Wednesday, January 13, 2010

Ancient Somali Dir Clans Constitution: Xeerkii iyo Xeerbeegti

Xeer Beegtida: Xeerka Dir Aji Ama Xeer Aji
Aragtida Direed
Dadku waa xayawan hadeysan xeer leheyn, waa sifidaa kala saarta habar dugaga iyo insaanka
  • Xeerbeegtida garta wexey u kala saaraan:Curad - gar horey loo xaliyay oo akhyaartu kasto iyo mid lama arag ah oo ay Ugub u yeeraan. Precedence or novel.

  • Xeer Alleh oo Suuru ay u yaqanaan Garta Illah oo Shareeco da ah Quran iyo Hadiith, Khabiirkuna loo yaqaan Fiqi ama xaakim diinta iyo shareecada kabiir ah. Gar Odey Ama Gar Xeer beegti waa kuwa xeerka aji ga yaqaan Xeer Somaliga -oo si miisaman u gar naqa- beeg waa miisan ama waxlax laqu qiyaso oo cabirta garta.

  • "weelasha lagu missaamo hadhuudka waatan dhahno waxa baa lagu beegaa. Heer kul beege- therometer garta beega ama misaama

  • Garsoore- kadibna garta sidey tahay u kala soora- siismo sida cuntata. Xaq soore ama mid Garta soora.

  • Garaad: waa kalmad ay beelahan hada madaxa qaaday ee xukun iyo darajada jecel sida daroodka ayaad ku arki . Laba dhulbahante ah oo isku disha anigu garaad baan ahay iyo garaad anaa kaa sareeya is dili jiray ayaan habeen dhan ka dhadhicin kari waajay macanaha Dirkii hore magacaan u lahaa.

  • Gar-aad wuxuu ahaa beelo markey is qabtan ninka garta u aadi jiray kalana saari jiray beeshisa iyo ta kale. Shaqo culus oo laga kala cararo ayay aheyd waayo gar-aadah Direed in uu Garta si sax ah u sooro oo hadii laga leyahay iyo hadii kaleba runt ka hadla.

  • Waatii Dirkii hore oran jireen Gar-waaqso kas garta Alleh.

  • Garta Alleh iyo Garta Odey ama Sida Madoobe Dir dhahaan Xeer Alleh iyo Xeer Oday. Waa kala saarida shareecad Ilaahey ee Quranka iyo Samaha aan ka dhaxalnay abkii hore, waa xeerka ajiye.

Barax- waa marka leysku milo ama dhafo Garta Alleh ( Shareecada iyo Quraanka) iyo Xeerkii hore Garta Odeyga. Suulux ( Sulxin) ayay Fiqiyadu ama imaamada isku dayi jiree oo ah in Xeerka Odayaasha iyo xeerka Alleh la is waafajiyo, oo xeer Somaliga la hoos keeno Islamka, lagana jaro wixii Islaama reebo intii la Barxin lahaa. Baraxa waa marka xeerka odeyga oo lid ku ah xeerka Alle la is dhinac eryo labadoo isla hor imanaya. Fiqiyada Suure ee muduug 1700 kii waxaa ay istacmali jireen Suluxin ama sulux oo ah qalooci xeer odeyga ilaa ka Alleh uu aqbalo, hadii oo ka hor imaneena daa oo hir gali.

1700-1800 intii u dhexeysay Fiqiyada Surre ee konfurta ayaa wexey ku caayi jireen dhaqanka Somalida Barax (Badhax) mid qasan oo ka kooban Shareeco iyo cadadii hore, ikuna dayi Jireen in ay nadiifiyaan, sida hada ay Maxakiimta iyo Wadaadada cusub ee Somalia.

Xeerka Aji Dir

Qarnigii 800 xeerka guud ee Dir ee somali oo dhan qadatay ee Xeer Aji la yirahdo ayaa Sameysmay. Beelaha weey badaleen ama gobol walba naqtiin iyo dib u habeen ayuu ku sameeyay Xeerka Aji.

Xeer Bimaal 1400

Xeerka Isaaq 1300

Ciise iyo Gadabuurisi oo isu xeer dhaw waxa ay dib u habeyntii ugu dambeyay Sameeyeen 1500 Dhicidii Awdal / Ifat State ama Boqortoyadii Gurey markii ay dhacday. Xeer Ciisah1560 kii waxaa lagu sameyay Aiysha oo 360 odey ay u fadhiyeen 12 bilood.

Surra Dir xeer ayay sameeysteen oo dib loo habeyay 1700.

Xeerka Sameyntiisa

Inta badan odeyaal badan ayaa fariista xiliyada isbadallada dhacaan ama dagaalada oo wexey ka wada hadlaan arrimahan

Xeerka Guud

  1. Xilo -Guurka
  2. dhaqasho- reerka
  3. Deegan
  4. Xoolo
  5. Maamuus Hospitality
  6. Maslaxaada Guud ee bulshada maxay tahay sideena loo sharciyeeya, si uunsan nin walba salaada ugu tukan dhankuu doono.

Si ay Xeer Guud u dajiyaa, waxyaabah sameeya bulshada iyo dismaha bulshada, dhaqaanka. Xeerka Guud = Civil Law- Xeer guud regulates day to day living and guides all social interrelations.

Xeerka guud waa sharci saameeya bulsho weyn oo haga una tilmaama sida suuban ee loo wada noolado.

Xeer Gaar- waa marka qeyb yar ama gaar ah oo bulshada ka mida ay soo food saaran dhibatoying aan kuwa kale haysan oo odayashooda ay si gaar ah u sameystaan Xeer Gaar ah oo aysan bulshada inteeda kale lehey. Beelah Zaila ama Barbara markii ay ka sameysmeen ganacsato waaweyn oo noloshoodu ku dhisantahay ganacsi iyo mayacmushtar oo ay ka soo bexeen xoola dhaqatadii xeer gaar nidaamiya ganacsiga oo xeer xoolo dhaqatadu u sameeyan ayay sameeysteen. Sidoo kale Dirka Koonfurta oo beero lahan jirin markaa ay yimaadeen Jubbada hoose waxa ay sameysteen Xeer Gaar kuwood beeraleyda noqday.

Xissi - xeer aasaasi ah oo tarikhiyaan soo jireen ahaa oo an lagaba doodi karin, leyskuna raacsan yahay kor iyo hoos bulshadoo idil.

6) Dhiiga Criminal law

  • Dilka - Qudha
  • Qoon-
  • Tuugo
  • Dhaca
  • Magta ama Diyada
  • Xalinta Aano- marka dil dhaco, oo kooxdii laga dilay la mag dhabin, kooxdii laga dilayna aarsi iyo caradooda laga baqayo
  • Magtu waa imisa, sideese tolku u geybsan doonaa, Jufo, jilib, reer iyo wixii la mida
  • Magta inta isla bixisa waa koox siyasadeed oo wada duula wadana aarsada, intee Diyada isla bixisa Diya- Paying Group.
  • Qofka dila yaa loo raacanayaa, oo jilibkee ka midyahay

Xeerka Guud wuxuu mar walba eegi jiray dhibaatooyinka soo noq noq da ee Somalidu isku qab qab sadaan, sida dhulka, markuu dhaco dil, boobka xoolaha, iyo aano, qoon, ilaa aflagaado.

Gar Dhaw- waa marka laba kooxood ama ruux oo is haysta xaalkooda xeer beegti la dhex keeno oo laga doodo oo loo gar naqo iyadoo la raadinayo eedeysane iyo mid laga gar daran yahay si loo xukumo. Geer beegti, garsoore, iyo qareen ayaa garta meel mariyaa.

Dhaqashada somalida waxa ay isku dayi jireen oo cado ka dhigeen Dumaal, si hadii nin dhinto walalkii ama ehelkii mid aad ugu dhaw loo dhiso gabadhuu ka tagay si reerkii ay caruurtey dhashay uga bixin oo nin shisheeyo oo laga baqayo inuu xumeeyo caruurta uu san dhalin asagu. Hadii nin gabadh ka dhimato oo ay caruur ka tagto, ninka waxaa loo dhisi jiray walaasheed oo caruurtii hore habaryar u ah oo leysleeyahay weey u tudhi doontaa oo waxaba ka garan meeyso Somalidu cadadan Xigsiin ayay dhih jireen

Godobtir waxaa loogu tala gali jiray hadii nin geeysto dil fool xun reerka laga dilay ninka xoolo iyo gabadh ka dhalatay reerka wax dilay ayaa laykugu dari jiray si dhiigu u joogsado

  • Qareen waa kalmad 1400 sano ka hor ay isticmaali jireen Garaadayasha ama xeerbegtida kuwa difaaca edysan ama la eedeyaha.

" Mahamaah: Misko la koro miskiin baa leh, " ayay somalidu tidhi, ayagoo u jeeda qofku hadii uu tabar daran yahay wax taageero ah na haysan yaa difaacaaya.

Ajidii hore waxa ay ogaadeen xaq daro fara badan in ay ka soo foofto kuwa bulshada ugu awood sareeya iyadoo dhibo fara badan gaarsiisa ka awooda badan leheyn. Dadka noocan ah ee daciifka ah yaa difaacaya ?

