Saturday, April 7, 2012

New “American Scrap Coalition


http://www.crtprocessing.com/



http://www.dmoz.org/Business/Environment/Waste_Management/Recycling/Electronics/



http://www.scrapcoalition.com/crisis.htm



The Crisis

June 12, 2008



New “American Scrap Coalition”

Will Address Global Trade Barriers

Coalition Notes Record Level of U.S. Exports and Prices, Calls on USTR and Congress for Immediate Action

WASHINGTON, DC—As steel scrap prices reach record high levels of more than $600 per ton and with U.S. scrap exports steadily rising, a group of steel scrap using industries has formed the American Scrap Coalition and today urged immediate governmental action to remove global barriers to trade.



The U.S. steel scrap processing and consuming industries are facing a steel scrap export crisis. Steel scrap exports from the United States have tripled since 2000, rising from 6.3 million tons in 2000 to more than 18 million tons in 2007. U.S. scrap exports have surged to a variety of countries, including Turkey, Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand, India, Egypt, Greece, Hong Kong, Pakistan, Indonesia, Japan, Italy, Vietnam, Bangladesh and Colombia. China and Korea also remain among the top five destinations of scrap exports.



Meanwhile, U.S. scrap imports in 2007 decreased 23 percent from 2006, from 4.8 million tons to 3.7 million tons, as numerous countries have erected trade barriers to restrict steel scrap trade and maintain their scrap for domestic use.



“Steel scrap trade does not occur on a level playing field,” said Alan Price, president of the new American Scrap Coalition and a partner at Wiley Rein LLP in Washington, which serves as counsel to the Coalition. “More than 20 countries, including Brazil, Russia, India and China, have enacted a series of barriers to scrap trade in order to protect their domestic steel industries.” These barriers on exports are distorting trade in steel scrap, Price said, thereby raising scrap prices on the U.S. market. U.S. steel scrap prices have surged to unprecedented levels, from less than $100 per ton in 2002 to more than $600 per ton today. This has led to serious and growing concerns about domestic scrap availability.



In response, industry associations representing more than 1500 steel scrap consuming companies have announced the formation of the American Scrap Coalition (www.scrapcoalition.com), and are calling on Congress, the U.S. Trade Representative and the Commerce Department to immediately address scrap trade barriers.



“Many of our major trading partners maintain restrictions on their scrap exports, through quotas and other export restrictions,” said Thomas Danjczek, president of the Steel Manufacturers Association. “Our government should work immediately to remove these barriers, using any and all means available.”



The American Scrap Coalition has identified several priority issues:



Identify and remove barriers to trade in steel scrap, which hinder U.S. companies and global competition;

The U.S. carbon steel industry recycled approximately 75 million tons of ferrous scrap last year, with approximately 80 percent of that scrap consumed in Electric Arc Furnaces. Recycling scrap metal is the most efficient way to make steel, and therefore results in the lowest level of greenhouse gas emissions. The American Scrap Coalition will support and promote policies to encourage the recycling, recovery and use of recycled scrap material in production of new steel products.

Consider actions by Congress, the Commerce Department and the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative to remove trade barriers.

Sharp price increases and the potential for scrap shortages are having significant effects on important manufacturing sectors of the U.S. economy. The rising cost and decreasing availability of steel scrap impacts all manufacturers, buyers and consumers of steel scrap. If actions are not taken to open markets abroad, the United States needs to consider taking more aggressive actions.



Key U.S. industries, from foundries to steel producers to construction to automotive manufacturing to appliances, face impacts from sharply increased steel scrap exports and pricing levels. Companies of all sizes, from national manufacturers to small family-owned steel parts makers, are impacted. This crisis has the potential to affect tens of thousands of jobs in manufacturing and consuming industries.



The American Scrap Coalition, a Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit corporation, is a successor to the Emergency Steel Scrap Coalition, which formed in 2004 to address scrap export and price issues and to advocate for controls on exports of domestic steel scrap. Founding members of the American Scrap Coalition include the Steel Manufacturers Association, the American Foundry Society, and the National Precast Concrete Association. In all, more than 1500 companies are members of these associations.



Companies and industries wishing to join the American Scrap Coalition can register at www.scrapcoalition.com, or contact Alan Price or Tim Brightbill of Wiley Rein LLP, which serves as counsel to the Coalition. The website contains additional information on scrap trade barriers, import and export levels and prices.








Ethiopia: Greek Businessman to Establish Dialysis Center in Addis Ababa




Ethiopia: Greek Businessman to Establish Dialysis Center in Addis Ababa

Rose Mestika

10 June 2008



Addis Abeba — Greek businessman Charalambos N, Tsimas (well -known by the name Bambis) owner and Manager of Bambis Supermarket, one of the oldest and biggest in town announced plans to contribute one million birr for what is to be the first dialysis centre established as a charity in the country.

Speaking to The Daily Monitor On Sunday, Mr. Bambis said he would also raise funds for the future centre to build on its capacity to render services and augment its running costs.

The centre which will house dialysis machines will render services for a much lesser charges aimed at supporting kidney patients, who would normally find the costs for treatment un affordable at private clinics and hospitals, said Mr. Bambis.

Cognizant of the heavy costs that entail in buying the machine including the high running costs, the businessman said he was in contacts with the Ambassadors and heads of missions residing in Addis Ababa in a bid to solicit additional funds for the centre.

"I am sure that with the help of ambassadors and other willing associations or individuals, I will be able to buy 20 or 30 dialysis machines but the problem is to sustained budget to ensure continued function of the centre, which is very expensive." He said to secure the normal function of the dialysis machine require filtered, ionized water and qualified doctors and nurses, which obviously would be very expensive these days.

"American, EU and Indian ambassadors promised me to support and also I have already discussed with other Ambassadors about the problem and they expressed their willingness to contribute and I hope I will see the project's success in the near future," Mr. Bambis said.

Dr Tewdros Agonafer, a founding member of the Ethiopian Kidney Association, EKA and Dialysis Unit Head at Saint Gabriel Hospital in Addis Ababa told The Daily Monitor the machine was available in only four hospitals, Saint Gabriel, Tibebe and Black lion hospital.

He said a patient needs 15-20 thousand Br. per month to use the dialysis machine.

According to him the other option was a kidney transplant, which again is much more expensive.

EKA was established in 2006 by a group of specialist doctors, academics, general practitioners, and other concerned individuals, according to available information.

According to Dr. Tewdros, there are patients in Ethiopia but there is no statistics that shows the number of patient.

World Kidney Day was marked for the second time here in Addis Ababa on March 13, 2008

Copyright © 2008 The Daily Monitor. All rights reserved. Distributed by AllAfrica Global Media (allAfrica.com).

AllAfrica - All the Time



GOAT MEAT IN CANADA AND RECIPES

October 15, 2008

With Goat, a Rancher Breaks Away From the Herd

By KIM SEVERSON



BOLINAS, Calif.



BILL NIMAN is not the rancher he once was.



Last year Mr. Niman walked away from the meat company he started in the 1970s with not much more than a handful of cattle and a political philosophy built on self-sufficiency.



Niman Ranch, which takes in annual sales of $85 million, was founded on the notion that the better an animal is treated, the better the meat will be. His beef was so good that in the early 1980s Alice Waters made it the first proper-noun meat on the menu at her Berkeley restaurant, Chez Panisse. His pigs, raised humanely by 600 family farms in Iowa, provide pork for the Chipotle chain’s carnitas. Niman Ranch bacon, hot dogs and sausage fill grocery cases around the country.



But Mr. Niman is no longer a part of the company. Angry and discouraged after prolonged battles with a new management team over money and animal protocols, he left in August 2007 with a modest severance check and a small amount of stock.



He can’t use his surname to sell meat, and he had to surrender the small herd of breeding cattle that lived on his ranch here, about an hour’s drive north of San Francisco. The cattle were direct descendants of the ones he tended back in the days of counterculture, not profit margin.



But Mr. Niman, 63, is done licking his wounds. With a herd of goats and a young vegetarian wife he nicknamed Porkchop by his side, he is jumping back into the meat game.



“I think I am returning to my original roots,” said Mr. Niman, who still lives in the little house he built on ranchland that kisses the Pacific Ocean.



Mr. Niman was raised in Minnesota, and moved to California to teach poor children. It was better than being drafted. In 1968, he headed north to Bolinas, a refuge for poets and intellectuals, to practice the counterculture movement’s back-to-the-land philosophy.



His initial herd came in a barter with a local ranching family: his first wife, who died in a horseback riding accident in the 1970s, had tutored one of the family's daughters; the Nimans were paid with six newborn calves.He has never left Bolinas, although now he watches over 1,000 acres instead of 11, and the land was turned over to the Point Reyes National Seashore.



He and Nicolette Hahn Niman, an environmental lawyer, were married five years ago, and now they are raising what they hope will be the best-tasting animals around. They have a handful of premier cattle that fatten only on pasture and a flock of traditional turkey breeds they personally chauffeured from Kansas to Bolinas last spring. Mr. Niman also has an organic pig project going in Iowa.



But he hopes goat will be the cornerstone of his comeback. That’s in part because he has more of them around, and because he sees a wide-open market for pristine, pasture-raised goat meat. The guy is, after all, a businessman.



“I don’t need to get 10 percent of the market anymore,” he said. “I just want to be the best.”



Chefs on both coasts are fast discovering his goat meat, although it is still available only in limited amounts, under the name BN Ranch.



In June, Mr. Niman stopped by Eccolo in Berkeley with a piece of shoulder, a loin, a leg and a rack of ribs. The chef and owner, Christopher Lee, now breaks down one or two of the 30-pound goat carcasses a week.



“It was succulent,” Mr. Lee said. “It was mild. It was just perfect.”



Like other chefs who have begun to cook with goat, Mr. Lee predicts a bright future for the meat.



“We’ve all cooked every part of the lamb a million times and we all know about grass-fed beef and aging beef,” he said. “The goat is the next thing.”



The meat Mr. Niman and a handful of other boutique farmers are producing is more delicate than the older, imported goat that is served at Pakistani curry houses, Jamaican jerk stands and taco trucks all over New York.



At a recent goat tasting in the Blue Hill at Stone Barns kitchen in Pocantico Hills, N.Y., Mr. Niman’s young goat was compared to pan-seared and roasted loin and shoulder cuts from both a small Vermont grower and what the chef Dan Barber called “commodity goat.”



The commodity goat was slightly musty and chewy. The Vermont goat was as tender and mild as lamb. The Niman goat was like lamb, too, but a lamb with a big personality. The meat was sweet and vegetal. The fat, what little of it there was, tasted rich but felt lighter than olive oil.



At Thyme for Goat, a recent collaboration between four goat farms within 25 miles of each other in Maine, goat is taking off, in a small way. People are attracted to the way it is raised and its healthful properties. Goat meat doesn’t have the tallow of lamb, and contains about half the fat of chicken, according to a Department of Agriculture analysis.



“A lot of folks said nobody in Maine is going to buy goat meat,” said Marge Kilkelly, who does marketing for the group. “We’ve found just the opposite.”



The breed of goat is important. Like the Maine collective, Mr. Niman raises some stout, muscular Boer goats. But he is particularly fond of meat from lighter framed Spanish goats, which sometimes mix with the Boer.



“What Bill is so good at is the genetics,” Mr. Barber said. “He’s the master.”



For about half the year, Mr. Niman lets the goats roam his California ranch. In the summer and fall, when the California grass is brown, they move to Oregon. He also works with ranchers raising two other herds to his specifications in California and Oregon.



Goats and cattle work particularly well together in a pasture. Goats don’t like clover or rye grass, which the cattle love, but they make fast work of scotch broom, poison oak and other plants that can take over good grassland.



“Nature is so perfect,” Mr. Niman said.



His longtime followers may be surprised that he is now raising his cattle entirely on pasture, without switching to a diet of grain a few months before slaughter.



He built Niman Ranch on the idea that raising a quality, year-round beef supply was like making dessert. You bake the cake with grass and frost it with grain. The method produces well-marbled meat with that traditional corn-fed flavor most Americans grew up eating. And it provides beef year-round. Animals that feed on pasture are fat enough to be slaughtered only at certain times of year.



But just as Niman Ranch was becoming a big, nationally recognized brand, Mr. Niman fell victim to a move toward meat purity that he and Orville Schell, his former partner, had started. Several chefs and food writers came to believe that a diet of corn was ruinous for cattle’s health and the environment.



Although Mr. Niman’s beef was quite different from conventional corn-fed beef, that he fed his animals with any grain at all was unacceptable to some chefs. Ms. Waters decided to drop it from the menu in 2002 and turn to more seasonal, all-grass options.



“It made me very sad but I just said we are at a moment in time and I just can’t do this anymore,” she said, adding that she “couldn’t be more delighted that he’s come back to his senses.”



