wurde mit gleichem Ziel, der Aquisition von einflussreichen Leuten , 1887 unter dem Namen Propaganda Due (P2) neu gegründet. Sie sollte das maurerische Gegenstück zur römischen Kurienkongregation Propaganda Fide bilden. 1944 ging sie angesichts des Faschismus unter und wurde nach 1944 neu begründet.




 
 

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