Dirka, konfurta waxa ay sheegan odeyga Direed wiilkiisa Maahe Dir in uu arinkaan ka gubtay, kadib markii uu arkay in mar walba ay dulmanayaasha yihiin kuwa ugu xooga yar Somalida. Waxaa uu ku jawaabay maadama Weyn, Abuurah iyo uumah ifka uu xaq soorah runta ah yahay oo uu si un ugu aaro ka daciifka ah ee uu isagu uunto. Waxaa la yiri muddo dhoor iyo toban sano kadib ayuu soo kacay aroor oo uu yiri, " Nabsi ayuu weynuhu adeegasadaa", oo si uun baa loo ciqaaba kii tabar yarah Dhib. Waxaa la yiri, gabey iyo guubabo ayuu ku fidiyay fikradaan Nabsiga. I uu Illahey si toos ah oon lex lexad leheyn uu ugu aaro adoontiisa tabarta yar. Waa " Waa waxa la dhihi karo " instant Divine Retribution" ciqaa xaga illahey uga timaada kuwa dhiba masaakinta, tabar ta yar. Mahe Dir wuxuu wiilkiisi curad ka ahaa u baxshay Xiniftire- ama mid isku tax luujiyo inuu la dagaalamo xanuunka xaq darada la xiriira, Xinif-Tire (Xanuunkaa bi'iye) sida dadka waa weyn siiba Habraha madhaleyka, ruux kasta oon tabar iyo xeelad uu isku difaac leheyn, dadka laga tiro badan yahay, Kuwa safarka ah, agoonta, iyo kuwa maskaxda looga jiro ( Waalan ama Maraanka ah)

Waa Dhab: Misko la koro miskiin baa leh.

  1. Maanta Soomaliya wexey la gubaneysaa oo la holceysaa kuwooda tabarta leh wexey bah dilaan oo gumeystaan kuwooda tabarta yar.
  2. Maseyrka ka haysta iyo kaan heysan waxaa ka dhashay dad in ay lugaha isugu dhuftaan tol iyo qaraabo mid walba oo iswada xasda. Isu ogaleen nimacada Illahey ee cidwalba deeqda.

Nin oo Diraa, hada ka hor wuxuu ku sifeyn jiray Somalida jirta Samankan Cayayaan, Xasharaad, iyo wax lamida maalin ayaan ku dhahay, " adeer maxaa u dhadaa Somalidu waa cayayan", ?

Wuxuu yiri: Somalidii hore ee Aji dad san oo hagaagsan ayay ahayeen, waan saabata ilaahey ugu baxshay " Samaale" Kuwii samada lahaa. Samaalahana waxaa ugu fiicnaa Dir Aji oo waa ninka alifay kalgacalka, Sinaanta, iyo in si wad jir ah oo san in ay u wada nooladaan. Laakin waxaa Dhacday Dir Aji waxaa ku qasmay cayayan iyo xasharaad fara badan, dunta hoosena waa ka xumaadeen oo xeerkii iyo hidih Dir Aji uu ku faafiyay Geesta afrika waa baa ba;ay.

Xaq Darada iyo Waalida Somalia Xageey Ka Timaada ?

Wareysi Gaaban, Xirsi Dhag Dheer ( odey direed)

Marka maanta Somalidu waa Xasharaad, Cayayaan ah, waliba wexey aad isugu dhaw yihiin maanta Baran Barada. Maxaa yeelay baran barada waa cayaan xasida, hadii afar baran baro ay ku dhacaan baaldi biya, oo midi ka baxdo, iyadoo dareemayalka ku xajisaneysa girgirka baaldigan biyaha ay ku wada hafanayaa, saddexda baran baro ee kale ayaa lugta jiideysa oo baldiga ku soo celineysa. Bal dhageeyso akbaarah iyo shirka ay dadkan Somalida isugu yimadaa, kalmada cayayaan ayaad kala yaq yaq sooneyeysaa oo Xasharadka ku qabaneysa in aad xaal siiso.

Adeer Dirta Mudug ka waran iyaguna ma xasharaadbaa, wuxuu yiri , " iyagaa ugu liita Somalida saa dadkaad ogtahay ee Diigya cabka ah ayeey ku dhex nool yihiine. Yaa Diigya Caba ? Reer Muduga bal fiiri Somaalida, meel walba umadaa Dhiig baa ka shubmaya, Hargeysa dhiig baa laga shubay, Boorame Dhiig baa laga shubay, Baydhabo Dhiig baa ka socda, Balad weyn Xawaadle hadaad u tagto dhiig baa ka socda, Kismayo, Dira Dhabe, Xamar ilaa Zeylac. Meel walbana reer mudug ayaa shubay dhiiga. War Cayayanka gurigiisa waa dhexda Mudug ?

Adeer marka adiga, Dir baad tahay, Hooyadaa waa reer mudug, abaahaa waa reer mudug, marka ?

Cayayaan maa tahay ? Haa adeer, " Cayayaan, Cayayaan Dhalay baan ahay, saa reer mudug iska dhalan ahaye!!

Somalia waa dageeysaa hadii darbi adag oo kii " China wall Ka " oo kale ah lagu xeero Boosaaso ilaa inta u dhexeysa adiga Xaradheere aan dhehee. War Waligaa ma aragtay nin Isaaq ama Gadabuursi ah ama Raxanweyn ah ama umadah goboldaa kale oo taagan Xuddur ama Beledweeyn oo leh anigaa leh magaalada. Ma arkeysid, adbadan, abidkeed lama maglayo. Hadda fiiri Kismaayo yaa isku haysta, waa reer mudug ama Darood ha noqdo, ama Hawiye ama Dir ama Leykasa ama Sheikhaal waa Cayayaan ka yimid Mudug, Fiir Hargeysa oo 1000 sano nabad eheyd iyo Baydhabo waxaa geeyay wareer iyo is doox reer mudug. Yuu ahaa Siyaad bare, Caydiid, Ali Mahdi, Morgan, Cabdulahi Yusuf, Bare Hiirale, Indho Cade, Dahir aweys , iyo muxuu ahaa canugii yaraa ee uu dhadka ku dalban Jiray Cayrow ?

Waa Mudug, meeshaas waa xero jinni . Waxaan maqlayay meesha Uranium ayaa ku jira, curiyahan Uranium kana biya ceelasha Mudug ayuu ku milmay, marka wixii xaga ka yimaada waa wada xiiqsan yihiin, madaxooda waxaa ka guuxaya shucaac koronto oo Radiation leh. Doofartan Somalia la dhohana ma caga dhiganeyso

THE ISAAQ DIR CLAN OF SOMALIA: WHY ISSAQ IS DIR






http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/bsvec1_unhcr2000.pdf
SEE UNITED NATIONS SOMALI GENENEOLOGICAL CHART SHOWING DIR (SOMALI CLANS)ABOVE LINK

This paper is a response to a paper circulated on the net called "Somaliland protests being called Northern Dir" as a Dir man and a Somalilander I would like to set the record straight and correct the author of this paper. This is the body of the E- mail I sent him.


SHEIKH ISAAQ BIN AHMED (MOHAMMED) HINIFTIRE

Geneology of Isaaq:

Sheikh Isaaq was the eldest son of Mohammed or Ahmed which is the same name since the holy prophet of Islam Mohammed was also Ahmed (SAW). Sheikh Isaaq was the eldest son of Sheikh Mohammed Xiniftire Mahe Dir. The Isaaq clan are directly related to the Bimaal , Baajimaal, Quranyow Mohammed Xinifter ( a branch of the Garre of NFD and Ethiopia) and Dabruube clans who directly descend from Dir through the line of Mahe Dir.
Isaaq Suclans
Sheikh Isaaq married one wife and had four sons with Magaado and an had four more sons with an Absyssinian Ethiopian wife Habar Habuush
Habar Magaadle
  1. Arap

  2. Awal (Abdulraxman)

  3. Garxajis ( Habar Yonis and Cidagale)

  4. Ayuub
Habar Habuush
  1. Muse

  2. Toljalo

  3. Ibran

  4. Sanbuura
Isaaq and their relationships to Southern Dir

The Mahe Dir clans and the Isaaq when in Southern Somalia act as such and many Isaaq pay the Diya ( Mag) with the above clans and they receive direct protection as cousins. Moreover, when the SNM came into existence it found most of its non-Isaaq support first from the Southern Xinifter Mahe Dir clans like Biymaal subclan Gadsan and also the non Xiniftire clans who are Mahe or other Dir groups. As a matter of fact, the Mahe Dir clans adopted in 1991 the Isaaq founded movement's name SNM adding just Southern. The Southern Somali National Movement (SSNM) was the leading Southern Dir political movement. Later the Isaaq led SNM whose chairman was Abdirahman Tuur (Habar Yonis) and the SSNM led by Abdi Warsame Isaaq of the Bimaal Gadsan Mohammed Xinifter merged with General Aideed's SNA Somali national Allience along with Omar Jess an Ogadeen general.
Somalis Universally View Isaaq as Dir
The Somalis universally consider the Isaaq as Dir and they Isaaq identifies themselves as such when in Southern Somalia. When the Barre goverment collapsed in 1990, most Southern Dir were seen in Mogadisho diffrent areas rescuing fleeing Isaaq and those who remained were protected by Dir millitias even without the asking of the Isaaq. Western scholars of Somalia all acknowledged that the Isaaq were Dir ; however, most cited that the Isaaq following the led of the Darood adopted a fictious Arab geneology.
Citation: What Western Scholars Say about
All the major clans Somalis including the Dir, Hawiye and Rahaweyn in the past emphasized their Quraish pedigree by claiming direct descent from Aqiil Ibnu Abu Taalib whom they claim arrived with Ja'far Ibnu Abu Taalib in the first Hijra 615 A.D, the Dir claim that seven years after this contact one Aqiil Ibn Abu Talib returned to the Horn of Africa and fathered Hiil Samaale the founding father of all Somali clans.
For some odd reason baised western scholors exaggerated the Darood, Isaaq, Sheeikhal and Ajuuran clans of Somalia while ignoring the older and similar claims of the older Somali clans like the Rahanweyn and Dir-Hawiye.
I.M Lewis's books on Somalia all acknowledge the Isaaq's Dirness and he even draws the charts showing that Isaaq are direct lineal descendents of the Dir clan.
Moreover I M Lewis wrote, " All Somali pride in their purported Arab ancestory", and this include the Hawiye and Rahanweyn, even though he notes the recent increase of this claim amoung the Darood, Sheikha, and Ajuuran Hawiye clan.
I.M Lewis
I M Lewis states, "all Somalis regard the Isaaq as lineal descendents of Dir" and he notes their recent development of ,"independent agnatic descent from Arabia. (P-142, Nomadic Democracy)
I.M Lewis states, " strictly speaking the Isaaq are derived from the Dir, who together with the Hawiye are linked as "Irir" at a higher level of genelogical grouping." In his book, Understanding Somali and Somaliland Society : Culture History and Society-Ioan M Lewis P- 4
Invention Of Somalia Chart
http://books.google.com/books?id=XpdAzRYruCwC&lpg=PA134&dq=somali%20Dir%20aji%20irir&pg=PA134#v=onepage&q=somali%20Dir%20aji%20irir&f=false