Still, Mr. Niman continued to build the company. He took on a parade of investors. A new management team took over in 2006, led by Jeff Swain, who had been at the company that produces Coleman Natural Beef, Mr. Niman’s biggest competitor.



With the new team came changes, many of them made over Mr. Niman’s protests. The company sold its custom butchering plant in Oakland and prepared to sell its high-end feedlot in Idaho. Niman Ranch began to purchase cattle ready for slaughter from feedlots over which the company had little control, a practice that Mr. Niman said was “against my religion.”



Mr. Niman said feed standards dropped and animals were transported distances longer than 500 miles, which he said stresses them too much.



Mr. Swain said feed and care standards for the 400 head of cattle they process a week have not dropped. Contractors follow a list of protocols that are similar to those Mr. Niman developed.



And although some animals are being transported longer than 500 miles for slaughter, he said they are allowed to rest for 24 hours before they are dispatched.



The real issue, Mr. Swain said, is that Mr. Niman was a poor businessman. The cattle portion of the program was a money-loser, unlike the pork business, which processes about 3,200 animals a week. That remains unchanged, Mr. Swain said. “When we got involved, Niman would raise money and go through it and raise money and go through it,” he said. “Any change to Bill’s business model he didn’t like. We needed to make the company financially sustainable.”



The more Mr. Niman complained that the protocols he developed were being eased out, the more marginalized he became. Finally, Mr. Niman walked away, heading back to focus on the ranch where he has lived since the 1970s. Nicolette, 22 years his junior and a devout vegetarian, was there to comfort him. “It was such a dark time for Bill,” she said.



While Mr. Niman fought his battles, his wife learned how to work the ranch. She also finished her book, “Righteous Porkchop” (Collins Living, March). It is part memoir and part exposé, focusing on her work fighting industrial meat companies as a lawyer for the Waterkeeper Alliance, Robert Kennedy Jr.’s environmental organization.



So how does that vegetarian thing work out? She accepts the role animals play in the human food chain, and he never pressures her to eat meat. She doesn’t cook meat at home, but doesn’t forbid Mr. Niman from throwing some chorizo on a slice of homemade pizza. He tends to go out for steaks, especially when he travels.



The one place they compromised was over a couple of her favorite cattle. She became emotionally attached, so he promised the cow and steer will not die for meat.



“You’ve got the rancher who came back home and the lovely, smart animal welfare girl who is 20 years younger and has really gone to work on him,” said Betty Fussell, who writes about Mr. Niman in her new book, “Raising Steaks: The Life and Times of American Beef” (Harcourt, October). “It is the story of the cowboy and the lady, in a way.”



Other people at his stage of life might be planning how to ride off into the beautiful Pacific sunset, satisfied with having made a real change in how people eat. But not Mr. Niman, who acts as if he’s just getting started.



“It’s the first time I’ve had a true partner at my side,” he said of the last five years. “I feel like together, we are pioneering the October 15, 2008

With Goat, a Rancher Breaks Away From the Herd

By KIM SEVERSON



BOLINAS, Calif.



BILL NIMAN is not the rancher he once was.



Last year Mr. Niman walked away from the meat company he started in the 1970s with not much more than a handful of cattle and a political philosophy built on self-sufficiency.



Niman Ranch, which takes in annual sales of $85 million, was founded on the notion that the better an animal is treated, the better the meat will be. His beef was so good that in the early 1980s Alice Waters made it the first proper-noun meat on the menu at her Berkeley restaurant, Chez Panisse. His pigs, raised humanely by 600 family farms in Iowa, provide pork for the Chipotle chain’s carnitas. Niman Ranch bacon, hot dogs and sausage fill grocery cases around the country.



But Mr. Niman is no longer a part of the company. Angry and discouraged after prolonged battles with a new management team over money and animal protocols, he left in August 2007 with a modest severance check and a small amount of stock.



He can’t use his surname to sell meat, and he had to surrender the small herd of breeding cattle that lived on his ranch here, about an hour’s drive north of San Francisco. The cattle were direct descendants of the ones he tended back in the days of counterculture, not profit margin.



But Mr. Niman, 63, is done licking his wounds. With a herd of goats and a young vegetarian wife he nicknamed Porkchop by his side, he is jumping back into the meat game.



“I think I am returning to my original roots,” said Mr. Niman, who still lives in the little house he built on ranchland that kisses the Pacific Ocean.



Mr. Niman was raised in Minnesota, and moved to California to teach poor children. It was better than being drafted. In 1968, he headed north to Bolinas, a refuge for poets and intellectuals, to practice the counterculture movement’s back-to-the-land philosophy.



His initial herd came in a barter with a local ranching family: his first wife, who died in a horseback riding accident in the 1970s, had tutored one of the family's daughters; the Nimans were paid with six newborn calves.He has never left Bolinas, although now he watches over 1,000 acres instead of 11, and the land was turned over to the Point Reyes National Seashore.



He and Nicolette Hahn Niman, an environmental lawyer, were married five years ago, and now they are raising what they hope will be the best-tasting animals around. They have a handful of premier cattle that fatten only on pasture and a flock of traditional turkey breeds they personally chauffeured from Kansas to Bolinas last spring. Mr. Niman also has an organic pig project going in Iowa.



But he hopes goat will be the cornerstone of his comeback. That’s in part because he has more of them around, and because he sees a wide-open market for pristine, pasture-raised goat meat. The guy is, after all, a businessman.



“I don’t need to get 10 percent of the market anymore,” he said. “I just want to be the best.”



Chefs on both coasts are fast discovering his goat meat, although it is still available only in limited amounts, under the name BN Ranch.



In June, Mr. Niman stopped by Eccolo in Berkeley with a piece of shoulder, a loin, a leg and a rack of ribs. The chef and owner, Christopher Lee, now breaks down one or two of the 30-pound goat carcasses a week.



“It was succulent,” Mr. Lee said. “It was mild. It was just perfect.”



Like other chefs who have begun to cook with goat, Mr. Lee predicts a bright future for the meat.



“We’ve all cooked every part of the lamb a million times and we all know about grass-fed beef and aging beef,” he said. “The goat is the next thing.”



The meat Mr. Niman and a handful of other boutique farmers are producing is more delicate than the older, imported goat that is served at Pakistani curry houses, Jamaican jerk stands and taco trucks all over New York.



At a recent goat tasting in the Blue Hill at Stone Barns kitchen in Pocantico Hills, N.Y., Mr. Niman’s young goat was compared to pan-seared and roasted loin and shoulder cuts from both a small Vermont grower and what the chef Dan Barber called “commodity goat.”



The commodity goat was slightly musty and chewy. The Vermont goat was as tender and mild as lamb. The Niman goat was like lamb, too, but a lamb with a big personality. The meat was sweet and vegetal. The fat, what little of it there was, tasted rich but felt lighter than olive oil.



At Thyme for Goat, a recent collaboration between four goat farms within 25 miles of each other in Maine, goat is taking off, in a small way. People are attracted to the way it is raised and its healthful properties. Goat meat doesn’t have the tallow of lamb, and contains about half the fat of chicken, according to a Department of Agriculture analysis.



“A lot of folks said nobody in Maine is going to buy goat meat,” said Marge Kilkelly, who does marketing for the group. “We’ve found just the opposite.”



The breed of goat is important. Like the Maine collective, Mr. Niman raises some stout, muscular Boer goats. But he is particularly fond of meat from lighter framed Spanish goats, which sometimes mix with the Boer.



“What Bill is so good at is the genetics,” Mr. Barber said. “He’s the master.”



For about half the year, Mr. Niman lets the goats roam his California ranch. In the summer and fall, when the California grass is brown, they move to Oregon. He also works with ranchers raising two other herds to his specifications in California and Oregon.



Goats and cattle work particularly well together in a pasture. Goats don’t like clover or rye grass, which the cattle love, but they make fast work of scotch broom, poison oak and other plants that can take over good grassland.



“Nature is so perfect,” Mr. Niman said.



His longtime followers may be surprised that he is now raising his cattle entirely on pasture, without switching to a diet of grain a few months before slaughter.



He built Niman Ranch on the idea that raising a quality, year-round beef supply was like making dessert. You bake the cake with grass and frost it with grain. The method produces well-marbled meat with that traditional corn-fed flavor most Americans grew up eating. And it provides beef year-round. Animals that feed on pasture are fat enough to be slaughtered only at certain times of year.



But just as Niman Ranch was becoming a big, nationally recognized brand, Mr. Niman fell victim to a move toward meat purity that he and Orville Schell, his former partner, had started. Several chefs and food writers came to believe that a diet of corn was ruinous for cattle’s health and the environment.



Although Mr. Niman’s beef was quite different from conventional corn-fed beef, that he fed his animals with any grain at all was unacceptable to some chefs. Ms. Waters decided to drop it from the menu in 2002 and turn to more seasonal, all-grass options.



“It made me very sad but I just said we are at a moment in time and I just can’t do this anymore,” she said, adding that she “couldn’t be more delighted that he’s come back to his senses.”



Still, Mr. Niman continued to build the company. He took on a parade of investors. A new management team took over in 2006, led by Jeff Swain, who had been at the company that produces Coleman Natural Beef, Mr. Niman’s biggest competitor.



With the new team came changes, many of them made over Mr. Niman’s protests. The company sold its custom butchering plant in Oakland and prepared to sell its high-end feedlot in Idaho. Niman Ranch began to purchase cattle ready for slaughter from feedlots over which the company had little control, a practice that Mr. Niman said was “against my religion.”



Mr. Niman said feed standards dropped and animals were transported distances longer than 500 miles, which he said stresses them too much.



Mr. Swain said feed and care standards for the 400 head of cattle they process a week have not dropped. Contractors follow a list of protocols that are similar to those Mr. Niman developed.



And although some animals are being transported longer than 500 miles for slaughter, he said they are allowed to rest for 24 hours before they are dispatched.



The real issue, Mr. Swain said, is that Mr. Niman was a poor businessman. The cattle portion of the program was a money-loser, unlike the pork business, which processes about 3,200 animals a week. That remains unchanged, Mr. Swain said. “When we got involved, Niman would raise money and go through it and raise money and go through it,” he said. “Any change to Bill’s business model he didn’t like. We needed to make the company financially sustainable.”



The more Mr. Niman complained that the protocols he developed were being eased out, the more marginalized he became. Finally, Mr. Niman walked away, heading back to focus on the ranch where he has lived since the 1970s. Nicolette, 22 years his junior and a devout vegetarian, was there to comfort him. “It was such a dark time for Bill,” she said.



While Mr. Niman fought his battles, his wife learned how to work the ranch. She also finished her book, “Righteous Porkchop” (Collins Living, March). It is part memoir and part exposé, focusing on her work fighting industrial meat companies as a lawyer for the Waterkeeper Alliance, Robert Kennedy Jr.’s environmental organization.



So how does that vegetarian thing work out? She accepts the role animals play in the human food chain, and he never pressures her to eat meat. She doesn’t cook meat at home, but doesn’t forbid Mr. Niman from throwing some chorizo on a slice of homemade pizza. He tends to go out for steaks, especially when he travels.



The one place they compromised was over a couple of her favorite cattle. She became emotionally attached, so he promised the cow and steer will not die for meat.



“You’ve got the rancher who came back home and the lovely, smart animal welfare girl who is 20 years younger and has really gone to work on him,” said Betty Fussell, who writes about Mr. Niman in her new book, “Raising Steaks: The Life and Times of American Beef” (Harcourt, October). “It is the story of the cowboy and the lady, in a way.”



Other people at his stage of life might be planning how to ride off into the beautiful Pacific sunset, satisfied with having made a real change in how people eat. But not Mr. Niman, who acts as if he’s just getting started.



“It’s the first time I’ve had a true partner at my side,” he said of the last five years. “I feel like together, we are pioneering the next generation of animal husbandry.”



The Shopping List



Sources of high-quality goat meat:



BY MAIL



Preferred Meats BN Ranch goat meat from Bill Niman; (800) 397-6328. www.preferredmeats.com.



COPELAND FAMILY FARMS From the California-Oregon border; (866) 969-4628, goatmeats.com.



THYME FOR GOAT From Maine; (207) 737-8737, thymeforgoat.com.



IN STORES



BIANCARDI MEATS 2350 Arthur Avenue (186th Street), the Bronx; (718) 733-4058.



BI-RITE MARKET Bill Niman’s goat marketed as “Bill’s Bolinas goat.” 3639 18th Street, San Francisco; (415) 241-9760, biritemarket.com.



LYNNHAVEN FARMS At Union Square Greenmarket in Manhattan; (845) 744-6089, lynnhavennubians.com.

next generation of animal husbandry.”









Fresh goat meat finding favor on upscale menus



Janet Fletcher, Chronicle Staff Writer



Wednesday, July 30, 2008

Goat Brochettes with Hummus & Grilled Zucchini. Chronicle...



