Monday, May 16, 2011

Ra’iisal Wasaare Nuur Cadde oo soo dhisay Xukuumad aad uga tiro yar Xukuumadihii soo maray Dowladda Federaalka Soomaaliya Jimco, January 04, 2008

Ra’iisal Wasaare Nuur Cadde oo soo dhisay Xukuumad aad uga tiro yar Xukuumadihii soo maray Dowladda Federaalka Soomaaliya
Jimco, January 04, 2008

Xukuumadda uu soo dhisay Ra’iisal Wasaare Nuur Cadde ayaa waxaa ku jira xubno aan ku jirin Baarlamaanka Soomaaliya, kuwaasi oo loo magacaabay xilal muhiim ah, iyadoo dhinaca kalena aysan soo gelin xubno ka muuqan jiray Xukuumadihii horay u soo maray Dowladda Federaalka Soomaaliya, kuwaasi oo ay ka mid yihiin Wasiirkii hore ee Arrimaha Gudaha Maxamed Maxamuud Guuleed (Gacma-dheere) iyo Wasiir ku xigeenkii Gaashaandhigga Salaad Cali Jeelle.
Ilaa seddex Wasaaradood ayuusan ku dhawaaqin Ra’iisal Wasaaraha, kuwaasi oo loo qaatay in magacaabistooda ay u baahan tahay la-tashiyo dheeraad ah, waxaana wasaaradaha harsan ka mid ah Caafimaadka, Xanaanada Xoolaha iyo Kalluumeysiga iyo Kheyraadka Bii'ada.

Ra’iisal Wasaare Nuur Cadde ayaa wuxuu horay u soo magacaabay Xukuumad ka koobneyd 73 Wasiir, taasi oo ay Beesha Caalamka si weyn u dhaliishay tiro badnideeda iyo tayo la’aanteeda, iyadoo ay xusid mudan tahay in ay Xukuumaddaas xubnaheeda u badnaayeen Xukuumaddii hore ee uu Guddoomiyaha ka ahaa Ra’iisal Wasaarihii hore ee Soomaaliya Prof. Cali Maxamed Geeddi.

WASIIRRADA
1- Xildhibaan Saalim Caliyow Ibrow = Ra’isu wasaare ku xigeen ahna Wasiirka Garsoorka =Digil Jiiddo

2-Xildhibaan Caydiid C/llahi Ilka Xanaf = Ra’isu wasaare ku xigeen ahna Wasiirka Waxbarasahada iyo hiddaha =Dir/Isaaq/Habar Yoonis.

3-Axmed C/salaan Xaaji Aadan = Ra’isu wasaare ku xigeen ahna Wasiirka Warfaafinta, Arrimaha dhalinyarada iyo Isboortiga=Hawiye/Habargedir Ceyr

4-Muxiyidiin Max’ed Xaaji Ibraahim =Wasiirka Gaashaandhiga=Dir/Biimaal

5-Xidhibaan Xuseen Ceelabe Faahiye =Wasiirka Ganacsiga, Wershadaha iyo Dalxiiska =Dir/Gada biirsi.

6-Max’ed Cali Xaamud = Wasiirka Maaliyada iyo Qorshaynta

7-Xildhibaan Max’ed Ibraahim Xaabsade =Wasiirka Gaadiidka, Duulimaadka iyo Dekadaha Mirifle/Leysaan.

8-Xildhibaan Muuse Nuur Amiin = Wasiirka Arrimaha Gudaha iyo Amniga Qaranka =Hawiye/Gaaljecel Barsane

9-Xildhibaan Cali Axmed Jaamac Jengeli =Wasiirka Arrimaha Debada iyo Iskaashiga Caalamiga =Daarood Dhulbahante

10-Max’ed Cali Saalax Kaange = Wasiirka Macdanta iyo Tamarta =Daarood Warsangeli.

11-Xildhibaan Mustaf Sh. Cali Dhuxulow=Hawiye/Murasade =Wasiirka Beeraha, Biyaha iyo Horumarinta,

12-Nuur Iidow Beyle = Wasiirka Howlaha Guud, Dib u dhiska iyo Kaabiyaasha = Hawiye/Xawaadle Cali Madaxweyne.

13-C/risaaq Ashkir Cabdi = Wasiirka Dib u heshiisiinta, Horumarinta Gobollada iyo Arrimaha Federalka= Daarood/Mariixan.

14-Xildhibaan Cabdi Max’ed Tarrax=Wasiirka Boostada iyo Isgaarsiinta =Daarood/Ogaadeen

15-Xildhibaan Khadiijo Max’ed Diiriye =Wasiirka Horumarinta Haweenka iyo Arrimaha Qoyska Beesha Shannaad/Yaxar.

WASIIR KU XIGEENADA

1-Xildhibaan C/kariin Axmed Cali =Wasaarada Arrimaha Debada iyo Iskaashiga Caalamiga =Hawiye/Baada Cadde.