Richard Burton
In his book, The first Foot Steps 1846 wrote, " the Isaaq, Gadabuuris, Barsuuk, and Issas of Somalia are all of Dir origin. He spells Dir as "Dur or Tir".Richard Burton,wrote:
The old and pagan genealogies still known to the Somal, are Dirr, Aydur, Darud, and, according to some, Hawiyah. Dirr and Aydur, of whom nothing is certainly known but the name10, are the progenitors of the northern Somal, the Eesa, Gudabirsi, Ishak, and Bursuk tribes. Darud Jabarti 11 bin Ismail bin Akil (or Ukayl) is supposed by his descendants to have been a noble Arab from El Hejaz, who, obliged to flee his country, was wrecked on the north-east coast of Africa, where he married a daughter of the Hawiyah tribe: rival races declare him to have been a Galla slave, who, stealing the Prophet’s slippers12, was dismissed with the words, Inna-tarad-na-hu (verily we have rejected him): hence his name Tarud ([Arabic]) or Darud, the Rejected.13 The etymological part of the story is, doubtless, fabulous; it expresses, however, the popular belief that the founder of the eastward or windward tribes, now extending over the seaboard from Bunder Jedid to Ras Hafun, and southward from the sea to the Webbes14, was a man of ignoble origin.


Journal of African history: Volume 3,Roland Anthony Oliver, J. D. Fage - 1962 "Thus while the Isaaq regard themselves as a separate clan-family tracing their agnatic origins directly to Arabia and only acknowledge a connexion by marriage with the Dir, other Somali regard them as of full Dir affiliation"

Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: He-N - Page 194 ,Siegbert Uhlig - 2007 - 1211 pages writes," Isaaq /*Dir) is one of the most important / Somali clans and is formed by the /'Habar Awal - Sacad Muuse (Sacad Muuse) and cIisa Muuse (Ciisa Muuse) ... contin Garxajis and Arap

The invention of Somalia - Page 251 Ali Jimale Ahmed - 1995 - 265 pages -
intangible culture, the emergence of the Darood and the Isaaq seems quite clearly to have gone along with a shift in religious belief. The Darood and Isaaq differentiated themselves from their historical Dir ancestry by each claiming an Arab ancestary"...

In the classical poem Guba the Isaaq are Identified as Dir and their poet states:
In Gube a Dhulbahante Darood poet Ali Adan, who was trying to play the Ogadan and Isaaq against each other stated:
Doqonkii Ogadeen doollo laga qaad
Loo diid Dannood iyo hadii uu dagi lahaa Ciide
Niman baa xukuma dalkoodi iyo labadii daaroode
Habar Yonis bey uga durkeen dagaladoodiye
The Ogadeen Poet replyed:
Iidoor (Isaaq) Dir weeye hadduu duullan soo kiciyo
Dunji Habar Magaadle ba hadduu , Dabarka soo gooyo
Dumbukhiyo rasaastii hadduu debacsaanuu siiyo (British)
The Iidoor Isaaq are of the Dir clan, and if they launch a raid against us the Ogaadeen
An id all the Dir Habar Magaadle take their ropes and join them.
Then who is equal to me in descent and is to help me ?
http://www.golkhatumo.com/guba/ Silsiladii Gabayada Guba
Isaaq Reply to Guba Poem
In reply to the Ogadeen and the Dhulbahante, the great Isaaq, Habar Yonis, poet who was from the sub clan of Beyle Ugaadhyahan, Mr. Cismaan Beyle, answered to the Darood poets and he agrees with the Ogaaden poet and states, "Yes,the Isaaq are Dir". And all the Land belongs to the Dir, who is the Darood to claim this land. Isn't Darood the Stranger I found in the wilderness and whom I gave Donbiro and welcomed him when he was nothing.

GABEEYGII GUBA- Isaaq waa Dir

Gabeyga guba waa gabey uu nin ka bilaawday nin Dhulbahante ah oo rabay in uu Ogaadeen iyo Isaaq isku diro, oo dagaal ka dhex oogo labadaan beelood ee wada daga.

Ninkii Dhulbante oo ahaa CALI AADAN (Dhulbahante) Ogaadeen waa doqomo ayuu yiri oo Isaaq ayaa doolo (baad) ka qaada.


Erayadii CALI AADAN (Dhulbahante)

Doqonkii Ogaadeen ahaa Doollo laga qaadye
Loo diid Dannood iyo hadduu degi lahaa Ciide
Nimanbaa dalkoodiyo xukuma labadi daaroode

Habar-Yoonis bay uga durkeen degeladoodiiye
Dullinimo inay qaayibeen waxaw daliilkiiya
Dadba weli ma arag Reer-Subeyr duul ka soo baxaye


Dooyiyo dabriyo weerar iyo malaha duullaane
[b]Ninnaba uunka kama dawladsana Dir iyo Daaroode [/b]
Ilaah baa dabkoodiyo sandahay danabadoodiiye
Dadka uguma liitaane wey diriri waayeene
Afartaa sidii dalab la riday maysu daba joojay
Da'daan kaga bilaabiyo miyaan deelki ka habawshay
Ma dalleeyay deelqaafku waa kaa dilaa gabaye
Dacwad kalana waa Reer Xirsiga halan dareensiiyay

http://members.tripod.com/gabayo/cali_dhuux.htm




Ninkii Ogaadeen isagoo xanaqsan ayuu gabey ku jawaabey oo yiri:

1. Isaaq (Idoor) waa Dir oo yaa la da'ah, Isaaq waa Dunji (Sinji Habar Magaadle). Ninkaan Direed ee i dilay adaa iga daran oo Darood ila sheeganaya (Isaaq Dir weeyee hadduu duulan soo kiciyo
Dunji Habar Magaadluhu hadduu dabarka soo gooyo
Dunbuq iyo rasaastana hadduu debecsanuu siiyo)


Aday dilaye goormaa Isaaq Doollo iga qaaday
Maxaa libinta Daarood lahaa dabacayuun siiyey
Hadday Dubaxul uga heesayaan dacarba waan siine


Miyey haatan daab iyo ul iyo kaga cabbaan dawlis
Dusha daalis oo dibi dhaloon loo danbarinaynin
Oo kii lahaa diideybay sidig ka doontaaye
Kuwan derisnay dooxeer haddaan sebenka daduunsho


Waxa adiga duug kaaga noqon yayga degi waayey
Gabdhaha doonnan dadabtan dhisniyo xidid dariiqaynta
Kuwaan dihannay diricay dhaleen waa dareeemadae
Muslinka hayga didin yaan ibleeys dawyo kaa ridine


Darka jabay dilaalkio dhulkuu dabadku meeraayo
Deeqii Illaahay halkuu xuliyey daadkiisa
Ii daa dugaag iyo Hartay igaga deyraanne


Iidoor Dir weeyee hadduu duulan soo kiciyo
Dunji Habar Magaadluhu hadduu dabarka soo gooyo
Dunbuq iyo rasaastana hadduu debecsanuu siiyo


Horta yaa la da'a wayla yaab dawyadaad xuliye
Ogaadeen ka daan iyo ka daan doolo soo gudubye
Diinkaan akhriyey way imaan dooy raggii jiraye
Dunji maalintaa waxad qabtaan waan u daahirinne


http://members.tripod.com/gabayo/qamaan_bulxan.htm

Markii ay sheeko halkaas mareyso ayaa nin Habar Yonis Yawle la yiraahdo oo katirsan beesha Beyle Ugaadhyahan ee Cismaan Beyle.
Gabeygii soo galay oo u jawaabay Daroodka isagoo sheeganaya:

1.Isaaq waa Dire hadii uu duulan soo qaado

2. Daaroodkana in uu dalka soo dajiyay Isaaq oo Dir ah oo ay Gabadh Doonbiro la yiraahdo siiyeen


Transitionsal Goverments of Somalia


In the past 10 years since Somalia was lacking a central goverment several reconciliation conferences were held in Cairo, Djibouti, Kenya and Ethiopia between 1993-2009 and all conferences a formula of 4.5, which means the four major clans Dir, Darood, Hawiye, Rahanweyn will share goverment equally. Thousands of Isaaq Ministers, Members of Parliment and Guurti or Clan elders from Habar Awal, Habar Jeclo, Habar Yonis and Arap joined these conferences and they all consider themselves as Dir men and women.
Isaaq scholars from the great Musse Galaal a mentor and silent contributor to all that I. M Lewis writes and well know, respected ex-police chief of Somalia, Mr. Jama Ghalib both respected their Dir heritage and always defended their Dir-ness. Jama Ghalib, in his book, " The Cost of Dictatorship", acknowledge the crucial financial and membership support the Isaaq dominated, SNM received from all Southern Dir groups, especially, the Mahe Dir, Mohammed Hiniftire, subclans which the Isaaq is a member of, like the Gadsan, Biimaal, Bajimaal, and Surre clans of Ethiopian region. Also, Jama Ghalib, acknowledged the Hawiye contributions.