Diners at Oakland's Oliveto restaurant earlier this month encountered some meat options rarely seen on upscale menus: sheep's milk ravioli with goat sugo, seared goat loin with purslane and lemon, goat sausages with mint and honey, and goat chops fried Milanese style.



For several evenings in a row, Oliveto chef Paul Canales ran two appetizers, one pasta dish and three entrees showcasing goat, alongside his more conventional Italian-inspired offerings.



"Every night, the goat items were the top sellers," reports Canales, a sign that this flavor-packed red meat, long a staple in Bay Area Latino and South Asian markets, may finally be broadening its reach.



Over the past few years, a handful of local ranchers have added goats to their livestock mix. And restaurants with Mediterranean leanings - including Kokkari in San Francisco, Evvia in Palo Alto and Berkeley's Cafe Rouge and Eccolo - have snapped them up.



Bill Niman, the Niman Ranch founder who is no longer affiliated with that company, has just begun selling the first goats from his Bolinas property, targeting the Bay Area's high-end restaurants. Nobody is predicting the demise of the porterhouse steak, but goat meat looks to be poised for takeoff.



"I had a hard time selling it for a long, long time," says Marsha McBride, chef-owner of Cafe Rouge, who buys goat from McCormack Ranch in Rio Vista. But dishes like grilled goat brochettes with zucchini and hummus now find plenty of takers in her dining room, and the chef says she has to fight the Cafe Rouge retail meat counter for her share of the carcass.



On one recent weekend, Eccolo's menu offered spit-roasted Niman goat with Spanish rice cooked in the fireplace. At Kokkari, chef Erik Cosselmon frequently spit-roasts whole goats with a basting of olive oil, lemon and oregano. Sometimes he braises the shoulder in a Greek-style stew with tomato, cinnamon, allspice and currants. He buys his goat from Marin Sun Farms or Don Watson's Napa Valley Lamb Co., both operations that have added goats to complement their main business.

Popular worldwide



Goat meat is popular in Mexican kitchens, where it is often rubbed with chiles and spices, then pit-roasted or steamed for birria. Indians and Pakistanis use it in curries, biryanis and yogurt-thickened kormas (braised) dishes. Niloufer Ichaporia King, the San Francisco author of "My Bombay Kitchen" (University of California Press, 2007), says that most Indian lamb recipes are more authentically made with goat. Greeks and Southern Italians celebrate Easter with roast baby goat, and curried goat is a Jamaican favorite.



But Americans who haven't grown up with goat on the table tend to dismiss it, convinced that it is strong-tasting and fatty.



"Everybody's expectation is a gamy, goaty taste," says Niman, who compares the flavor of his own goat to a cross between mild lamb and beef. Canales likens the Niman goat, which he used for his Oliveto dinners, to veal in its tenderness and delicacy. "It's just spectacular," echoes Eccolo chef Christopher Lee. "It's very mild in flavor."



Virtually all the fresh goat available at Bay Area markets - whether the premium Marin Sun Farms brand, the McCormack Ranch goat at Cafe Rouge or the much less expensive goat at markets like Indus Food Center in Berkeley that sell halal meat (slaughtered in accordance with Islamic law) - are less fatty than lamb and more subtle in taste.



Marin Sun Farms owner David Evans says that his 6- to 8-month-old goats, at 10 to 15 percent fat, have about half as much fat as the average lamb.



Marin Sun Farms grazes about 80 goats alongside its better-known cattle on a ranch in the Point Reyes National Seashore. The cattle end their days as grass-fed beef, sold at some farmers' markets and to several local restaurants. The goats serve as four-legged mowing machines, munching on a wide spectrum of shrubs and undesirable plants - like yellow star thistle, blackberries and poison oak - that cattle won't touch. Their appetite for weeds helps keep the pasture in better condition.



"If you really want to devastate a brushy area, goats will do it," says Watson, who pairs goats with sheep in his Wooly Weeders business, a mobile livestock mowing service. Watson's hungry helpers keep the landscape under control at the Infineon Raceway in Sonoma and at parks throughout the North Bay.



"They're truly a by-product," says Watson of the goats he sells for meat. When they're no longer needed for mowing, their highest use, the goats are brought down from the steep terrain they prefer to flat grassland. There, deprived of their usual workout, they gradually become more tender.



Bob Blanchard of Old Creek Ranch, a cattle operation on the Central Coast, began raising goats about 15 years ago. He sells about 100 head a year at the Palo Alto and Aptos farmers' markets and a handful of other retail outlets.

Demand is up



"Goat demand is growing," confirms Blanchard. "And we have the most diverse customer base you can imagine."



Most local ranchers are using one of two superior breeds of meat goats (as opposed to dairy goats), or a cross between them. The so-called Spanish meat goat, the South African Boer goat and their crosses dominate local herds. Shahid Salimi of Indus Food Center, who sells 60 to 80 goats a week from California and Texas ranches, describes the Boer meat as redder, the Spanish goat meat as pinker.



Breed aside, the size and age of the carcass affect the meat's tenderness and flavor. Salimi advises shoppers to look at the color of the bone: younger animals have white bones; older animals' bones are more yellow. In general, younger and smaller animals yield more tender meat with milder taste, but they also have a lower ratio of meat to bone.



Despite the popularity of goat in the Mexican community, the Bay Area's Latino markets typically carry only frozen goat from Australia or New Zealand instead of the fresh local product. For special occasions, like a daughter's quinceañera (15th birthday), Mexicans will often buy a whole live goat from a nearby ranch and butcher it themselves, says Jeannie McCormack of McCormack Ranch in Rio Vista, who has sold many goats that way. But for everyday cooking, they settle for the lower-priced frozen meat, which tends to be a little tougher and stronger.



"It's really gamy and sticky," says Luis Contreras of the frozen imported goat. Contreras is co-executive chef at Mexico DF in San Francisco, a high-end restaurant with goat tacos on the menu. Contreras cures the meat overnight in a chile and Tequila rub, then steams it in plantain leaves before shredding it for tacos. "The (goats) from California are not sticky; they're light," says Contreras. "And I don't think they're fatty at all."



The growing availability of fresh goat opens up myriad possibilities for home cooks. Charlene Cannard, a private chef in Sonoma County who cooks goat often, says she treats it just like lamb, adjusting the cooking time according to the age of the animal.



The accompanying recipes provide two easy ways to get acquainted with this up-and-coming red meat.

Goat at a glance



With more California ranchers raising goat, the fresh meat is increasingly available to chefs and home cooks.



How to cook it: Goat can stand in for lamb in most recipes, and the commercial cuts are similar to lamb cuts (shoulder, leg, loin, etc.).



What to look for: Younger animals will have white bones and yield tender, milder-tasting meat. Older animals' bones will be yellow and have a higher ratio of meat to bone.



What it costs: Prices for the fresh meat range widely. Bone-in goat shoulder runs about $4.99 a pound at the halal markets in the Bay Area, $7.99 a pound from Marin Sun Farms stand at the Ferry Plaza and Marin Civic Center farmers' markets, and $11.99 a pound for the Niman goat at Bi-Rite Market in San Francisco.



Where to try it: Restaurants including Oliveto (Oakland), Kokkari (San Francisco), Evvia (Palo Alto), Cafe Rouge and Eccolo (both in Berkeley) serve fresh goat dishes. Many Indian and Mexican restaurants also feature goat specialties.



- J.F.

Where to buy fresh goat meat



These shops sell fresh goat meat regularly, but call first to check availability.



Alhambra Halal Meat. 3111 24th St. (at Folsom), San Francisco; (415) 525-4499.



Besan's International Market. 480 San Mateo Ave. (near 12th Street), San Bruno; (650) 872-7741.



Bi-Rite Market. 3639 18th St. (near Guerrero), San Francisco; (415) 241-9760.



Cafe Rouge Meat Market. 1782 Fourth St. (near Hearst), Berkeley; (510) 525-2707.



Halal Food and Grocery Market. 1964 San Pablo Ave. (at University Avenue), Berkeley; (510) 845-2000.



Indus Food Center. 1920 San Pablo Ave. (near University Avenue), Berkeley; (510) 549-3663.



Old Creek Ranch at the California Avenue Farmers' Market. California Avenue at El Camino Real, Palo Alto. 9 a.m.-1 p.m. Sundays.



Salama Halal Meat. 604 Geary St. (at Jones), San Francisco; (415) 474-0359.



- J.F.

Greek Goat & Fennel Stew



Serves 4



Adapted from "The Glorious Foods of Greece," by Diane Kochilas (William Morrow, 2001). You can make this with boneless shoulder, but the bones add flavor and texture to the sauce.



* 2 pounds bone-in goat shoulder, sawed into 8 pieces by the butcher

* -- Kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper

* 3 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil

* 3 cloves garlic, minced

* 4 scallions, white and green parts, in 2-inch pieces

* 2 teaspoons tomato paste

* 1/2 cup minced fresh dill

* 1/2 cup minced fennel leaves

* 2 medium fennel bulbs, in 6 wedges each

* 3 tablespoons ouzo or Pernod, or to taste



Instructions: Season the meat all over with salt and pepper. Heat the olive oil in a large, deep skillet or Dutch oven over moderate heat. When the oil is hot, add the meat and brown well all over, 10-12 minutes. Set the meat aside.



Let the skillet cool slightly, then add the garlic and return the skillet to medium-low heat. Saute until the garlic is fragrant, about 1 minute, then add the scallions, tomato paste, dill and fennel leaves. Cook, stirring, for about 1 minute to dissolve any crusty bits of meat on the bottom of the skillet.



Return meat to the skillet. Add fennel wedges, tucking them between the chunks of meat. Add 2 1/2 cups water. Bring to a simmer, cover and adjust heat to maintain a gentle simmer. Cook until goat is fork-tender, about 2 hours. Stir in the ouzo or Pernod.



If the juices in the skillet seem too thin, use tongs to transfer the goat meat and fennel wedges to a platter. Raise the heat to high and simmer until the juices are reduced and slightly thickened. Return the meat and fennel to the skillet and reheat gently. Taste and adjust the seasoning. Remove from the heat, let cool slightly and serve.



Per serving: 345 calories, 39 g protein, 11 g carbohydrate, 15 g fat (3 g saturated), 103 mg cholesterol, 234 mg sodium, 4 g fiber.

Goat Brochettes with Hummus & Grilled Zucchini



Serves 4



Cafe Rouge in Berkeley occasionally serves marinated goat brochettes on a bed of hummus with grilled zucchini. The spice rub in this recipe was adapted from "Spice: Flavors of the Eastern Mediterranean," by Ana Sortun (William Morrow, 2006). Sortun likes to powder her dried herbs by rubbing them through a fine sieve. You can also use a spice grinder. Aleppo pepper, a moderately hot dried red pepper, is available from Whole Spice Market in Napa (wholespice.com or 707-256-0700).



* The spice rub:

* 1 1/2 teaspoons cumin seed

* 1 1/2 teaspoons sieved dried oregano (see introduction)

* 1 1/2 teaspoons sieved dried mint (see introduction)

* 3/4 teaspoon Aleppo pepper (see introduction) or Spanish pimentón de la Vera (mild, bittersweet or hot)

* 3/4 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper

* 3/4 teaspoon kosher salt

* 1 3/4 to 2 pounds boneless goat leg

* 1 tablespoon extra virgin olive oil

* The hummus:

* 1 1/2 cups cooked chickpeas (rinsed well if canned)

* 1/4 cup tahini

* 1/4 to 1/3 cup lemon juice, or more if needed

* 1/4 to 1/3 cup water or chickpea cooking liquid, or more if needed

* 2 cloves garlic, minced to a paste with salt

* 1/2 teaspoon paprika

* -- Kosher salt

* The zucchini:

* 6 small zucchini (4 to 5 inches long and 1 inch in diameter), halved lengthwise

* 1 1/2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil



For the spice rub: Toast the cumin seed in a small, dry skillet over moderate heat, shaking the skillet often until the cumin becomes fragrant and just begins to smoke. Remove from the heat and let cool. Pound or grind fine in a mortar or spice grinder.



In a small bowl, combine the ground cumin, oregano, mint, Aleppo and black pepper, and salt. Stir to blend.



Trim the meat of all visible fat and sinew. Slide a knife under the paper-thin external membrane on the outside of the leg and remove it. Cut the meat into 1- to 1 1/2-inch cubes. Toss it with the oil, then with the spice rub. Cover and refrigerate for 24 hours. Bring to room temperature before grilling.



Thread the meat on four metal or bamboo skewers. (If using bamboo skewers, soak them in hot water first for 30 minutes so they don't burn on the grill.)



For the hummus: In a food processor, combine the chickpeas, tahini, 1/4 cup lemon juice, 1/4 cup water or chickpea cooking liquid, garlic and paprika. Puree until smooth, adding more lemon juice and either water or chickpea cooking liquid as needed to make a smooth and balanced puree. Season with salt.