2-Xildhibaan Carab Cali Diiriye = Wasiirka Dib u heshiisiinta, hormarinta Gobolada iyo Arrimaha Federalka Dir/Isaaq/ Habar Jeclo.

3-Xildhibaan Cali Muumin Ismaaciil = Wasiirka Maaliyada iyo Qorshaynta =Daarood/Leelkase.

4-Xildhibaan Fahma Axmed Nuur = Wasiirka Arrimaha Gudaha iyo Amniga Qaranka Beesha Shannaad/Reer Xamar.

5-Xildhibaan C/kaafi Macalin Xasan= Wasiirka Howlaha Guud, Dib u dhiska iyo Kaabiyaasha =Digil/ Garre.



Golaha Guurtida Beelaha Dirta Koonfureed loo doortay Prof. C/llaahi maxmed Caddoow (Food cadde), Guddoomiye ku xigeenka 1-aad waxaa loo dooraty Xuseen Geeddi Jimcaale, Xasan Geeddi Rooble ayaa isna loo magacaabay Guddoomiye ku xigeenka labaad ee Golaha Guurtida Dirta Koonfureed, halka Xoghayaha Guudna loo doortay Mudane bashiir Isaaq Cabdulle.

SNM and SSNM of Somalia

Somali National Movement (SNM) The Isaaq ( Dir) based movement that let the opposition to Siad Barre in the late 1980s. The SNM was formed in 1981 and was supported by Ethiopia during much of the 1980s. In 1988, the SNM occupied much of northern Somalia and suffered brutal attacks from Siad Barre. The SNM won control over the north (former British Somaliland) in 1991 and declared the territory the independent (but as yet unrecognized) Republic of Somaliland. Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA) A Gadabursi (Dir clan) organization from the northern Somaliland region around Boroma. Originally formed in 1989, it opposed the SNM's policy of independence and participated in the Addis Ababa talks.

Allied with SSA. SSNM ( Southren Dir) Led by the Suure, Biyamal,Gadsan, Mandaluug or Qubeys families. The faction covers the vast terrritories from mudug to Kismayo.(SSNM/BIRAM/SRRC) Mudane: Ambas.Cabdullaahi Sheekh Ismaaciil iyo (SSNM/SNA/SRRC) Mudane: DR. Cabdulcasiis Sheekh Yuusuf Southern SSNM was led by the above Bimaal and Suure Dir clan elders

GARRE DIR QURANYOW AND TUUF

The Garre Tuuf are of Gardheere Samaale one of the nin mythical founders of the Somali and sons of the Samaale the Quraanyow Maxammed Xiniftire are of the Dir clan and a son of Mahe Dir. Quraanyow are closely related to the Biimaal Maxammed, Isaaq,Suure and Mandaluug of the Southern Dir.



The Garre are a Somali pastoralist clan that live in Somalia, Kenya, and Ethiopia. They are sub clan of Digil clan family of Somalia. Almost all speak the Garre language, though it may be secondary to Maay.
The origins of the Garre are not clear, and there are some conflicting traditions among clan members. One tradition assumes that the Garre are of Samaale origin being descendants of Garedheere Samaale. However, there are other traditions that associate the Garre Tuuf to the Hawiye clan, while the Quranyow Mohamed have traditional links to the Dir subclans of Mohamed Xinfitire. Complicating matters further is the recent Garre association with the Digil subclan of the Rahanweyn, which would make the Garre closely affiliated with the Tunni and Jiido of the lower Jubba valley.
According to the legend, the first Garre ancestor, Aw Mohamed, crossed the Gulf of Aden into present day Somalia in 652AD. He was an Islamic scholar and a preacher. Because he was bearded, the Somalis named him "Garrow" or Gardheer." He married a Hawiye woman who sired two boys and a girl. The first-born was Tuff and Qur'an, the second born and the daughter was named Makka.
The Garre migrated to the Gedo region of Ethiopia where they met the Oromos who were expanding towards the Coast of Kenya in 13th century. They were defeated and subdued by the more populous Oromos. However, during the famous Kedh-gurai, the majority of Garres, under thee leadership of King Bulle Hussein and other members of the council of elders; Aw Anabo Osman, Aw Aloiw Hache, Aw Bakal Bashar and Aw Abbey Umur Mudhow Muss, migrated back to Somalia via Afmadhow and into Luq.
Another group, under Ali Abdi, migrated into Ethiopia and settled in "Did Libaan" or the Libaan's plains. These are the Garre-Libiin or Garre Ali Abdi.
The Garres who migrated to Somalia under the leadership of Aw Bulle Hussein are referred to as Garre Konfur. Many people doubt that the Tuff and Quran are children of the same father. However, this is historical fact. Geneologically, the Tuff Garre and Quranyowa Mohamed are brothers. One using the actual name of his father, while the other uses the nickname of his father
The Garre are divided into Tuff and Quranyowa sub-clans; the Tuffs further into Ali and Adola; the Quranyow into Asare and Furkesha
THEY ARE DIVIDED INTO TWO MAJOR SUB CLANS, TUF AND QURAN (QURANYOWA.) ACCORDING TO THE GHARRI ORAL TRADITIONS, ALMOST ALL OF THE GHARRI ELDERS AGREE INCLUDING SHEIKH ABDIWAHID, ONE OF THE WELL RESPECTED GHARRI ELDERS FROM GHARRI KONFUR, GHARRI WAS AN ARAB IMMIGRANT WHO CAME FROM THE GOLF OF ADEN OR POSSIBLY FROM “YEMAN” HE HAD TWO SONS, MOHAMED AND TUF. MOHAMED DIED AFTER HE HAD ONE SON QURAN (QURANYOW). QURAN WAS RAISED BY HIS UNCLE MR. TUF. LATER ON HE MARRIED MAKO WHO IS TUF’S DAUGHTER AND QURAN’S FIRST COUSIN. THEN HE (QURAN) FATHERED TWO SONS, FURKESHA AND ASSAREE. ASSARREE.HAD TWO SONS, BANA AND KILIYA.
FURKESHA, THE BROTHER OF ASSARRE , HAD SEVEN SONS, THEY WERE HODKOYA, BIRKAYA, HOYTRA, DARAWA, KALWESHA, HURDEQ AND “SUBUKITRE”.
ALSO, THE SECOND HALF OF THE GHARRI BRANCH IS TUF. TUF IS BELIEVED TO BE THE UNCLE AND FATHER IN LAW’S OF QURAN OR QURANYOW, AND HE HAD TWO SONS, ALI AND ADOLA. ADOLA HAD EIGHT SONS. THEY WERE KALWINA, KALMASSA, BURSUNI, ODOMAI, MAQABILLE, MAID, RER MUG AND TUBADI.
THE TUF’S SECOND SON ALI HAD THREE SONS; THEIR NAMES WERE KALULA, TAWULLE AND SABDHAWA. SO,