The official UN and Kenyan Records listed over 1000 prominent Isaaq clan elders who joined the Somali Reconciliation conference in Kenya and this is one of the official lists at the begining of the conference:


Name Clan Sub Clan
Mohamud Mohamed Ali Dir Isak-Ciida-Gale
Hassan Badmaax Meegaag Dir Isak-Ciida-Gale
Jama ali matan Dir Isak-Ciida-Gale
omar ali moulid Dir Isak-Ciida-Gale
Soleman Hussein Muse Dir Isak-Ciida-Gale
Mohamud Ahmed Duale Dir Isak-Ciida-Gale
Ahmed Ali Hsaan Dir Isak-Ciida-Gale
Dahir Mohamed Abdullahi Dir Isak-Ciida-Gale
Ali Mohamed Hashi Dir Isak-Ciida-Gale
Mohamed Buhi Dhegoole Dir Isak-Ciida-Gale
Abdullahi Hassan Mohamed Dir Isak-Ciida-Gale
Abdiweli Abdullahi Mohamud Dir Isak-Ciida-Gale
Qowdan Abdullahi Mohamud Dir Isak-Ciida-Gale
Suudi Elmi Hireey Dir Isak-Ciida-Gale
Sahra Ahmed Kariye Dir Isak-Ciida-Gale
Asha Ali Mahdi Dir Isak-Ciida-Gale
Name Clan Sub Clan
Omar Ali Hassan Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Ismail Ahmed Cige Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Hassan Arabala Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Abdullahi Dahir Abdi Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Abbas |Mohamud Mumin Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Sheikh Said Abdalla Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Bashir Mohamed Abdirahman Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Ahmed Abdikarim Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Hariir Adan Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Ahmed Ali Nur Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Abdullahi Ali Said Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Farah Jama Farah Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Abdirizak Mohamed Hersi Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Ismail Cadantegey Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Mohamed Abdullahi Abbas Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Ali Abdi Ahmed Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Said Abyan Hayd Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Mohamed Hersi Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Ahmed Abdirahman Mohamed Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Hassan Sheikh Ibrahil Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Yahya Ahmed Reygal Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Hawo Musse Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Safiya Hassan Qalinle Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Sahra Kahin Abdi Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Amina Osman Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Nimo Ali Hassan Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Said Yusuf Dir Issak-Habar-Yonis
Musse Ali Elmi Dir Issak-Arab
Khadar Iman Adan Dir Issak-Arab
Omar Ali Arale Dir Issak-Arab
Ahmed Iman Adan Dir Issak-Arab
Elmi Warsame Mohamed Dir Issak-Arab
Abdullahi Nur Mohamed Dir Issak-Arab
Mohamed Hassan Abdullahi Dir Issak-Arab
Amina Awil Ali Dir Issak-Arab
Yurub Raabi Osman Dir Issak-Arab
Ebado Mohamud Diriye Dir Issak-Arab
Ahmed Mohamed Guled Dir Issak-Arab
Ahmed Elmi Warsame Dir Issak-Arab
Hussein Ali Adan Dir Issak-Arab
Mohamed Ali Adan Dir Issak-Arab
Awil Ali Mahaad Dir Issak-Arab
Nimo Karrani Dir Issak-Arab
Ahmed Mohamed Omar DirIssak-Ayub
Ahmed Bajir Ahmed Dir Issak-Imran
Mohamud Abi Warsame DirIssak-Imran
Adan Ismail Roble Dir Issak-Sanbuur
Said Adan Mire Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Abdi Haji Mohamed Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Abdirizak Hussein Hassan DirIssak-Habar Je’lo
Yusuf Botan Duale Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Abdullahi Hayir Duale Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Adan Jama Duale Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Farah Subie Mohamed Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Mohamed Ismail Gedi Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Egeh Waeys Roble Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Amina Omar Jama Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Faduma Ali Abdi Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Nuro Mohamud Mohamed DirIssak-Habar Je’lo
Istar Duale Warsame Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Haweya Sahal Gedi Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Jibril Aydid Mohamed Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Abdi Osman Awale Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Ali Osman Hassan Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Abdi Saleban Biyole Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Mohamud Adan Dirir Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Hussein Ahmed Hassan DirIssak-Habar Je’lo
Warsame Jama Isse Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Ali Hassan Jama Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Ali Saleban Duale Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Abdi Ahmed Garyare Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Salah Nur Ismail Badbado Dir Issak-Habar Je’lo
Omar Haji Awad Qurshe Dir Issak
Ahmed Yusuf Shide Dir Issak
Farah Ali Shide Dir Issak
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed Dir Issak
Mohamed Yasin Awale Dir Issak
Said Mohamed Abdullahi Dir Issak
Mohamed Ahmed Ismail Dir Issak
Hassan Ahmed Ali Dir Issak
Ahmed Ismail Osman Dir Issak
Ahmed Mohamed Adan Dir Issak
Sheikh Said Mahaad Abdalla Dir Issak
Maryan Dirir Dir Issak
Sahra Ismail Adan Dir Issak
Fowzia Hassan Dir Issak
Sahra Mohamed Farah Dir Issak
Rowda Abdullahi Diriye Dir Issak
Kaltun Ismail Adan Dir Issak
Kowsar Osman Dir Issak
Mohamed Ahmed Gaheyr Dir Issak
Omar Mohamed Abdi Dir Issak
Abdullahi Ismail Mohamed Dir Issak
Deeq Abdi Hashi Dir Issak
Said Jabril Ali Nur Dir Issak

Most of these Isaaq were business owners and others who lived in Mogdisho for a long time. Why would these prominent men claim, die, and fight along side their Dir distant cousines like the Bimaal,Suure-Cabdalle and Qubeys, Mandaluug and other northern Dir clans like the Issas and Gadabuursi. The Southern Dir Groups like the Suure ( Qubeys and Cabdalle) who where heavely armed where the direct protectors of many Isaaq and other unarmed groups in Mogadisho and there were numerous clashes between Xamar Moorayan and the Suure millitias backed by northern Dir and Bimaal Gadsan when several vehicles were stoled from the Dir.

Muuse Galaal Somali Isaaq Historian

The world renowned Somali History scholar, Mr. Musse Galaal, who is Habar Jeclo, invited dozens of Somali Dir shortly before his death in Saudi Arabia in the 1980's and after one of the guests asked him about I. M Lewis and the false propaganda of Isaaq Arabness he spread. Galaal replied, I.M Lewis is a mentor of his but he never agreed about how he distorted Isaaq history. Galaal added, we are all in an Arab country and the richest Arab country where Islaam was born but I will tell you today I am more convinced of my Dirness then ever and I doubt more then ever that all Somalis share a single thing with the Arabs.
The Dir witness said, " I asked Oh Galaal, my cousine, why do you say this. Galaal said, "look at the Arabs and look at us, especially, us, the Dir Aji, we never eat grasshoppers, a Somali would never eat even the liver, heart, or lowly portions like the tounge of goat or cow. Nor would a Somali eat Lizards ( muusa cagaleey), or penis of goat or sheep or in the past work for or intermarry with any outsiders yet the Arabs do all of that. How can we be of Arab when we dont share none of this, Walaahay we the Somalis are more noble then they, and the noblest of Somalis of all are the Dir Aji from whom we all got our noble and pure manners." This is two or three weeks before he passed away.



Another interesting story which shows the deep kinship between Southern and Northern the Great poet Hadrawi was in Dolo, Luuq, and Xuddur areas in the early days of the SNM struggle and I was surprised for this was suicidal for such prominent figure in 1988. He freely moved in and out of Bakool, Gedo, and Bardheere areas and made many speeches I was told and he was accompanied by his local kinsman. A good friend of main even narrated to me a long poem he made in order to create two feuding Dir groups in Ethiopian Somali border. This shows that he felt as though he was at home just like in Burco or Hargeysa which he could not go at that time. As a matter of fact that region still has a SSNM or Southern SNM movement which unites the major Mahe Dir Clans, Suure, and Madaxweyn Dir in that region.