Prepare a medium-hot charcoal fire or preheat a gas grill to medium-high. Toss the zucchini with the olive oil and salt. Cook the zucchini directly over the coals or the gas until charred on both sides, 2-3 minutes per side, then transfer to the perimeter of the grill so they finish cooking over indirect heat. Cover the grill, leaving vents open, and cook until the zucchini are tender, about 5 minutes more. Set aside and keep warm.



Put the brochettes on the grill directly over the heat source. Cook to desired doneness, turning so the meat browns on all sides, 7-8 minutes for medium rare. Remove from the heat and let rest about 5 minutes.



Heat the hummus gently over moderate heat until it is warm but not hot, adding water if needed to thin. Divide among four dinner plates and use the back of a spoon to spread it into a thin bed. Remove the goat from the skewers and place on top of the hummus. Arrange the grilled zucchini around the meat and hummus. Serve immediately.



Per serving: 535 calories, 52 g protein, 29 g carbohydrate, 25 g fat (4 g saturated), 113 mg cholesterol, 789 mg sodium, 11 g fiber.



E-mail Janet Fletcher at jfletcher@sfchronicle.com.



http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/07/30/FDNP11R7VE.DTL



This article appeared on page F - 1 of the San Francisco Chronicle



The Shopping List



Sources of high-quality goat meat:



BY MAIL



Preferred Meats BN Ranch goat meat from Bill Niman; (800) 397-6328. www.preferredmeats.com.



COPELAND FAMILY FARMS From the California-Oregon border; (866) 969-4628, goatmeats.com.



THYME FOR GOAT From Maine; (207) 737-8737, thymeforgoat.com.



IN STORES



BIANCARDI MEATS 2350 Arthur Avenue (186th Street), the Bronx; (718) 733-4058.



BI-RITE MARKET Bill Niman’s goat marketed as “Bill’s Bolinas goat.” 3639 18th Street, San Francisco; (415) 241-9760, biritemarket.com.



LYNNHAVEN FARMS At Union Square Greenmarket in Manhattan; (845) 744-6089, lynnhavennubians.com.

AHMED IBRAHIM GHAZI AXMED GURREY GEESI DIREED (c.1507 - February 21, 1543)

Located in the Horn of Africa, adjacent to the Arabian Peninsula, Somalia is


steeped in thousands of years of history. The ancient Egyptians spoke of it as

"God's Land" (the Land of Punt). Chinese merchants frequented the Somali coast

in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and, according to tradition, returned

home with giraffes, leopards, and tortoises. Greek and Roman merchant ships

and Arab dhows plied the Somali coast. For them it formed the eastern fringe

of Bilad al-Sudan, or "the Land of the Blacks". More specifically, medieval Arabs

referred to the Somalis, along with related people, as the Berberi.

Still, it is unclear from this Arab reference who are the Somali people and

where they originated from. Due to a lack of written evidence of the early

history of the Samaal, numerous historical perspectives on their origins have

been presented. According to Arab historical sources, the ancestors of the

Somali people migrated south from the shores of the red sea into the Cushiticspeaking

Oromo region from approximately the tenth century, with the Oromos

displacing the Bantu-speaking people further south.

The expansion into the Somali peninsula as far as the Red Sea and Indian

Ocean put the Somalis in sustained contact with Persian and Arab immigrants

who had established a series of settlements along the coast. From the eighth to

the tenth centuries, Persian and Arab traders were already engaged in lucrative

18

commerce from enclaves along the Red Sea and Indian Ocean as far south as

the coast of present-day Kenya. The most significant enclave was the renowned

medieval emporium of Saylac on the Gulf of 'Aden. In the sixteenth century,

Saylac became the principal outlet for trade in coffee, gold, ostrich feathers,

civet, and Ethiopian slaves bound for the Middle East, China, and India. Over

time Saylac emerged as the center of Muslim culture and learning, famed for its

schools and mosques. Eventually, it became the capital of the medieval state of

Adal, which in the sixteenth century fought off Christian Ethiopian domination

of the highlands. Between 1560 and 1660, Ethiopian expeditions repeatedly

harried Saylac, which sank into decay. Berbera replaced Saylac as the northern

hub of Islamic influence in the Horn of Africa. By the middle of the sixteenth

century, both Saylac and Berbera had become dependencies of the Sharifs of

Mocha and in the seventeenth century passed to the Ottoman Turks, who

exercised authority over them through locally recruited Somali governors.

The history of commercial and intellectual contact between the inhabitants

of the Arabian and Somali coasts may help explain the Somali connection with

Islam. Early in the Prophet Muhammad's ministry, a band of persecuted Muslims

had, with the Prophet's encouragement, fled across the Red Sea into the Horn

of Africa. There the Muslims were afforded protection by the Ethiopian negus,

or emperor. Thus, Islam may have been introduced into the Horn of Africa

well before the faith took root in its Arabian native soil. .

Islam's penetration of the Somali coast, along with the immigration of Arabian

elements, inspired a second great population movement reversing the flow of

migration from north to south. This massive movement, which ultimately took

the Somalis to the banks of the Tana River and to the fertile plains of Harar,

in Ethiopia, began in the thirteenth century and continued to the nineteenth

century.

In addition to southward migration, a second factor in Somali history from

the fifteenth century onward was the emergence of centralized state systems.

The most important of these in medieval times was the Sultanate of Adal, whose

19

influence at the height of its power and prosperity in the sixteenth century

extended from Saylac, the capital, through the fertile valleys of the Jijiga and the

Harar plateau to the Ethiopian highlands. The Sultanate of Adal's fame derived

not only from the prosperity and cosmopolitanism of its people, its architectural

sophistication, graceful mosques, and high learning, but also from its conflicts

with the expansionist Ethiopians.

For hundreds of years before the fifteenth century, good relations had existed

between the Muslims and Christian Ethiopia. One tradition holds that Prophet

Muhammad blessed Ethiopia and enjoined his disciples from ever conducting

Jihad (holy war) against the Christian kingdom in gratitude for the protection

early Muslims had received from the Ethiopian emperor. Whereas Muslim

armies rapidly overran the more powerful empires of Persia and Byzantium

soon after the birth of Islam, there was no Jihad conducted against Christian

Ethiopia for centuries.

However, Muslim-Christian relations soured during the reign of the

aggressive Emperor Yeshaq (ruled 1414-29). Forces of his rapidly expanding

empire descended from the highlands to attack Muslim settlements to the east

of the ancient city of Harar. Having branded the Muslims "enemies of the Lord,"

Yeshaq invaded the Muslim Kingdom of Ifat in 1415, killed its king, Sa'ad al-Din

compelled the Muslims to offer tribute, and also ordered his singers to compose

a hymn of thanksgiving for his victory. In the hymn's lyrics, the word Somali

appears for the first time in written record.

By the sixteenth century, the Sultanate of Adal was tributary to the

Ethiopians. By then, the Muslims had recovered sufficiently to break through

from the east into the central Ethiopian highlands. Led by Ahmad ibn Ibrahim

al-Ghazi (1506-43), nicknamed Gragn, or Guray in Somali (the left handed), the

Muslims poured into Ethiopia, using scorched-earth tactics that decimated the

population of the country and brought three-quarters of Ethiopia under the

power of the Sultanate of Adal between the years 1529 – 1543. In desperation,

the Ethiopians were forced to ask for help from the Portuguese, who landed

at the port of Massawa on February 10, 1541, during the reign of the emperor

Gelawdewos (1540 – 1559). Knowing that victory depended on the number of

firearms an army had, the Imam sent to his fellow Muslims for help. Imam

Ahmad received 2000 musketeers from Arabia, and artillery and 900 picked

men from the Ottomans to assist him. Finally, after suffering some defeats, the

joint Ethiopian-Portuguese force, drawing on the Portuguese supplies, attacked

Imam Ahmad on February 21, 1543 in the Battle of Wayna Daga, where their

9,000 troops managed to defeat the 15,000 soldiers under Imam Ahmad, who

was killed by a Portuguese musketeer.

This was the first conflict in the Horn of Africa that pitted Somalia and the

20

Arab world against Ethiopia and Muslims against Christians. Ethiopia, which

in that period was an island of Christianity encircled by Muslims, had no choice

but to ask for help from the closest Christians at hand, the Portuguese. By then,

the Portuguese ruled the Indian Ocean littoral and tried to dominate the Red

Sea. Imam Ahmad, however, asked for the Ottomans' help. Then, the Ottomans

ruled the Red Sea and struggled with the Portuguese over the domination over

the Indian Ocean and tried to prevent the penetration of the Portuguese into the

Red Sea.

Thus, this regional war turned out to be another battlefield between the

Ottomans - who in the sixteenth century advanced in Europe until Vienna

and struggled with the Portuguese on the hegemony over the Red Sea and the

Indian Ocean and seemed to be unstoppable – and the Christian powers, who

tried to block its rapid advance, and, in this case, to prevent the fall of Christian

Ethiopia to the Muslims' hands.

In this sense, this conflict serves to illustrate the strategic location of Somalia

and the Horn of Africa and its growing importance in global affairs as from

the sixteenth century onwards following the expansionist policy of Ethiopia

towards the sea and the arrival of the European powers at the Indian Ocean.

Moreover, it must be mentioned that many modern Somali nationalists consider

Imam Ahmad Guray a national hero and the first great Somali nationalist, who

emerged on the scene just on time in order to defend the country from foreign

invaders like the Christian Ethiopians and the Portuguese.

Later on, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Omanis exercised

a shadowy authority over the Banaadir coast. Omani rule over the Somalis

consisted for the most part of a token annual tribute payment and the presence

of a resident qadi and a handful of askaris (territorial police). Whereas the

Banaadir coast was steadily drawn into the orbit of Zanzibari rulers, the northern

coast, starting in the middle of the eighteenth century, passed under the sharifs

of Mocha, who held their feeble authority on behalf of the declining Ottomans.

Ibrahim Ahmed Guray imam of Zaylca born in 1506 in the province of Howbât to the current Fiyanbiro a father born in the Tigray and converted to Islam and took to the Imam preceptor Candoleh a Somali Darod clan Berzoud. He is married to Dayl Wanberra the youngest daughter of Imam Osman Ladeh of Zayla Abgal clan. Ahmed Guray was struck in his ascension to Sultant Abu Bakr al Hachem supported by the pastoralist clans of Somali Marehans, whose faction is now Haber Magadleh dorsal spine

conférations the Issaq clan and Gadaboursi, Geri, Gurgura (Hawiyés)

the Jawtire, Bartirés, Bersouds, Mazarr and Harti all Darod clan. The Hawiyés abgal who doné a good part of the clan confération Issas, Harlas now divided between the Issas and the Darood. Shibab Ed Dinne of Harrar we relate this tasty slice of our past.

Madax weynah dalka Chad markii uu joogay magalada Xamar waxa uu u shhegay odeyash Gurgure in uu yahay nin Gurgura dir ah. Hussen Habri oo jamacada Somalia digan jiray markaa oo daganaa Hotel Taleex waxa keexeeyay odayaal Gurgure oo uu hogaminayo Maxamed oo Doolo xadka Ethiopia ayuu soo booqday rag Guurah ka mida. I was in mogadhsho in the 1980's and i met a Somali elders of the Dir clan who were in contact with the President of Chad Hussen Habre who was staying at Taleex Hotel in xamer and the president of Chad had these Dir guys who said they where Gurgura of the Dira Dhawa and i swear the President of Chad said to them that the Gurgura and the Garre where both p

Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi

Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi (c.1507 - February 21, 1543) was a Somali Imam and General who defeated several Ethiopian emperors and wreaked much damage on that nation. He is also known as Ahmad Gragn (or Gurey), "Ahmed the left-handed".

He was born near Zeila, a port city located in northwestern Somalia, and married Bati del Wambara, the daughter of governor Mahfuz of Zeila. When Mahfuz was killed returning from a campaign against the Ethiopian emperor Lebna Dengel in 1517, the Adal sultanate lapsed into anarchy for several years, until Imam Ahmad killed the last of the contenders for power and took control of Harar.

In retaliation for an attack on Adal in 1527-8 by the Ethiopian general Degalhan, Imam Ahmad invaded Ethiopia in 1529. Although his troops were fearful of their opponents, and attempted to desert upon news that the Ethiopian army was approaching, Imam Ahmad relied on his elite company armed with matchlocks, and defeated emperor Lebne Dengel at Shimbra Kure that March.1

Imam Ahmad campaigned again in Ethiopia in 1531, breaking Emperor Lebna Dengel's ability to resist in the Battle of Amba Sel on October 28, then marched north to loot the island monastery of Lake Hayq and the stone churches of Lalibela. When the Imam entered the province of Tigray, he defeated an Ethiopian army that confronted him there, and on reaching Axum destroyed the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion, in which the Ethiopian emperors had been coronated for centuries.