The fatuh al Habash mentions the Habar Magadle (Maha Dir) by name as one group which Gureey try to draw into his camp.Nevertheless, the Habar Awal and Habar Yonis joined the Gurey jihaad. For Example, the Makaahil of the Habar Awal was the son of an Amhara princesse who was broght back to Somali by a Habar Awal worrior. The Amhara princes asked her captor one favour which to name the first son. After she bore the son she named him Makahil "Micheal" the angel. As a matter of fact many Mahe Dir like the Habar xabuush or Habar Jeclo were also named in such a case. According to the Fatuh Al Habash, "the fierce and rebellious Isaaq, Issas, and Afar clans who lived close to these groups and was know as "Oda Cali" caused Guurey many problems because as soon as the attacked the Habash enemies and gained some booty they would return to their territorie this angered Imam Ahmed who wanted a displined army. Ali and Mataan a brothers in-law of Gurey and Ahmed Nuur a knephew or Gurey, who later married Gurey's wife Batiyo Delwambero(Dawmbiro). It is interesting to not The name Dalwambero.

IM Lewis mentions a episode in Axmed Gurey's campaign where he destroyed cities of Habar Magadle Dir in which the H.Magadle punished a Aba Yonis Group who complained to the Imaam. Also the H.Magaadle would join the Jihad and decide at a crucial moment to return to their homelands after getting all the Booty the wanted.

A very strange fact in Fatuhal Habash is the Mareexan Sade Daarod Clan are mentioned to be part of the Habar Magaadle and this is one reason the Darood would never translate the Fatuhal Habash even though the Darood claim the Imaam Ahmed was a Darood. I will post a rebuttal of this because the Darood ancestor Ismaail Jabarti died in 1679 while the battles of Ahmed Gurey took place in 1500. Both IM lewis and other scholars leaked this fact that Mareexan are considered a Habar Magaadle clan in the Fatuuh Al Habash because these western scholars would not set foot in Somalia especially when Siad Barre was in Power. I will put up the quotes and author it is on Google books

The Arab Factor


Abwaanadaas ku gabyey gabayada kore dhammaan waxay cadeeyeen isir ahaan ciday yihiin oo ah Daarood…

Ismaaciil Cigaal Bulaale(isaaq)

Adaa Dir iyo Daarood dhex dhigay dab iyo baaruude

Dacar gelisey reerihii ahaa ul iyo diirkeede

Mugga haatan dirir uumiyuhu waa is dilayaaye

Maxamuud Dheeg (Isaaq)

Dir iyo Irir baanu nahay labada daamoode

Dabatada faraha dheer leh iyo Diini iyo Boontu

Meeshay kasoo dalabsadeen yeyga degi wayday.



Axmed Ismaaciil Diiriye (Isaaq)

Miisaannay Ciisow tixahaad madalka keenteene
Macaan baa Ilaahay ka dhigay Malabki Doocaane
Dhegtii maqashay oo idili way mahad naqaysaaye
Madmadoow ma gelin xaajadaa soo mudh-bixiseene
Mabsuud buu ka yahay reer Isaaq meelu joogaba'e
Waad mahadsantiin dhalashadaad muruq u yeesheene

Axmed Ismaaciil Diiriye (Isaaq)

Na soo gaadhe Ciisow tixahaad soo gudbinayseene
Geeraarradiinii hellnay iyo gabayadiinniiye
Una guuxnay hawraarta guud, hiilna loo garaye
Maansadu godkii ay lahayd maydun gees marinne
Alle waydin garansiiyey oo gob iyo caadkeede
Garna waad u leediin tolkiin inad gargaartaane
Gacmihii walaalaha ahaa waysku gunuddeene



Abwaanadaan iyaguna waxay cadday nayaan isir raac ciday yihiin oo ah Dir labada gabay ee Axmed Ismaaciil Diiriye gabaygiisa waxaad ka dhan dhansan kartaa ehelinimada ay isku reerka yihiin Ciise(Ciise oo qabiil Dir ah) oo uu marna walaal tinimo ku tilmaamay marna wada dhalasho oo Abwaanadu gabay ahaan inta badan u isticmaalaan wada dhalashada iyo walaaltinimada dhanka abtarsiinyaha…

Qamaan Bulxan (Ogaadeen)

Iidoor Dir weeyee hadduu duulan soo kiciyo
Dunji Habar Magaadluhu hadduu dabarka soo gooyo
Dunbuq iyo rasaastana hadduu debecsanuu siiyo

Gaygaan waxaa tiriyey Abwaan Daarood ah oo ku tilmaamaya Isaaq inay Dir yihiin mana dhicin gabyaa Isaaq ah oo beeniya gabaygaas Dir nimada ku tilmaamay waxaase dhacday in Gabyaa la Oran Jiray Yawle xaqiijiyey oo ku gabayey, gabay aanan helin hal sadar ka badan oo ahaa… Isaaq waa Dire e hadduu duulaan soo kiciyo…

Isku soo wada duuboo waxaad ka garan kartaa gabayadaas isir raaca ay kala ahaayeen Qabiilada (Harti, Ogaadeen, Abuskuul), iyo Isaaq oo kala ahaa Daarood iyo Dir… waxaa kaloo jirta in markii Somalidu shirar ama wax qaybsi isugu timaado in beesha Isaaq ku qayb qaadato qabiil ahaan qabiilka la yiraahdo Dir oo ah qabiilka Abwaanadii hore ku gabyeen in Isaaq yahay qabiilkaas. Wax garadka, Isimada Beelaha Somaliyeed oo aan ahayn Isaaq markaad waydiisid Qabiilka beesha Isaaq reerka ay isir raac galaan waxay kuu cadaynayaan in Isaaq isir ahaan yahay Dir. Haddii aad odayashaasha iyo wax garadka beesha Dir waydiiso cidda Isaaq isir ahaan galo waxay si toosa oo aan gabasho lahayn kuugu sheegayaan inuu galo Isaaq Habare Xiniftire Maahe Dir.

Aqoonta loo lahaa beelaha Isaaq isir raacoodu markuu ahaa Dir waxaa ayaamahaan danbe soo shaac baxday oo yar iyo wayn beesha qabiilka Isaaq shaaciyeen in ay yihiin Carab oo ka soo jeedaan Haashimiyiin arintaasi waxay keentay jaah wareer aan la garanayn cid la rumaysto Isaaqa hadda sheegaya inay yihiin Carab, ma odayadii hore ee Isaaq oo sheegayey inay yihiin Dir, ma wax garadka iyo Isimada beelaha kale ee sheegaya in Isaaq yahay Dir!!!.

Waxaad ka garan kartaa Dadka taariikhda wax ka qora oo aan ahayn Somalida inay jaah wareer ka qaadeen oo qoraaladooda laba bog oo ay isku mid kaga hadlayaan aadan ka helayn mararka qaar waxaad arkaysaa hal qaafiyad (baaragaraaf) oo iska hor imanaya oo marna leh Dir marna leh Carab, waxaadba ila eegtaan labadaan qoraa ee Biritishka u dhashay…

Richard Burton oo ka qoray Isaaq wuxuu buugisa taalaabooyinkii koowaad 1846 ku qoray….

In sheikh Isxaaq oo ka soo jeeda xatramuut kayimi dhulkiisii isagoo ay weheliyaan 44 shiikh magaalada la yiraahdo Met(Myadh) oo ah meesha uu hadda ku aasan yahay, wuxuu guursaday naag xor ahayd oo la oran jiray Magaden(Habar Magaado) waxayna u dhashay Garxajis Awal and Arab; waxaa kaloo wax udhashay islaan adoon ahayd waxayna u dhashay jeclo(Habar Jeclo sambur(sambuur) iyo Rambad. Kadib qabiilooyinka waa wayn ee habar garxijis iyo Awal ayaa waxay doorbideen magaca habar oo sheegaya ama tilmaamaya Hooyo mar haddii aan la garanayn aabahihii(waa siduu u qoray).

Waasida uu qoraalkiisa udhigay Richard Burton, isagoo sii wata qoraalkiisii wuxuu qoray…

Raad raaca abtirsiinyaha ilaa hadda Somalidu utaqaan waa Dirr(Dir), Aydur(?) Darud(Daarood) iyo Hawiye, markii loo eego qaybo magacyada qabiilada Dir iyo Aydur oo aan la hubin laakiin magacyadoodu waa Eese(Ciise), Gudabirsi, Ishak(Isaaq) iyo barsuuk…

Richard Burton or Richard Francis Burton (British consul, explorer and Orientalist, was born at Barham House, Hertfordshire, on the 19th of March 1821 Died 20-Oct-1890… Sexual orientation: Matter of Dispute) In his book, The first Foot Steps 1846 wrote …

Sherif Ishak bin Ahmed left his native country Hazramaut, and, with forty-four saints, before mentioned, landed on Makhar,—the windward coast extending from Karam Harbour to Cape Guardafui. At the town of Met, near Burnt Island, where his tomb still exists, he became the father of all the gentle blood and the only certain descent in the Somali country: by Magaden, a free woman, he had Gerhajis, Awal, and Arab; and by a slave or slaves, Jailah, Sambur, and Rambad. Hence the great clans, Habr Gerhajis and Awal, who prefer the matronymic— Habr signifying a mother,—since, according to their dictum, no man knows who may be his sire(sire = male parent, male ancestor).



The old and pagan genealogies still known to the Somal, are Dirr, Aydur, Darud, and Hawiyah, according to some Dirr and Aydur, of whom nothing is certainly known but the name, are the progenitors of the northern Somal, the Eesa, Gudabirsi, Ishak, and Bursuk tribes.

Waxaad halkaas ka garanaysaa in ninkaa qoraaga ahi ku jaaah wareeray oo marna leeyahay waa Xatramuuti oo la yiraahdo Sharif Ishak bin Ahmed marna waxuu qoray wuxuu ku tilmaamayaa inay ka soo jeedaan qabiilka Dir…

Waxaa kaloo jira nin kale oo isku dayey inuu wax ka qoro qabiilada Somalida ninkaas oo la yiraahdo I M Lewis isagoo ku jaah wareersan wuxuu ku qoray buuggiisa blood and bone….

Markii loo eego Qabiilka Isaaqu waxay sheegtaan inay ka baxsan yihiin oo ay isir raac toosa ay yihiin Carab, kaliya ay kula xiriiraan qabiilka Dir la yiraahdo guur Aabahood ka guursaday. Somalida kalase waxay u tixgaliyaan ama u arkaan inay si buuxda u yihiin Dir. Marka waxay u muuqaataa in Isaaq Carab ka dhigeen Isir raacooda si u helaan ixtiraam una ilaashadaan kobcinta awoodooda iyo isku filaanshahooda iyagoo 400, 000 qof 1958 kii ahaa.

Isla qoraagaasi wuxuu buuggiisa kale ee fahanka bulshada Somali iyo Somaliland( Culture History and Society-Ioan M Lewis P- 4) wuxuu ku qoray…

Dhab ahaan markaan u hadalno Isaaq waxay ka soo jeedaan Dir kuwaaso iyaga iyo Hawiye laysla xiriiriyo oo laysku yiraahdo Irir.


Ioan M. Lewis in his book blood and bone p104 wrote:




Thus while the Isaaq regard themselves as a separate clan-family tracing their agnatic origins directly to Arabia and only acknowledge a connexion by marriage with the Dir, other Somali regard them as of full Dir affiliation. It would appear that Isaaq have Arabicized their genealogy as a means of acquiring prestige and in keeping with their growing strength and their separate identity as an independent group numbering some 400,000 souls (in 1958)



I.M Lewis states, ” strictly speaking the Isaaq are derived from the Dir, who together with the Hawiye are linked as “Irir” at a higher level of genelogical grouping.” In his book, Understanding Somali and Somaliland Society : Culture History and Society-Ioan M Lewis P- 4

Buugiisa kale ee la Yiraahdo Nomadic Democracy wuxuu ku qoray in Somalida oo dhammi Isaaq u tixgaliyaan isir raac ahaan Dir waxuu kaloo ku caddeyey in waayadaan danbe soo baxayso inay gooni ka yihiin oo ay isir raac ahaan ka soo jeedaan Carab

I M Lewis states, “all Somalis regard the Isaaq as lineal descendents of Dir” and he notes their recent development of ,”independent agnatic descent from Arabia. (P-142, Nomadic Democracy)



Jaah wareerkaasi maaha mid ku kooban dadka aan u dhalan Somalida oo kaliya ee waxaa iyana ku jaah wareeray oo ay dhinacay u qaadaan garan waayey Somalida Abwaano ka mid ah. Taasna waxaad ka garan kartaa Abwaano Somali ahi oo aan ahayn Isaaq gabayo ay tiriyeen iyagoo mid ay u raacaan garan waayey Dir iyo Carab waxaana ka mid ah Gabayadaas…

Gabaygaan oo aanan garanayn Magaca Ninka tiriyey Qabiilkiisu se waa Daarood

Taariikhda duuga ah markaan, dib uga faaloono
Diiwaanka waxa kuugu yaal waa, Dir baa nahaye
Maantana Durriyad baan nahay, baad nagula doodeene
Hadba inaad dad noo sheegataan, waa dayuusnimo e

Gabaygaan oo uu tiriyey Abwaan la Yiraahdo Fakad(Daarood)



War Dir haddii aad tihiin amase Irir, ma aanan diideene

Dab qaraabo idinkoon ahayn, haysku soo darine

Anigaaba kaa diir xigoon, duray wadaagnaaye

Doonbiro dirkii ay dhashayoo, duuban baa nahaye

Dad is raba inaad kala dishaan, waa habeen dumaye

Adunbaase dorraad nagu lahaa, duul kalaan ahaye

Durriyadaydun noo sheegateen, diide maanatana e



Waxaad ka garan kartaa gabayadaas, in jaah wareer ka jiro isir raaca maadaama ay marba meel sheeganayaan Beesha Isaaq oo aanay fadhiyin waayadaan danbe isir raac meel loo qaado waxna iska bedeleen sidii waayadii hore lagu ogaa ee ahayd Dir inay yihiin.

Haddaba markaad eegto intaas arimood oo kala bedelan, Odoyaashii hore ee beesha Isaaq oo sheeganaya inay Yihiin Dir Odoyaashii qabiilada kale oo uga markhaanti ka caya inay ahaayeen Dir iyo wararkaan danbe ee baahday oo ay beesha Isaaq ku sheeganayaan inay isir ahaan yihiin Carab. Qoraayaashii ajnabiga ahaa oo ku jaahwareeray ciday ku sheegaan iyo Abwaanadii danbe oo iyana jaah wareer ka qaaday… Waxaa haddaba is waydiin mudan qof hadduu hadba reer kuu sheegto qofkaas hadalkiisu mala rumaysan karaa oo arin Dhab ah maloo qaadan karaa?!!!... hadday jawaabtaadu maya noqoto maxay noqonaysaa beel dhan oo hadba reer sheeganaysa hadalkoodu soo waxaan dhab ahayn oo dhalanteed ah maaha?!!!!..






The Suure and first hijira AQIIL IBNU ABI TAALIB ? SAMAALE DIR HAWIYE IYO RAXAN WEYN ABTIRSINYO
Magacaasi waa odeyga la yiraahdo Hiil, kaas oo aanan la haynin wax magaciisa dhaafsiisan, markii laga reebo laba wiil ee uu dhalay oo lakala yiraahdo Sab iyo Samaale, kuwaas oo waalid u noqday dadka soomaalida ah intooda badan. Waxaa la sheegaa in Hiil uu yahay nin ka soo farcamay Cuqayl binu Abii Taalib oo ahaa suubanihii Maxamad ahaa (s. c. w.) ina adeerkiis. Xiriirka abtirsiinyo ee ka dhaxeeya Hiil iyo Cuqayl lama hayo, markiise sawir laga bixiyo silsiladda faceed oo ay leeyihiin durriyaddii Hiil waa sidatan :
Hiil wuxu dhalay Sab iyo Samaale
Sab wuxuu dhalay
1. Digil : (Jiiddo, Tunni, Gelledi, Dabarre Garre)
2. Mirifle : Siyeed (Elaay. Leysaan, Eemid, Diisow, Maallan, Wiin) iyo Sagaal (Luwey, Gellidle, Yantaar, Jilible, Hbeer).
Samaale wuxuu dhaley Irir
Irir wuxuu dhalay :
1. Hawiye.
2. Aji.
3. Mayle (Xawaadle).
4. Yaabur (Gaaljecel iyo Dagoodiye).
5. Maqaarre.
6. Gariire.
7. Xamarre.
8. Xariire.
Hawiye wuxuu dhalay : Karanle (Murursade), Gorgaate (hiraab), Gugundhabe (Baadi-cadde). Jambeelle (Ajuraan).
Aji wuxuu dhalay :Dir, Dangolo.
Dir wuxuu dhalay : Madaxweyne (Akishe), Mandaluug (Gadabiirsay), Madoobe (Ciise), Mahe (Isaaq, Biyamaal iyo Surre).

The Dir Suure clans claim Dir was the Son of Aji Aqiil ibnu Abi Taalib

The Suure Dir who have well respected Fiqis Islamic jurisprudence scholars and who have been instrumental in religious studies in many part of Somalia claim descent from Aqiil Ibnu abi Taalib and the claim in the first Hijra many Ashaab well know figures like :

84 males and children and women including-- Uthman ibnu Affan 3rd Caliph and SAW's son in law Ruquyya daughter SAW Abdul Rahman Bin Awf Zubeyr Bin Al awwam and Gafar Bin Abi Talib(read suratal Maryam 19 and his wife sahla Amar and khalid sons of said bin al As Abu Hudayfa b Uthman mazum his wife sahla wife Umm Salama bint Abi Umaayya all three amoung ten who were promised heaven.

The Suure claim this is in the: biographer Ibnu Hisham .while others claim only 33 come.

The Afar or Dankalis of Djibouti and Eritrea

The ruling house of the Afar Assayo Marre and their king Ali Mirre claim the Madoobe Dir Issas are cousins to Afar because the Afar claim direct descent from One Harmalis Jacfar ibnu Abi Taalib a cousin of the Samaale clans claimed ancestor Aqiil ibnu abi Taalib

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Updated 03/17/2012

GABAYADA ISAAQ KU SHEGAYAAN CIDA AY YIHIIN OO AY TIRIYEEN AFTAHANADA BEESHA ISAAQ


GABAYADA ISAAQ KU SHEGAYAAN CIDA AY YIHIIN OO AY TIRIYEEN AFTAHANADA BEESHA ISAAQ

Abwaanadaas ku gabyey gabayada kore dhammaan waxay cadeeyeen isir ahaan ciday yihiin oo ah Daarood…

Ismaaciil Cigaal Bulaale(isaaq)

Adaa Dir iyo Daarood dhex dhigay dab iyo baaruude

Dacar gelisey reerihii ahaa ul iyo diirkeede

Mugga haatan dirir uumiyuhu waa is dilayaaye

Maxamuud Dheeg (Isaaq)

Dir iyo Irir baanu nahay labada daamoode

Dabatada faraha dheer leh iyo Diini iyo Boontu

Meeshay kasoo dalabsadeen yeyga degi wayday.