The Ethiopians were forced to ask for help from the Portuguese, who landed at the port of Massawa on February 10, 1541 in the reign of the emperor Gelawdewos. This force was led by Christovão da Gama, and included 400 musketeers and a number of artisans and other non-combatants. Da Gama and Imam Ahmad met on April 1, 1542 at Jarte, which Trimingham has identified with Anasa, between Amba Alagi and Lake Ashenge.2 Here the Portuguese had their first glimpse of Ahmad, as recorded by Castanhoso:

While his camp was being pitched, the king of Zeila [Imam Ahmad] acended a hill with several horse and some foot to examine us: he halted on the top with three hundred horse and three large banners, two white with red moons, and one red with a white moon, which always accompanied him, and which he was recognized.3

After the two unfamiliar armies exchanged messages then stared at each other for a few days, on April 4 da Gama formed his troops into an infantry square, and marched against the Imam's lines, repelling successive waves of attacks with their muskets and cannons. This battle ended when Imam Ahmad was wounded in the leg by a chance shot, and seeing his banners signal retreat, the Portuguese and their Ethiopian allies fell upon the disorganized Muslims, who suffered losses but managed to reform next to the river on the distant side.

Over the next several days, Imam Ahmad was reinforced by new arrivals of troops, and understanding the need to act swiftly on April 16 da Gama again formed a square which he led against Imam Ahmad's camp. Although the Muslims fought with more determination than two weeks before -- their horse almost broke the Portuguese square -- an opportune explosion of some gunpowder tramatized the horses on the Imam's side, and his army fled in disorder. Castanhoso laments that "the victory would have been complete this day had we only one hundred horses to finish it: for the King was carried on men's shoulders in a bed, accompanied by horsemen, and they fled in no order."4

Reinforced by the arrival of the Bahr Negash Yishaq, da Gama marched south after Imam Ahmad's force, reaching sight of him ten days later. However, the onset of the rainy season prevented da Gama from engaging Ahmad a third time, and on the advice of Queen Sabla Wengel made a winter camp at Wafla near Lake Ashenge, within sight of his opponent.5

Knowing that victory lay in the number of firearms an army had, the Imam sent to his fellow Muslims for help. According to Abbé Joachim le Grand, Imam Ahmad received 2000 musketeers from Arabia, and artillery and 900 picked men from the Ottomans to assist him. Meanwhile, due to casualties and other duties, da Gama's force was reduced to 300 musketeers. After the rains ended, Imam Ahmad attacked the Portuguese camp, and through weight of numbers killed all but 140 of da Gama's troops. Da Gama, badly wounded, was captured with ten of his men and, after refusing an offer of converting to Islam in return for his life, was executed.6

The survivors and Galawedos were afterwards able to join forces and, drawing on the Portuguese supplies, they attacked Ahmad on February 21, 1543 in the Battle of Wayna Daga, where their 9,000 troops managed to defeat the 15,000 soldiers under Imam Ahmad. The Imam was killed by a Portuguese musketteer, who was mortally wounded in avenging da Gama's death.

His wife Bati del Wambara managed to escape the battlefield with a remnant of the Turkish soldiers to Harar, where she rallied his followers. She agreed to marry his nephew Nur ibn Mujahid on the condition that Nur would avenge Imam Ahmad's defeat.

"In Ethiopia the damage which [Ahmad] Gragn did has never been forgotten," wrote Paul B. Henze. "Every Christian highlander still hears tales of Gragn in his childhood. Haile Selassie referred to him in his memoirs. I have often had villagers in northern Ethiopia point out sites of towns, forts, churches and monasteries destroyed by Gragn as if these catastrophes had occurred only yesterday."7 While acknowledging that many modern Somali nationalists consider Ahmad a national hero, Henze dismisses their claims, stating that the concept of a Somali nation did not exist during Ahmad's lifetime.

[edit]

Sources

Ahmad's invasion of Ethiopia is described in detail in the Futuh al-habasa ("The Conquest of Ethiopia") written in Arabic by Ahmad's follower Sihab ad-Din Admad ibn 'Abd-al-Qadir, and covers the story up to March 19, 1537. This history was translated into French by René Basset, and Richard Pankhurst has made a partial translation into English.

Primary sources of the Portuguese expedition under Christovão da Gama have been collected and translated by R.S. Whiteway,The Portuguese Expedition to Abyssinia in 1541-1543, 1902 (Nendeln, Liechtenstein: Kraus Reprint Limited, 1967).

[edit]

References

1. Futuh al-habasa, translated by Richard K. P. Pankhurst in The Ethiopian Royal Chronicles (Addis Ababa: Oxford University Press,1967), pp. 53f.

2. J. Spencer Trimingham, Islam in Ethiopia (Oxford: Geoffrey Cumberlege for the University Press, 1952), p. 173.

3. Translated in Whiteway,The Portuguese Expedition, p. 41.

4. Whiteway, The Portuguese Expedition, p. 51.

5. Whiteway, The Portuguese Expedition, p. 53.

6. Described in terms worthy of a saint's life by Jeronimo Lobo, who based his account on the testimony of an eye witness. (The Itinerário of Jerónimo Lobo, translated by Donald M. Lockhart [London: Hakluyt Society, 1984], pp. 201-217).

7. Paul B. Henze, Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia (New York: Palgrave, 2000), p. 90.

translation of the Arabic account on the campaigns of Imam Ahmad b. Ibrahim al-Ghazi (popularly known as Gran) as written by the Yemeni jurist, Shihab al-din Ahmad b. Abd al-Qadir b. Salim b. Uthman (also known as Arab Faqih)... it is a welcome addition to the rich corpus of Arabic literary and historical sources relevant to the sixteenth-century Ethiopia and the Horn. It is particularly useful for English-speaking researchers and established scholars who cannot read either the Arabic text or the authoritative French translation prepared by Rene Basset...both Stenhouse and Pankhurst, and the publisher, deserve high commendation, respectively, for producing such a valuable work that represents a major contribution to the history of Ethiopia and the Horn, and for making it available to the wider English-speaking readership and scholarship.

This was, however, far from the end of the story. The Imam was killed in battle on February 21, 1543, whereupon his army almost immediately disintegrated.

I.M Lewis, "The Somali Conquest of Horn of Africa," The Journal of African History, Vol. 1, No. 2. Cambridge University Press, 1960, pàgina 223.

A Pastoral Democracy

IM Lewis - 1999 - books.google.com

... Page 30. List of Maps List of Figures Map 1. Distribution of Somali clan-families

and conti- guous peoples. 9 Map 2. Topographical zones of Northern Somaliland. ...

Cited by 69 - Related articles - Web Search - Library Search - All 3 versions

The triangle afare and united by their in Islam and their willingness to provide Africa all the attributes of modernity. The history of this Nation therefore boils down to this battle Shimbera Korey which takes place on March 17, 1529 near Addis and whose stake is the hégémonnie for dominance of the Horn of Africa.

The central hero of this event is Ibrahim Ahmed Guray imam of Zaylca born in 1506 in the province of Howbât to the current Fiyanbiro a father born in the Tigray and converted to Islam and took to the Imam preceptor Candoleh a Somali Darod clan Berzoud. He is married to Dayl Wanberra the youngest daughter of Imam Osman Ladeh of Zayla Abgal clan. Ahmed Guray was struck in his ascension to Sultant Abu Bakr al Hachem supported by the pastoralist clans of Somali Marehans, whose faction is now Haber Magadleh dorsal spine

conférations the Issaq clan and Gadaboursi, Geri, Gurgura (Hawiyés)

the Jawtire, Bartirés, Bersouds, Mazarr and Harti all Darod clan. The Hawiyés abgal who doné a good part of the clan confération Issas, Harlas now divided between the Issas and the Darood. Shibab Ed Dinne of Harrar we relate this tasty slice of our past.

"Abyssinians instructed as one man the right wing Muslims, who they bore the shock. Similarly, the right wing of the polytheists instructed the left wing of the Muslim compound tribes Somalies (then somali meant nomad) . Contingents from Tigray, vile patrices rushed to the centre where the imam had Guray. He and his companions were with the hearts and islamiqes energy Muslim. S'entrechoquèrent armies, swords were drawn, elongated spears, flags and banners made, the green banners of Islam floating in the wind, the dead s'entrechoquaient, horses hennissaient, dust was soulévée in abandance, sweat flowed on the chest warriors because of fracassants clash swords on shields and helmets in the two armies. The town crier was heard this proclammation: NATION of MOHAMED, a little patience! You will get much, Houris the black eyes are in the shadow of your swords. .. Patience! War deployed so that the dust grew, the Muslim does not recognize

plus his companion, nor the infidel's own, the brother did more brother ... the earth was covered with corpses ... the fight lasted from midmorning until the prayer of the Asr . And this was the dénoumlent grandiose. "

This victory left the exangue Ethiopia and partiquement defenceless. In fact, two years after that victory Guray excécution set the ambitious project to annex to Somalia in Ethiopia as a whole and its Islamization by fire and sword. that's what the members different Sufi brotherhoods called the "Great Idea" that of a Horn of Africa pacified by Somalis under the banner of Islam. The irony of fate willed that less than a century after the disastrous invasion of Awfat by troops ZARA JACOP and martyr to that population is Christians who in turn suffer the yoke of fierce ' Islam. The main stages of this epic were the Islamic uivantes: 1530 conquest by the Mujahidin of the Holocaust and Gondare and pacificifcation Amhara and the 1531 conquest of Tigray and the incident at the Cathedral of Aksum that Ethiopians still cry ' where their natural animosity towards Somalis and nomads.

That is the glorious history which postulates Djibouti at the dawn of the 21 st century. To develop our country, to spearhead the reunification of Somalia and the liberation of all communities musulmannes from the yoke of infidèles.Pour achieve Great Idea Nation of Mohamed, which was forged in fire and blood of the resistance Ethiopian crusades and finally defeated the old country needs all these gifted children capabilities, regardless of their clan or family.

..........

AXMED GUREY MA DIRBUU AHAA MISE DAAROOD ?

By beeshadireed.blogpost.com

Daaroodka waxa ay bilaabeen xiligii xukuumada Maxammed Siyaad Barre in ay sheegtaan Sheekh Axmed Ibraahim Geesi ama Axmed Gurey. Dhowr beelood oo ay ka mid yihiin beesha Mareexaan iyo Bartire oo ah beel Absame ayaa isku kalifay in ay sheegtaan Axmed Gurey. Hadaba Ma run baa arinkaasi ?

Mudane Dirsame Jawaab

Horta Somalidu waa dad faan jecel, Daroodkuna waa ugu sii xag jiraa. Laakin waa been iyo buuhu buuhaa ay fidsheen Daroodka arinta ah Axmed Gurey waa nin Darood ah. Sababtoo ah Daroodku wexey sheegteen in la yiraahdo Reer Darood Ismaaciil Jabarti oo uu dhalay sheekha caanka ah ee Ismaail Jabarti ee ku aasan Magaalada Zubeyda ee dalka Yaman oo dhintay qarnigii 1647.

Maadaama ay Daroodkoo dhami isku raacsanyihiin in uu dhalay carabkii Sheekhi Ismaaciil Jabarti ee dhintay 1647 taasi wexey kuu cadeyneysaa in uu Axmed Gureey noqon karin nin Darooda sababtoo ah xiligii uu dagaalka ku qaaday xabashida wexey ahayd 1549kii boqol sano ka hore intuunsan dhalan Isaaciil Jabarti

Daroodka waxbaa ka khaldan, Axmed Gurey wuxuu noolaa boqol sano ka hor intuunsan dhalan awoowgood Isaaciil Jabarti oo haddii aad cawa tagto magaalada Zubeyda waxaa ku yaala Misajidkuu ku asanyahay iyo qabrigii Isaaciil Jabarti oo tariikhduu dhashay oo aha 1593 wuxuuna dhintay 1647.

Waxa kale oo jirta taarikhda Axmed Gurey maaha tariikh la marin habaabinkaro oo habar walaboo Mareexaan ama Darood iska sheegan karto waxaa jira buug dhan oo Tariikhda Axmed Gurey ka hadlaya oo la Yiraahdo ” Fatuuh al Habash The Ethiopian Conquest”, buugan waxaa lagu qoray afka Carabiga waxaan qoruhu xaadir ka ahaa Dagaalki Axmed Ibraahim Gurey isagoo goobihii dagaalka oo dhan soo taagna ayuu wuxuu qoray buugan oo Faransis iyo afka Ingiriiskaba lagu durjubaanay oo mantana aad ka dalban karto Amazon.Com.