Axmed Ismaaciil Diiriye (Isaaq)

Miisaannay Ciisow tixahaad madalka keenteene
Macaan baa Ilaahay ka dhigay Malabki Doocaane
Dhegtii maqashay oo idili way mahad naqaysaaye
Madmadoow ma gelin xaajadaa soo mudh-bixiseene
Mabsuud buu ka yahay reer Isaaq meelu joogaba'e
Waad mahadsantiin dhalashadaad muruq u yeesheene

Axmed Ismaaciil Diiriye (Isaaq)

Na soo gaadhe Ciisow tixahaad soo gudbinayseene
Geeraarradiinii hellnay iyo gabayadiinniiye
Una guuxnay hawraarta guud, hiilna loo garaye
Maansadu godkii ay lahayd maydun gees marinne
Alle waydin garansiiyey oo gob iyo caadkeede
Garna waad u leediin tolkiin inad gargaartaane
Gacmihii walaalaha ahaa waysku gunuddeene



Abwaanadaan iyaguna waxay cadday nayaan isir raac ciday yihiin oo ah Dir labada gabay ee Axmed Ismaaciil Diiriye gabaygiisa waxaad ka dhan dhansan kartaa ehelinimada ay isku reerka yihiin Ciise(Ciise oo qabiil Dir ah) oo uu marna walaal tinimo ku tilmaamay marna wada dhalasho oo Abwaanadu gabay ahaan inta badan u isticmaalaan wada dhalashada iyo walaaltinimada dhanka abtarsiinyaha…

Qamaan Bulxan (Ogaadeen)

Iidoor Dir weeyee hadduu duulan soo kiciyo
Dunji Habar Magaadluhu hadduu dabarka soo gooyo
Dunbuq iyo rasaastana hadduu debecsanuu siiyo

Gaygaan waxaa tiriyey Abwaan Daarood ah oo ku tilmaamaya Isaaq inay Dir yihiin mana dhicin gabyaa Isaaq ah oo beeniya gabaygaas Dir nimada ku tilmaamay waxaase dhacday in Gabyaa la Oran Jiray Yawle xaqiijiyey oo ku gabayey, gabay aanan helin hal sadar ka badan oo ahaa… Isaaq waa Dire e hadduu duulaan soo kiciyo…

Isku soo wada duuboo waxaad ka garan kartaa gabayadaas isir raaca ay kala ahaayeen Qabiilada (Harti, Ogaadeen, Abuskuul), iyo Isaaq oo kala ahaa Daarood iyo Dir… waxaa kaloo jirta in markii Somalidu shirar ama wax qaybsi isugu timaado in beesha Isaaq ku qayb qaadato qabiil ahaan qabiilka la yiraahdo Dir oo ah qabiilka Abwaanadii hore ku gabyeen in Isaaq yahay qabiilkaas. Wax garadka, Isimada Beelaha Somaliyeed oo aan ahayn Isaaq markaad waydiisid Qabiilka beesha Isaaq reerka ay isir raac galaan waxay kuu cadaynayaan in Isaaq isir ahaan yahay Dir. Haddii aad odayashaasha iyo wax garadka beesha Dir waydiiso cidda Isaaq isir ahaan galo waxay si toosa oo aan gabasho lahayn kuugu sheegayaan inuu galo Isaaq Habare Xiniftire Maahe Dir.

Aqoonta loo lahaa beelaha Isaaq isir raacoodu markuu ahaa Dir waxaa ayaamahaan danbe soo shaac baxday oo yar iyo wayn beesha qabiilka Isaaq shaaciyeen in ay yihiin Carab oo ka soo jeedaan Haashimiyiin arintaasi waxay keentay jaah wareer aan la garanayn cid la rumaysto Isaaqa hadda sheegaya inay yihiin Carab, ma odayadii hore ee Isaaq oo sheegayey inay yihiin Dir, ma wax garadka iyo Isimada beelaha kale ee sheegaya in Isaaq yahay Dir!!!.

Waxaad ka garan kartaa Dadka taariikhda wax ka qora oo aan ahayn Somalida inay jaah wareer ka qaadeen oo qoraaladooda laba bog oo ay isku mid kaga hadlayaan aadan ka helayn mararka qaar waxaad arkaysaa hal qaafiyad (baaragaraaf) oo iska hor imanaya oo marna leh Dir marna leh Carab, waxaadba ila eegtaan labadaan qoraa ee Biritishka u dhashay…

Richard Burton oo ka qoray Isaaq wuxuu buugisa taalaabooyinkii koowaad 1846 ku qoray….

In sheikh Isxaaq oo ka soo jeeda xatramuut kayimi dhulkiisii isagoo ay weheliyaan 44 shiikh magaalada la yiraahdo Met(Myadh) oo ah meesha uu hadda ku aasan yahay, wuxuu guursaday naag xor ahayd oo la oran jiray Magaden(Habar Magaado) waxayna u dhashay Garxajis Awal and Arab; waxaa kaloo wax udhashay islaan adoon ahayd waxayna u dhashay jeclo(Habar Jeclo sambur(sambuur) iyo Rambad. Kadib qabiilooyinka waa wayn ee habar garxijis iyo Awal ayaa waxay doorbideen magaca habar oo sheegaya ama tilmaamaya Hooyo mar haddii aan la garanayn aabahihii(waa siduu u qoray).

Waasida uu qoraalkiisa udhigay Richard Burton, isagoo sii wata qoraalkiisii wuxuu qoray…

Raad raaca abtirsiinyaha ilaa hadda Somalidu utaqaan waa Dirr(Dir), Aydur(?) Darud(Daarood) iyo Hawiye, markii loo eego qaybo magacyada qabiilada Dir iyo Aydur oo aan la hubin laakiin magacyadoodu waa Eese(Ciise), Gudabirsi, Ishak(Isaaq) iyo barsuuk…

Richard Burton or Richard Francis Burton (British consul, explorer and Orientalist, was born at Barham House, Hertfordshire, on the 19th of March 1821 Died 20-Oct-1890… Sexual orientation: Matter of Dispute) In his book, The first Foot Steps 1846 wrote …

Sherif Ishak bin Ahmed left his native country Hazramaut, and, with forty-four saints, before mentioned, landed on Makhar,—the windward coast extending from Karam Harbour to Cape Guardafui. At the town of Met, near Burnt Island, where his tomb still exists, he became the father of all the gentle blood and the only certain descent in the Somali country: by Magaden, a free woman, he had Gerhajis, Awal, and Arab; and by a slave or slaves, Jailah, Sambur, and Rambad. Hence the great clans, Habr Gerhajis and Awal, who prefer the matronymic— Habr signifying a mother,—since, according to their dictum, no man knows who may be his sire(sire = male parent, male ancestor).



The old and pagan genealogies still known to the Somal, are Dirr, Aydur, Darud, and Hawiyah, according to some Dirr and Aydur, of whom nothing is certainly known but the name, are the progenitors of the northern Somal, the Eesa, Gudabirsi, Ishak, and Bursuk tribes.

Waxaad halkaas ka garanaysaa in ninkaa qoraaga ahi ku jaaah wareeray oo marna leeyahay waa Xatramuuti oo la yiraahdo Sharif Ishak bin Ahmed marna waxuu qoray wuxuu ku tilmaamayaa inay ka soo jeedaan qabiilka Dir…

Waxaa kaloo jira nin kale oo isku dayey inuu wax ka qoro qabiilada Somalida ninkaas oo la yiraahdo I M Lewis isagoo ku jaah wareersan wuxuu ku qoray buuggiisa blood and bone….

Markii loo eego Qabiilka Isaaqu waxay sheegtaan inay ka baxsan yihiin oo ay isir raac toosa ay yihiin Carab, kaliya ay kula xiriiraan qabiilka Dir la yiraahdo guur Aabahood ka guursaday. Somalida kalase waxay u tixgaliyaan ama u arkaan inay si buuxda u yihiin Dir. Marka waxay u muuqaataa in Isaaq Carab ka dhigeen Isir raacooda si u helaan ixtiraam una ilaashadaan kobcinta awoodooda iyo isku filaanshahooda iyagoo 400, 000 qof 1958 kii ahaa.

Isla qoraagaasi wuxuu buuggiisa kale ee fahanka bulshada Somali iyo Somaliland( Culture History and Society-Ioan M Lewis P- 4) wuxuu ku qoray…

Dhab ahaan markaan u hadalno Isaaq waxay ka soo jeedaan Dir kuwaaso iyaga iyo Hawiye laysla xiriiriyo oo laysku yiraahdo Irir.