Hadaba haddii uu yahay Axmed Gurey Darood oo uu waliba ka sii yahay Mareexaan maxaa dhacay oo xukuumadii Siyad Barre ay u turjumi weyday ? Maxaa looga baqaa in Buugan la turjum siiba beesha Darood ay uga baqatay in Fatuh Al Habash ay u turjumaan?

Buugan waxaa ku qoron sir weyn oo ay beesha Mareexan ka baqatay oo ah xiligii Axmed Gurey beesha Mareexan wexey aheyd Dir!!! Haa beesha Mareexan waxaa ku qoran in ay Kamid ahayd beelweynta Habar Magaadle ama Isaaqa. Habar Magaadle waxaa laysku oran jiray (Garxajis iyo Habar Awal).

Mida kale buugu waxaa ku cad in Axmed Gurey yahay Madaxeyne Dir ama beeleynta Mandaluug Dir ( Gadabuursi).

Mudan Dirsame Ma waxaad hadaleedahay Mareexaan Sade Darood wexey ahayeen Habar Awal 1560 ?

Haa Mareexan wuxuu ahaa Habar Awal sida ku qoran buuga” Fatuuh al Habash” Daroodkuna afka Kaliya ayay ka sheegtaan in Axmed Gurey uu ahaa Darood. Hase ahaatee haddii ay dhabtahay wexey turjumi lahayeen Daroodku buugan laakin wexey ka baqaan ceebaha soo bixi kara.

Mudane Dirsame: anigu Galgaduud ayaan ka soo jeedaa waagii Dirka Waqooyi la xasuuqi jiray ayaan abtiyaashey waxaan ka maqli jiray Gadabuursigu waxay ka guureen Gobolka Gedo oo Gadabuursi wexey ka timid ” Gedo-biirsay”. Ah Haaa Haaa (qosal)

Mudane Dirsame: Jawaab

Walahay Mareexankaa ka tagay Boorame oo ka mid ahaa Gadabuursiga abtiyashood Habar Awal, Marka arintaas ayay xasuustaan mindhaa.

Fathul Habash (conquest of Abyssinia)

________________________________________

Futuh Al-Habasa: The Conquest of Abyssinia

Click to enlargeby Sihab ad-Din Ahmad bin Abd al-Qader bin Salem bin Utman

Translated by Paul Lester Stenhouse with annotations by Richard Pankhurst

Format: paperback; 417pp; map

ISBN: 0-9723172-4-4

About the Book

Sihab ad-Din Ahmad bin ‘Abd al-Qader’s account of the early sixteenth century Jihad, or holywar, in Ethiopia, of Imam Ahmad bin Ibrahim, better known as Ahmad Gran, or the Left handed, is an historical classic. The Yamani author was an eyewitness of several of the battles he describes, and is an invaluable source. His book, which is full of human, and at times tragic, drama, makes a major contribution to our knowledge of a crucially important period in the hisoty of Ethiopia and Horn of Africa.

‘Futuh al-Habasa,’ or ‘Conquest of Abyssinia’ – which undoubtedly reflects the situation as it seemed to its Yamani author at the time of its composition. The forces of Imam Ahmad bin Ibrahim had occupied the greater part of Ethiopia. The resistance of Emperor Lebna Dengel had virtually come to an end, and many Christians had chosen to convert to Islam. The victorious Imam’s regime seemed there to stay.

This was, however, far from the end of the story. The Imam was killed in battle on February 21, 1543, whereupon his army almost immediately disintegrated. Those of his soldiers who could do so made their way back to the East. Not a few Muslim converts reverted to their former faith.

The Futuh thus refers to a relatively short, though crucially important, period in Ethiopia’s long history. The book is nevertheless valuable, in that its author was an eye-witness of many of the events he describes, and writes, as far as we can judge, with a degree of objectivity rare for his time.

…. What people are saying about this book …




This book is the first ever complete English translation of the Arabic account on the campaigns of Imam Ahmad b. Ibrahim al-Ghazi (popularly known as Gran) as written by the Yemeni jurist, Shihab al-din Ahmad b. Abd al-Qadir b. Salim b. Uthman (also known as Arab Faqih)… it is a welcome addition to the rich corpus of Arabic literary and historical sources relevant to the sixteenth-century Ethiopia and the Horn. It is particularly useful for English-speaking researchers and established scholars who cannot read either the Arabic text or the authoritative French translation prepared by Rene Basset…both Stenhouse and Pankhurst, and the publisher, deserve high commendation, respectively, for producing such a valuable work that represents a major contribution to the history of Ethiopia and the Horn, and for making it available to the wider English-speaking readership and scholarship.

– Hussein Ahmed. Hussein, the leading historian of Islam in Ethiopia, is a full professor of history in Addis Ababa University.

“In the history of conflict in Africa and beyond, “few stories of drama and human tragedy equal” Imama Ahmad’s conquest of the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia (1529-1543). His short lived spectacular victories and determination to replace Christianity by Islam and the remarkable survival of Christianity in Ethiopia” is a story of epic proportions” which still generates strong emotion among both the Christian and the Muslim population of Ethiopia. In other words, Imam Ahmad’s jihadic war besides being legendary was a major turning point…






Ali madaxweyn Boqorka direed.

Qarnigii 1300 boqortoyada Ifat, Moora iyo Adulis waxaa asasay Gurgure Ali oo dhamaan axmed Guray,Axmed nuur,iyo Gidaarka harar ku wareegsan dhisay.

Magalada Dira Dhabe waxa loogu bixiyay “Dir baa Dhabay” ama meeshi uu Dir waranka ka Taagay kolkii ay Gurguraha ka kacsheen Gaaloda.

Generalka Gurgure Axmed Ibrahim waaqoyiga Somalia markii uu cidan ka soo doontay 1434 tii isaga oo ay hogaminayaan Garad Sacid Somaroone oo garadka Gadabuursi ah waxa ay u yimaadeen Isaqa oo barigaa ahaa Magadle Dir.

Wadanka qebihiisa koonfurta iyo waqooyigaba dadkii Gurgure ee xukumi jiray xiligaa wali dirta koonfur iyo kuwa waqooyiba wa laga helaa hatan. Nabidoorka iyo Baciidad Gurgure oo dalka Habar Jeclo xukumi jiray asasayna wali magacyadaa ayaa loo yaqaana.

Koonfurta Reer aw sacid, Layiile, Sure, Gure,Gariire, dhamaan waxay ka soo jeedan dhankaa. Suldaanka Ali madax weeyne waxaa ku Abtirsada oo kale Xawad laha iyo Qabiilka Jiidad ee Qoryooley dagan.

Afarta sheekh ee Waqooyiga somaliya keenay Awbare,Sh. Yusuf Kawnin, iyo Aw Buube waxa lagu sheega in ay Harar ka soo tageen 1300 oo ay dinta ku fafsheen ilaa Gobalka Bale ilaa hada Abe xuseenka Bale reerka Guure oo Gurgure/Akisho la dhashay oo Gure dhammole nageele agteed daga ayaa sheegta sheikh Xuseen.

Nasiib daro tariikh badan ayaa la aasay manta. Barsuuga dir, Madigaan, Magadle(ceerigaabo), Boqortoyada Biyamaal of Talyaniga baabiyay, Bajimaal, Suure Cadalle iyo Qubeys(Mudug), Jiido, Guure,Gariire,Gadsan,iyo dhamaan intayada waqooyi galbeed( Isaaq,Ciise iyo Gadabuursi) isku ab baan nahay.

Dir Aji ! Madaxweyn Dir

(1) Gurgure, Guure, Akisho, Jiido,Gariire, Layiile,Aw sacid I.W.M Madoobe (2)ciise (wardiiq,howgati) Mahe (Biyamaal,Gadsan,suure,dabruube, Barsuuq,magadle, Quranyow-Gare iwm) Mandaluug dir(Gadabuuris iyo Mandaluug sure la daga) Qaldho dir( Noole iyo qar kale Afrata qol)

SECOND PART SENT

AXMED GUREEY MA DAROOD BUU AHAA ?

AXMED IBRAAHIM GHAZI OO GUUREY LOO YAGAANO MUU AHEYN DAROOD IYO WAX LA MIDA. GENERAAL AXMED GUUREY WUXUU AHAA MUJAAHID KA SOO JEEDA BOQORTOOYADA ADAL IYO IFAT OO CASIMADOODU AHAYD ZAYLAC. BOQORKII AXMED GUREYNA WUXUU AHAA SALAH DIIN WAA NIN WALI AH OO KU AASAN JAZIIRADA 300 BOQOL EE MITIR U JIRTA ZAILAC. SALAH DIIN WAXAA DILAY BOQORKII KRISTAANKA AHAA EE AMDA SIYOON WAXAANA LAGU AASAY SALAHA DIIN OO AHAA BOQORKII ADAL ( AWDAL) JASIIRADAAS OO ILAA MANTA LAGU ZIYAARTAA.

XABASHIDA WAAGAS MARKII AY MUSLIMINTA JABIYEEN WEXEY DUDUMIYEEN GOBOLKA AWDAL EE AH GOBOLKA GADABUURSIGU DAGO MANTA. WAXAA DHACDAY IN LA DUDUMIYA MAGAALADA CAMUUD (AMUUD) OO AHEYD CASIMAD WEYN OO QABUURAHEEDA KALIYA WAXAA KU AASAN 250,000 DHISMO YAAL QADIIMANA WAA KU YAALAN.

MARKA DAROOD DALKAA MA DAGAAN DHULKU WAA XUDUNTII BEESHA DIREED SIIBA GADABURSI OO AH MADALUUG DIR IYO CIISE MADOOBE DIR IYO MADAXWEYNE DIREED.

WAXA DHACDAY IN WAAGAAS UU BOQORKII AWDAL MARKII LA DILAY UU XUKUNKA LA WAREEGAY UMAR UL DIIN OO AHAA SALAH DIINKA ZAILAC KU AASAN WALALKII HADANA WUU BAXSADAY UMAR UL DIIN OO DOON AYUU U RAACAY DALKA YAMAN. WAXA QABSADAY XUKUUMADII NIN AY ILMO ADEER YIHIIN OO ABUBAKAR LA YIDHAHDO OO HOOSTANA KALA SAAXIIBAY XABASHIDA ISAGOO SIIYA GIBIRKA ( CANSHUURTA).

HADABA YUU AHAA AXMED GUREY ? AXMED IBRAAHIM GUUREY WAXAA ADEER U AHAA UMAR IYO BOQORKII LA DILAY SALAH DIIN.

AXMED GUREEY WUXUU AHAA NIN DIREED OO MADALUUG AMA MADAX WEYN DIREED AH WUXUUNA GUURSADAY GABAR LA DHAHO BATI DELWAMBARO OO LA YIRI WAXAA DHALAY ABUKAR MAXAMMED NINKII DHAXLAY LABADII BOQOR UMAR UL DIIN IYO SALAHA DIIN EE RAACIGA ( DABADHILFKAN U NOQDAY XABASHIDA BOQORKOODI AMADA SIYON)

MARKII ARIN HALKAA MARAYSAY AYUU MUJAAHID AXMED GUREY DILAY ABUBAKAR MAXAMMED SODOGIISI DHALAYNA GABADHII UU AXMED GUREY QABAY BATI DEL WAMBARO — WAA SIDUU U QORAY TAARIKHDA KITAABKII ” FATUUXAL XABASHA” THE CONQUEST OF THE ETHIOPIAN CHRISTIANS. MUJAAHID AXMED GUREY WUXUU KA SAARAY DALKII XABASHIDII ILAA TIGRAAY ( DHUL WAQOOYIGA KA XIGA) CASIMADA ITOOBIYE EE ADDIS ABBAB AYUU GAARAY 1527-1559.

GEESIGAAN DIREED WUXUU ISKU URUURIYAY SOMALIDA QABAAILKOODA, CAAFARTA, IYO ADARIDA IYO QOMIYADO KALE.

DAROODKA WAXAA FATUUXUL XABASH UU SHEEGAYAA IN AY DAGAALKA KAGA JIREEN BARTIRE, GARI, IYO YABARE WAA BEELO ABSAME AH OO DAGAN JIG JIGA AGAGAARKOODA.

FATUUXUL XABASH WAXA KALE UU SHEEGAYAA IN AY XAASKA AXMED GUREY YAHAY BATI DELWAMARO. 1559 KII BUURTUQIISKA ( PORTAGAL) IYO KRISTAANKA MASAR EE COPTIGA ( COPTICS) AYAA U SOO GURMADAY KRISTAANKA AMXAARADA AH. BUUGU WAXA KALE UU KA HADLAYAA SIDA AY GEESIYASH DIREED OO AY KA MID YIHIIN GADABUURSI, GURGURE IYO ISAAQ OO LOO YAQAAN MARKAA HABAR MAGAADLE IYO BARSUUGA- AKISHO IYO HOOLGAATI OO AH QEYB CIISAHA KA MIDA U DAGALAMEEN. NIN LA YIRAAHDO SAMAROON SACIIDNA WUXUU KA CIYAARAY DOOR WEYN OO AH MEESHU MAGACA SAMAROON KA YIMID.

SHEEKHYADA WAAWEYN EE AWBARE IYO SH YUSUF AL KOWNIIN ( AWBARKHADLE) SHEEKHI HINDISAY ” HIGAADA ALIF LA KOR DHABE- HABKA SOMAALIGA XILIGAAS AYAY JIREEN

BEESHA MAREEXANA WAAGAAS WAXA AY AHAYEEN LAF AMA JUFO KA MIDA HABAR MAGAADLE. WAA SIDUU SHEEGAYO FATUUX AL XABASH THE CONQUEST OF THE ETHIOPIANS. EE WAANA SABABTA AY DAROODKA UGA BAQAAN IN AY TURJUMAN BUUGAS WAAYO MAREEXAN WAA HABAR MAGAADLE HARTIGUNA WAAGAS WEXEY HOOS TAGAYEEN GURGURE ( ILAA MANTA WAX GURGURAH SHEEGTA LAF LA DHAHO HARTI GAAB OO HARTI AH KUNA DHAFAN GURGURE IYO CIISE MADOOBE DIR.

QORAAGA IM LEWIS IYO BUUGA KALE OO DHAWAAN LA QORAY AYAA IYAGUNA DAAROODKA KU EEDEEYAY FOLJARI SABABTOO AH:

1) HADII DAROODKU DHALAY SHEIKH ISMAAIL JABARTI OO KU AASAN YAMAN ZIBEYD ( ZUBEYDA) DHINTAYNA 1646 SIDEEY KU DHACDAY IN AY BEELAH DAROOD EEN KOR KU XUSNAY EE OO SHAHIDKA KA AHAA QORAAGA ” FATUUXAL XABASH 1520KII AY UGA QEYB GALEEN DAGAALKII AXMED GUREY

MACQUUL MIYAA ABAAHAA OO DHINTAY 1646 OO YAMAN LAGU AASAY IN AAD ITOBIYA DHEX BARTANKEED AY WILASHIISI BARTIRE YABARE GARI KA DAGAALAMAN ITOOBIYA DHEX BARTANKEED 1527KII . THIS IS IMPOSSIBLE.!!!!!!

QORAAGA I M LEWIS IYO BUUGA ” THE INVENTION OF SOMALIA” WAXA AY DAROODKA KU EEDEEYEEN IN WAX WEYN KA KHALDAN YIHIIN

WAXA KALE OO AY KU CAMABAAREEYEN DAROOD IN UUSAN DHALI KARIN ISMAIL JABARTI HADII UU DHALAYNA AYSAN JOOGI KARIN XILIGII AXMED GUREY 1520′S

WAXA KALE UU THE INVENTION OF SOMALIA QORAAGISU KU EEDEYAY IN AY DAARODKU BEEN TAHAY SHEGASHADA AXMED GUREY AY SHEEGTEEN. OO WALIBA IN NAAGTAN DIREED EE DOONBIRO MAGACEEDA AY KA SOO QAATEEN XAASKII AXMED GUREY OO LA ORAN JIRAY BATI DELWAMBARO SOO MAGAC U EG MAAH DOONBIRO– YAA HUUNO

KITAABKA THE INVENTION OF SOMALIA AYAA SI TOOS AH UGU EEDENAYA IN DAROOD CARAB AHAYN OO SHEEKADA DOON BAAN KA SOO DAGAY OO ANOO GEED KU DHUMANAYA AYAAN GABAR DOONBIRO LA YIRAAHDO HELAY OO AAN CEEL U QODAY MARKII DANBENA ABEHEE OO DIR AH I SII YAY IN AY BEEN QURAAFAD AH OO AY Darood SAMEEYEN 1900 TAHAY. QORAAGA THE INVENTION OF SOMALI WUXUU SHEEGAYAA IN SHEEKADAN DAAROOD AY KA SOO GUURIYEN QISADA QUURANKA KU QORAN EE KU SAABSANEYD NABI MUUSE ( CALYHI WAS SALAAM) UU ISAGOO SOO DILAY NIN FIRCOONIYA U U SOO CAARAY DHULKA SAHARAH EE SIINAY ( SAINA) OO UU HALKAA MALIN ISAGOO NABI MUUSE GEED SAARAN UU ARKAY GABAR XOOLO WADATA ARI AH OO UU DHALAY NABI SHUCEYB OO AHAA QOMKII REER BENU MADYAN. WAXAA UU YIRI DAROODKA WAXA AY SAMEYEEN SHEEKADII DHEX MARTAY NABI SHUCEYB OO REER BANU MADYAN IYO NABI MUUSE OO NIN FIRCOONIYA SOO DILAY IN DAROODKU AY SHUCEYBNA ( DIR) KA DHIGEEN NACAM NABI MUUSE ( S.A.W) UU DAROOD YAHAY GABADHII UU GURSADAYNA INA SHUCEYB AY AHEYD ( DOONBIRO) AY KA DHIGEEN.

MARKA DAROODKA WAA CEBEYSAN YIHIIN OO MARNA CARAB HA ISKA DHIGAN MARNA QURANKII ILAAHEY INTEY SHEEKO KA SOO SARAAN DUSH HA NAGALA SOO KORAAN.

DAROODKU HADII AY CARAB YIHIIN MA CARABAA LOO BAXSHAA KOOMBE KABLALAX- MISE CARAB BAA LA BAXI LAHAA TAGAAL WAAQ– WAAQ WA ILAHEYGII CAWANKA GAALADA EE OROMADA BOORANTA CABUDAANE. DAROODKA WAA WADA WAAQLE -SIWAAQ ROON -TAGAL WAAQ- JID WAAQ- CABUD WAAQ IYO KOOBE IYO WAXA AAN LA AQOON.

MARKA GAALADA WESTERNKA MAXAAY DAROODKU IYAGOO SHARIF SHARIF ISKAGA DHIGAYA UG SHEEKEYAAN ANAGU ASHARAAF MASALE BIIBAYA SAARAN AYAANU AHEY OO DALKA CAWAAN DIR IYO HAWIYE IYO RAXANWEYN AYAAN UGU NIMID– MARNA U SHEEGANAYAAN IN UU AXMED GUREY DAROOD AHAA HADANA AY UGA DHIGAYAAN XASKIISI DALWEBERO HOYADOOD.

DAROOD ABTIYAAL WAAN IDIN JECELNAHAY ABTI NIMO IYO DARISNIMO WAAN KUU OGOLAHAY LAKIIN BEEN ANIGA IIMA SHEEGI KARTID- HADAN GAAL IYO FARANJI BAA KU KASHIFAY.

BUUGA CEEBTIINI KU TAALO GOOGLE.COM AYAAD KA HELEYSAA ANIGU KUMAAN CAYIN WAXA KU CAYAY GALADII AAD KU LEHEY AANA SHARIIF WA DIRUL CAWAAN. AKHRISO BUUGA

http://books.google.ca/books?id=XpdAzRYruCwC&dq=INVENTION+OF+SOMALIA&printsec=frontcover&source=bn&hl=en&ei=M5OMTOmVKYOKlweOxd1h&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.ca/books?id=XpdAzRYruCwC&lpg=PP1&dq=INVENTION%20OF%20SOMALIA&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false

ASALAAMU CALEYKUN

Sunday, September 12, 2010

PART THREE

ADAL A DIR KINGDOM RULED BY SALAH DIIN IS IN AWDAL ZAILA GADABURIS CIISE DIR COUNTRY

Adal Empire

I researched Adal, the Islamic kigndom that existed between Eritrea all the way to Coastal City Berber.

I thought Adal was mostly Afar and Arab kingdom, but I’m suprised Somalis have connection to Adal.

When and where Adal Empire was born:

*It was on the 13th century that came to the light, in Horn of Africa, one of the strongest Empire that existed in East Africa. Adal Empire had its origine in the city of Zeyla, situated until today in the northern region of the former Democratic Republic of Somalia. The father of that State was King Omar D. Ahmed (nicknamed Aw-Barkhadle). The king who had a long live, occupied the throne for many years. When he passed away, he left behind him many children, mainly males. Among them, the successors to the throne who inherited the kingdom. Later, Adal Empire became an Islamic Empire that expanded the religion of Islam with determination, into the entire Horn of Africa. Remarked by its faithful actions, other Islamic States in the world called Adal Empire “Diraasal-Islaam”.

During the centuries that followed, Adal Empire was engaged into many wars against the Abysinians (Habasha), where thousands and thousands individuals died. At that time, Adal Empire became the most loved Islamic State among the entire Islamic Nations because of its determination to its cause; its strong judicial system and its faithful expansion of Islam into the territories of Abyssinians and Galas (Oromos). At that period of time, Adal Empire had a strong alliance with the Ottoman Empire of Turkey, while the Portuguese supported the Abyssinians.

Geographical location of Adal Empire:

In order for you to better situate the indications that will be mentioned, you are invited to refer to the Map of Africa in 1808 as well as other maps. Saying that, to the North, Adal Empire was situated up to the region of Danaakil (actually, North of the Republic of Djibouti, populated by Afar people). While to the South, the empire had its border up to the region of Ras-Xaafuun (actually called Hays and Maydh, located in today’s Region of Sanaac). From the East, Adal Empire as well as the actual State of Awdal, had the entire code facing the Red Sea while to the West, it was situated up to the Region of Shawa (in Ethiopia), also called Shawa at that time. In fact, Shawa was the base of the Kingdom of Abyssinia and today, it’s the home of its descendents leaded by the Ethiopian government, with its capital city of Addis-Ababa.

Composition of Adal Empire:

Adal Empire was composed of seven (7) States. According to the size of their land and the military forces of each state, here is their names: Ifaad, Dawaaro, Araabiini, Hadaya, Sharqa, Baali and Daara, where each of them had its own government. Please refer to the map titled Map of Adal Empire (13th century). The largest and strongest State Ifaad, known from Egypt and “Shaam” as Zeyla’s land, became later the dominant and the central one with its capital city of Zeyla. Ifaad will lead the entire Empire and will face many challenges. According to the historians of that period, Ifaad was large as 20 days of walk from North to South and 15 days of walk from East to West. Its military force was composed of 15000 cavaliers and 20000 of infantries.

In his book titled “Masaalikal-Absaar”(this is in Somali spelling), the Egyptian author, Subhul Ahsha mentioned that Zeyla was the nucleus city of Adal Empire. Continuing into the description of this city, he added that Zeyla was “The City of Light”, which had many Mosques and many schools, where all kind of subjects were taught. In fact, Mr. Ahsha described Zeylac as “The Place” where one can acquire any kind of knowledge that may be taught in that period of time. The author added in his description that the people were 100% Muslim. Mr. Ahsha said that they were gathering in large number into the Mosques of the city, as faithful believers to Islam. According to this writing, these Mosques could be compared to the municipal libraries that can be found today in big cities of our century. In addition of that, schools were places where people use to enjoy meeting, share knowledge, discuss about social issues and debate intellectually. As a matter of fact, Zeyla was known as the place where the knowledge was at the merci of everyone.

Well, now that you understand the value of Adal Empire, it is reasonable that you ask what did happen to that great Empire, how did it collapse? Who were the people living under the ruling of that great Empire, well known by its strong judicial system? Who were in fact the civilized nation living in that period of time and what did become their descendants? For the time been, I need your patient in order for me to work into the information that I collected. Meaning that you will know for sure what did happen to that great Adal Empire, very soon. Concerning your questions about the people of that nation or what did they become and who are the descendants, I’m inviting you to click on “People” under “About Awdal” category and voila!

The Adal of yesterday is the Awdal of today:

First of all, though the Empire that we mention all along was called Adal Empire, in their mother language (Somali), the people of that nation called “Cadal”. Translating the word Cadal into Latin gave Adal. With the time, people changed the word Adal (Cadal) to Awdal and that is how the Awdal of today is referred to the Adal Empire of yesterday.

The State of Awdal borders with Djibouti from the North-West, Ethiopia from the West, the former Democratic Republic of Somalia from the South and, the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea from the North-East through the entire Easter coastal region. The region has an estimated land area of 22,000 sq. km and a 170 km long coastline on the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea. Awdal experiences three distinct climatic seasons; the rainy season which starts in March and ends in July, the dry season which starts in August and lasts until November and a kind of Mediterranean Fall, from December to February. High temperatures of above 35C and 20C are observed along the coastal settlements during the summer and winter months respectively. Average annually rainfall is between 450-500 mm. the State of Awdal consists of four districts: Boroma – with Boroma City as the regional capital city, Zeila, Lughaya and Baki.