Ioan M. Lewis in his book blood and bone p104 wrote:




Thus while the Isaaq regard themselves as a separate clan-family tracing their agnatic origins directly to Arabia and only acknowledge a connexion by marriage with the Dir, other Somali regard them as of full Dir affiliation. It would appear that Isaaq have Arabicized their genealogy as a means of acquiring prestige and in keeping with their growing strength and their separate identity as an independent group numbering some 400,000 souls (in 1958)



I.M Lewis states, ” strictly speaking the Isaaq are derived from the Dir, who together with the Hawiye are linked as “Irir” at a higher level of genelogical grouping.” In his book, Understanding Somali and Somaliland Society : Culture History and Society-Ioan M Lewis P- 4

Buugiisa kale ee la Yiraahdo Nomadic Democracy wuxuu ku qoray in Somalida oo dhammi Isaaq u tixgaliyaan isir raac ahaan Dir waxuu kaloo ku caddeyey in waayadaan danbe soo baxayso inay gooni ka yihiin oo ay isir raac ahaan ka soo jeedaan Carab

I M Lewis states, “all Somalis regard the Isaaq as lineal descendents of Dir” and he notes their recent development of ,”independent agnatic descent from Arabia. (P-142, Nomadic Democracy)



Jaah wareerkaasi maaha mid ku kooban dadka aan u dhalan Somalida oo kaliya ee waxaa iyana ku jaah wareeray oo ay dhinacay u qaadaan garan waayey Somalida Abwaano ka mid ah. Taasna waxaad ka garan kartaa Abwaano Somali ahi oo aan ahayn Isaaq gabayo ay tiriyeen iyagoo mid ay u raacaan garan waayey Dir iyo Carab waxaana ka mid ah Gabayadaas…

Gabaygaan oo aanan garanayn Magaca Ninka tiriyey Qabiilkiisu se waa Daarood

Taariikhda duuga ah markaan, dib uga faaloono
Diiwaanka waxa kuugu yaal waa, Dir baa nahaye
Maantana Durriyad baan nahay, baad nagula doodeene
Hadba inaad dad noo sheegataan, waa dayuusnimo e

Gabaygaan oo uu tiriyey Abwaan la Yiraahdo Fakad(Daarood)



War Dir haddii aad tihiin amase Irir, ma aanan diideene

Dab qaraabo idinkoon ahayn, haysku soo darine

Anigaaba kaa diir xigoon, duray wadaagnaaye

Doonbiro dirkii ay dhashayoo, duuban baa nahaye

Dad is raba inaad kala dishaan, waa habeen dumaye

Adunbaase dorraad nagu lahaa, duul kalaan ahaye

Durriyadaydun noo sheegateen, diide maanatana e



Waxaad ka garan kartaa gabayadaas, in jaah wareer ka jiro isir raaca maadaama ay marba meel sheeganayaan Beesha Isaaq oo aanay fadhiyin waayadaan danbe isir raac meel loo qaado waxna iska bedeleen sidii waayadii hore lagu ogaa ee ahayd Dir inay yihiin.

Haddaba markaad eegto intaas arimood oo kala bedelan, Odoyaashii hore ee beesha Isaaq oo sheeganaya inay Yihiin Dir Odoyaashii qabiilada kale oo uga markhaanti ka caya inay ahaayeen Dir iyo wararkaan danbe ee baahday oo ay beesha Isaaq ku sheeganayaan inay isir ahaan yihiin Carab. Qoraayaashii ajnabiga ahaa oo ku jaahwareeray ciday ku sheegaan iyo Abwaanadii danbe oo iyana jaah wareer ka qaaday… Waxaa haddaba is waydiin mudan qof hadduu hadba reer kuu sheegto qofkaas hadalkiisu mala rumaysan karaa oo arin Dhab ah maloo qaadan karaa?!!!... hadday jawaabtaadu maya noqoto maxay noqonaysaa beel dhan oo hadba reer sheeganaysa hadalkoodu soo waxaan dhab ahayn oo dhalanteed ah maaha?!!!!..

Haaji Shermaarke Ali Saalih of the Habar Yoonis clan of the Isaaq clan-family, exercising real power over Saylac and adjacent regions

. In 1854-55 when Lieutenant Richard Burton of the British India navy frequented the northern Somali coast, he found a Somali governor, Haaji Shermaarke Ali Saalih of the Habar Yoonis clan of the Isaaq clan-family, exercising real power over Saylac and adjacent regions. By the time of Burton's arrival, once-mighty Saylac had only a tenuous influence over its environs. The city itself had degenerated into a rubble of mud and wattle huts, its water storage no longer working, its once formidable walls decayed beyond recognition, and its citizenry


Haaji Shermaarke Ali Saalih accourding to Haji:

The Isaaq, Gadabuursi, Issa and Barsuuk tribes are all of Dir Origin as mentions in the First Foot Steps of Richard Burton




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Ethnically, Isaq belongs to the Dir clan family


Ethnically, Isaq belongs to the Dir clan family. Of the four main Dir branches, Isaq belongs to Mohamed Maha Dir. Of the four main Dir branches, Isaq belongs to Mohamed Maha Dir. Other Maha Dir sub-clans include Biyomal, Bajimal and Quranyob. Other Maha Dir sub-clans include Biyomal, Bajimal and Quranyob. The other Dir clan families in the north are the Gadabursi and Issa, who belong to Madaxweyne and Madobe Dir, respectively. The other Dir clan families in the north are the Gadabursi and Issa, who belong to Madaxweyne and Madobe Dir, respectively. The Isaq is divided into three main sub-clans namely: Garhajis (Habar Yonis, Ida Gale and Arap), Habar Awal and Habar Jelo. The Isaq is divided into three main sub-clans namely: Garhajis (Habar Yonis, Ida Gale and Arap), Habar Awal and Habar Jelo. Garhajis who are the largest and most powerful sub-clan are against secession. Garhajis who are the largest and most powerful sub-clan are against secession. Many Habar Jelo intellectuals I spoke with told me that majority of their peoples are not secessionists. Many Habar Jelo intellectuals I spoke with told me that majority of their peoples are not secessionists.

Hence, the Isaq claim that they aren't ethnic Somalis or have been discriminated against by the south are pity fabrications and unfound hysteria engineered to incite hatred between the peoples of the south and north. Hence, the Isaq claim that they aren't ethnic Somalis or have been discriminated against by the south are pity fabrications and unfound hysteria engineered to incite hatred between the peoples of the south and north. In fact, it is in the records that the Hawiye and southern Dir sub-clans had greatly contributed to the formation and financing of the SNM in its very early stages. In fact, it is in the records that the Hawiye and southern Dir sub-clans had greatly contributed to the formation and financing of the SNM in its very early stages. In his "The Cost of Dictatorship" book, Jama Ghalib (an Isaq) witnesses the contributions paid by the Southern Dir clans and Hawiye to the SNM in early 1980s. In his "The Cost of Dictatorship" book, Jama Ghalib (an Isaq) witnesses the contributions paid by the Southern Dir clans and Hawiye to the SNM in early 1980s. If there were no blood ties, then why wouldn't they pay the same contributions to the SSDF, which was Majerteen opposition faction? If there were no blood ties, then why wouldn't they pay the same contributions to the SSDF, which was Majerteen opposition faction?

Ethnically, Isaq belongs to the Dir clan family. Of the four main Dir branches, Isaq belongs to Mohamed Maha Dir. Of the four main Dir branches, Isaq belongs to Mohamed Maha Dir. Other Maha Dir sub-clans include Biyomal, Bajimal and Quranyob. Other Maha Dir sub-clans include Biyomal, Bajimal and Quranyob. The other Dir clan families in the north are the Gadabursi and Issa, who belong to Madaxweyne and Madobe Dir, respectively. The other Dir clan families in the north are the Gadabursi and Issa, who belong to Madaxweyne and Madobe Dir, respectively. The Isaq is divided into three main sub-clans namely: Garhajis (Habar Yonis, Ida Gale and Arap), Habar Awal and Habar Jelo. The Isaq is divided into three main sub-clans namely: Garhajis (Habar Yonis, Ida Gale and Arap), Habar Awal and Habar Jelo. Garhajis who are the largest and most powerful sub-clan are against secession. Garhajis who are the largest and most powerful sub-clan are against secession. Many Habar Jelo intellectuals I spoke with told me that majority of their peoples are not secessionists. Many Habar Jelo intellectuals I spoke with told me that majority of their peoples are not secessionists.

Hence, the Isaq claim that they aren't ethnic Somalis or have been discriminated against by the south are pity fabrications and unfound hysteria engineered to incite hatred between the peoples of the south and north. Hence, the Isaq claim that they aren't ethnic Somalis or have been discriminated against by the south are pity fabrications and unfound hysteria engineered to incite hatred between the peoples of the south and north. In fact, it is in the records that the Hawiye and southern Dir sub-clans had greatly contributed to the formation and financing of the SNM in its very early stages. In fact, it is in the records that the Hawiye and southern Dir sub-clans had greatly contributed to the formation and financing of the SNM in its very early stages. In his "The Cost of Dictatorship" book, Jama Ghalib (an Isaq) witnesses the contributions paid by the Southern Dir clans and Hawiye to the SNM in early 1980s. In his "The Cost of Dictatorship" book, Jama Ghalib (an Isaq) witnesses the contributions paid by the Southern Dir clans and Hawiye to the SNM in early 1980s. If there were no blood ties, then why wouldn't they pay the same contributions to the SSDF, which was Majerteen opposition faction? If there were no blood ties, then why wouldn't they pay the same contributions to the SSDF, which was Majerteen opposition faction?


Another Example and Proof of the deep Cultural relations of the Southern Dir and especially the Bimaal, Suure Clans or Gadsan or Mandaluug Dir- do not only view the Isaaq/Gadabuursi/and Issas of the north as kinsman but even react violently and in solidarity with Northern Dir in times of Mogadisho war or even if other clans make negative statements about the Northerners. For instance the Mandaluug dont only view the Gadabuursi as their paternal kinsman but also have Reer Nuur and Makaahiil Lineages just like the Gadabuursi. Also the Madoobe Dir Southern Dir (Who are Ceelaye) view their Issas Kinsman in a similar manner.





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