As mentioned above, the State of Awdal corresponds to the former Adal Empire, which became Gadabursi Land under the British colonial, in the 19th century. Later, it was called Awdal Region until the disintegration of the dictatorial regime of the former Democratic Republic of Somali, in 1991. the State of Awdal did not officially proclaim yet its status to the rest of the world and it’s not recognized yet as an Independent Nation by the United Nations but so far, the Awdalites live in their homeland under the ruling of local authorities, with freedom. After the collapse of the Somali government in 1991, Awdalites continued to maintain a stable existence, despite the economic infrastructure left behind by British and humanitarian organizations assistance programs. The State of Awdal is one of the African’s largest source of incense and myrrh, which are forestry products. Also, the Awdal’s chief exports include livestock, fish, hides and skins and, petroleum products. Nowadays, as one of the most recently established nation, the State of Awdal presents a new field of study for scholars and investors.

Ahmad Guray was a Dir Somali (his mother was a Harari Ethiopian though…) The Dir are the northernmost of the 6 Somali Clans, They include the Gadabursi of Northwest Somaliland and the Iessa of Djibouti.

The capital of Adal Sultanate was Harrar (which was an Islamic center) and its major ports were Zeila and Sahil (now Berbera) Ahmad the Left-handed’s army included alot of recently Islamisized Somalis from the east (like the Ogaden, and Majerteen) and also a lot of Oromo and it also covered almost all of the Afar regions. It was truly the first and only 100% Cushitic Empire.

And man, did he give the Abbysinians a run for their money! He conquered lands as deep into the Ethiopian interior as Lake Tana (the source of the blue Nile) and he was killed in battle there. Only for his wife to carry on the first Jihad in the Horn of Africa.

He was also the first non European to use cannons and muskets in his warfare

BOQORTOYADII GUREY

but according to ancient medieval history of ethiopia the christian highland kingdom and muslim lowland the main cause was comercial rivalry ahmed gragn his wife batidelwanbwera and wife of lebnedengel king christian highland kingom wife seblewengel ahmed gragn was defeated and labnedengel at the batle of shimbirakure around 1529 while gelawdios the son of labnedengel took the power and kiiled ahmed grang at the battle of weinadega 1543 that some medival .

MAXAAD KA OGTAHAY TAARIIQDA QOOMIYADA CAWS-LAFIL ( DIR ) by abroone

HORDHAC : qoomiyada caws-lafil ( dir ) waxaa lagu tiriyaa inay ka mid tahay kuwooga ugu taariiqda fog. deegaanka geeska afrika. haday noqon lahayd xaga hogaanka, siyaasada, xadaarada, waxaana ka soo jeeda runtii hogaamiyaashii diimeed ku wooga ugu caansan gayiga soomaaliyeed mana aha mid qoraal lagu soo koobi karayo muhiimada ay inoo leeyihiin geesiyaashaasi oo ahaa hormuudka saldanadihii aanu cadceedu ka dhici jidhin;

waxaanu qaybtaan maanta ku soo qaadanaynaa qabiilka Gurgure Dir

Tan iyointii u dhaxaysay Qarnigii 10 aad ilaa Qarnigii 11aad waxaa isa soo tarayay colaadaha iyo dagaalada ee u dhaxayay qabaa’ilada Direed iyo Amhara . dagaaladaas oo ku saleysanaa laba qaab mid diineed iyo mid dhuleed oo ay markaas Amhara ku doonaysay in ay ku dhul ballaarsato iyo iyadoo markaas ugu jirtey in ay soo ceshadaan dhulkii la isku odhan jirey A bisiiniya ,, Balse sida lawada ogsoonyahay waxa jireyd sadex saldanadood oo ah saladanadaha ugu caanasanaa ee markaas ka jireyd bariga iyo bartamaha Ethiopia’ waxeyna kala ahaayeen ( 1) AWFAT’ waxaana deganaa Gurgure Dir waxeyna ku aadaneyd Halka uu maanta Gurgure Dir daganyahay Sida Awaash , Bardoode, Mataahara Ilaa Erer, Hadaba sida uu ( Ibnu saciid 1214-74 ) ku sheegay in ay aheyd saladanada Gurgure Dir mid Horumarsan oo ka Duwaneyd dhamaan saladanadihii markaas ku wareegsana Awfat waxaana kamid ahaa Degmooyinka saladanada Awfaat ‘cabdille oo ay Daganaayeen Jilibka cabdille ee ( Kundhibe ) ‘ Gurrale oo ayana ay daganaayeen ( Reer Wali Asmac ) Waa Reerka dhaxalka Boqortooyada Gurgure Dir u lahaa Naaneysata loo Yaqaanana waxay ahayd ( Gufaatiile ) Waxaana Jirta Maahmaaah Waqtiyadaas loo Baxshey Reer Wali Asmac ( Guffi iyo Gufaatiile Midna Yey Habeen Kuu Gabban ) oo waxey ahaayeen kuwa Maamulkoodu iyi sidaayasdoodu ay aad u darneyd…sidoo kale waxaa kamidaa magaalooyinka ay daganaayeen Gurgure Dir ‘ Seenja Oo Loo Malaynayo Iyana in ay Daganaayeen Jilibka ( Saanjeele Waxaa kaloo Kamida deegaanada Gurgure Dir Garba luki iyo Garba cadeey

Waxey ahaayeen Jilibyada Gurgure ilaa 12 Dab kuwaasoo u kala kaca ,jilibka warjeex oo kamid ahaa jilibyada (liibaane) ayna wada dhasheen (saanjeex ) oo Saanjeele ah ayaa waxa uu Daganaa aagga Manze ee W / Shawa ..Hadaba abbaarihii 1128 aya awaxa ka dhax qarxey Dagaalkii ugu horeeyey ee dhax mara Gurgure iyo Amhara dagaalku waxuu ahaa mid labada Dhinacba mid Cudud iyo Cataadba leh.. Mid Qaatey Bilooyin la’ isaga soo Qeyla dhaansadey meel walba waxaase Warjeex’ ku waheliyey laba Jilib oo Gurgure Dir ooy kala Ahayeen ( Gacal ) oon u Haysano ‘Gacalwaaq inuu ahaa iyo Nibidoor’ oo asna aaggaas deganaa ..Dagaalkaasi Libintiis waxaa lahaa gurgure ,,, waxaana Horkacaayey Garaad Cabdille,,,Hadaba Saanjeele oo ahaa kan ugu deegaaan shisheeyo Gurgure Dir waqtigaaas ayaaa waxa uu Billaabey in uu aaaggiisa xoojiyo ..waxeyna Gargaarka ka heli jireen Xukuumaddii (Awfat) ka dhisneyd ee markaas Gurgure ku mideysnaaa Awfat, Taariikhda gurgure waa mid Buux dhaafisey Buugaan aad u fara badan iyo Taariikhda Direedba …waxey aheyd Barta ay DIR ta Walaalaha ay ku Walaaloobeyn meesha la Yidhaahdo ( walaalaha ) oo 50 mayl WB ka Xigta Addis Ababa Waana Halka ay Dagaalka Ballan ku Galeen kuna Walaaloobeen:

Ku dhawaad Sanado Badan kadib ayaa waxa soo kala Dhexgalay khilaaaf Saladanada Awfat khilaafkaas oo ahaa mid ku Saleysan Maamulka Saladanada Awfat iyo Cidda Dhaxaltooyada u leh ( Wali Asmac ) oo ahaa Reerka Boqortooyada Gurgure Dir uleh ayaa Markaas Hayey Saladanda Awfat waxeyna ahaayeen kuwa Markaas Aagga Awfat iyo Intiisa kale looga Yaqiin Magaca ( Wali asmac _ Iyo Reer Wali Awbarre) Iyo Magaca ‘Gufaatiile’ Taasoo ugu baxeday Goob Dagaal Waa Sida Rag Al Maqriizi ay kamid Yihiin ay Qoreene… waxaana Qoraa kale oo uu ka mid yahay sida ( Ibnu saciid ay Aaggaas ku Sheegeen Jilibka ( Kole ) Oon u Haysano in ay Ahaayeen Jilbka Reer Kore ee Biciidaha”’ Intaa kadib isla waqtigaas ayaa waxa soo kala dhaxgaley khilaaaf Maamulkii Reer Wali Waxaana so Fara Galiyey Cumer’ Sidii uu wax uga Qaban lahaa inta uu khilaafkaasi kor isu Shareerin markay Taasi dhacdey ( Dul_Marax ) oo Xukunka Shawa Hayey Qabeyna Gabadh ( Duriyada Reer Wali ) waa Reer Awbarre ayaa la soo Wariyey in uuu Xadhiidh Qarsoodiya la Yeeshay Boqorkii Xabashida, Waxaana Markaaas Dusha loo Saaraey Eedeymo ka Dhan ah Maamulkii uu Hayay Taasoo ah Khayaaano Qaran iyo mid Diimeed,, Muddo Kolkii Ay Kasoo Wareegtay Ayaa waxaa Lagu Qabtey Waa Cumare Dagaal uu Abbaanduule ka ahaa Halkaasaana lagu Diley uuna ku Geeriyoodey ,,Xiligaas ayaa Waxaa La Bilaabay in Dhaqanka Gurgure Dir la Adkeeyo oo Reerka Boqorka Xeer Gooniyaa loo Dhigo Gabdhaha Reer Boqorna aan loo Dhisin Cidii ka Baxsan Maamaulka Reer Boqor.. Taasaina Waxey Keentay in Dagaal Hor leh ay Cumar iyo Wiilkiisii Cali ay ku Qaadaan Amiiradii Reer Makhzuum ee Saladana Shawa Ayagooo Dhawraya Sumacada Boqortooyada Gurgure Dir waxeyna ka Takahluseen Dhamaan aaamiradii Reer Makhzuum oo ay Laayeen 1285eeg ( Huntigford 1965 ;55.109,9 ):

Hadaba Kadib Markii Labada Walaalo ( Cumer iyo Cali ) ay Guluf ku Qaadeen Saladanada Shawa ayaa Misna waxa Bilawdey Dagaalo Aad u Culus in Ay Ka Dhax-Qarxaan Saladanada Gurgure Dir ee Awfat’ iyo Amaxaaro Waqtigaas waxaa Caynaanka u Hayey Gurgure Dir Suldaaan Xaqqudiin oo ahaa SAuldaanka 14-aad ee Beesha Sanadkuna waxuu ahaa ’1321′ Kadib Taariikhda Dhalasaha Nabi Ciise’ Waxaana Mudda Yar uun kadib Hadana Hogaaanka Beesha Gurgure Dir u Qabtey oo la Caleemo Saartey Suldaaan Sabrudiin Waxaana Dhacey Mudadaii la Caleemo Saarey Suldaan Sabrudiin Ka Dib Dagaalkii ugu Darnaa ee Dhaxmara Gurgure iyo Gaalada,, Dagaalkuna waxuu Socdeyd Bilooyin Wuxuuna Doonayay Suldaan Sabrudiin in uu ku Qaado Weeraro Lagu Cidhib-Tirayo Gaalada ,,,Waxuuna Ahaa suldaankii 15-aad ee Saladanada Awfat Hadaba waxaa Haleeshey Suldaan Sabrudiin Awood Yari Taasoo U Keenatey in uu Ka Gurto Ciidamadiisa Gabi-ahaan Goobihii Difaaca Hore ee Saladana Awfat, Waxaa Gaaalada Horkacayey Dagaalkaas ( Camdu Siyoon ) Wuxuuna ka soo Hooyey Guula Lataaban karo oo Muhiim ah Ayna Kamid Ahaayeen in uu W/Shawa Gacanta Kudhigo Nasiib Daro Waxaa Soo Shaac Baxdey Waqtigaas oo la isla Dhaxmaraayey in Camdu Siyuun uu Ka Taageerey ( Jamaaludiin ) Sidii uu ula Wareegi lahaa Maamulka Awfat,,,, Jamaaludiin oo asagu ahaa Boqorka 16-aad ee Soo Mara Jamaahiirta Gurgure Dir Balse waxey Isku Maan-dhaafeen Jamaaludiin iyo Camdu-Siyoon Waxyaabo Qaarkood oo Tanaasulaad ah Waana uu Ku Gacmo-Saydhay Talooyinkii Markaa uu Wateyd Camdu-Siyoon Hadaba Wuxuu Kolkii Danbe la Heshiiyey Nasrudiin oo Walaakood ahaa in uu Boqro Balse Mujtamaca Gurgure Ma uusan Aamin-saneyn Boqortooyada uu Iskii U Xulayo Camdu-Siyoon eeg ( Tamrat1972; 125 .8.5),,

Lasoco Qaybaha xiga ee Taariiqda Qoomiyada Caws-lafil ( Dir )

Waxaa Soo Diyaarshay Suxufi Abroone

http://www.alnuur.com/viewArticle.php?id=1329

Blog Archive