QEYBTA 1 TAARIKHDA DIR IYO WAXA AY KA QOREEN REER GALBEEDKA

COMING SOON DHAWAAN AYAAN DABIC DOONA


QEYBTA 1 TAARIKHDA DIR IYO WAXA AY KA QOREEN REER GALBEEDKA


The Invention of Somalia [Paperback] Ali Jimale Ahmed (Editor)

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/so.html


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Somalia#Ancient

AXMED GUREY MA DIRBUU AHAA MISE DAAROOD ?
Daaroodka waxa ay bilaabeen xiligii xukuumada Maxammed Siyaad Barre in ay sheegtaan Sheekh Axmed Ibraahim Geesi ama Axmed Gurey. Dhowr beelood oo ay ka mid yihiin beesha Mareexaan iyo Bartire oo ah beel Absame ayaa isku kalifay in ay sheegtaan Axmed Gurey. Hadaba Ma run baa arinkaasi ?

Mudane Dirsame Jawaab

Horta Somalidu waa dad faan jecel, Daroodkuna waa ugu sii xag jiraa. Laakin waa been iyo buuhu buuhaa ay fidsheen Daroodka arinta ah Axmed Gurey waa nin Darood ah. Sababtoo ah Daroodku wexey sheegteen in la yiraahdo Reer Darood Ismaaciil Jabarti oo uu dhalay sheekha caanka ah ee Ismaail Jabarti ee ku aasan Magaalada Zubeyda ee dalka Yaman oo dhintay qarnigii 1647.

Maadaama ay Daroodkoo dhami isku raacsanyihiin in uu dhalay carabkii Sheekhi Ismaaciil Jabarti ee dhintay 1647 taasi wexey kuu cadeyneysaa in uu Axmed Gureey noqon karin nin Darooda sababtoo ah xiligii uu dagaalka ku qaaday xabashida wexey ahayd 1549kii boqol sano ka hore intuunsan dhalan Isaaciil Jabarti


Daroodka waxbaa ka khaldan, Axmed Gurey wuxuu noolaa boqol sano ka hor intuunsan dhalan awoowgood Isaaciil Jabarti oo haddii aad cawa tagto magaalada Zubeyda waxaa ku yaala Misajidkuu ku asanyahay iyo qabrigii Isaaciil Jabarti oo tariikhduu dhashay oo aha 1593 wuxuuna dhintay 1647.

Waxa kale oo jirta taarikhda Axmed Gurey maaha tariikh la marin habaabinkaro oo habar walaboo Mareexaan ama Darood iska sheegan karto waxaa jira buug dhan oo Tariikhda Axmed Gurey ka hadlaya oo la Yiraahdo " Fatuuh al Habash The Ethiopian Conquest", buugan waxaa lagu qoray afka Carabiga waxaan qoruhu xaadir ka ahaa Dagaalki Axmed Ibraahim Gurey isagoo goobihii dagaalka oo dhan soo taagna ayuu wuxuu qoray buugan oo Faransis iyo afka Ingiriiskaba lagu durjubaanay oo mantana aad ka dalban karto Amazon.Com.

Hadaba haddii uu yahay Axmed Gurey Darood oo uu waliba ka sii yahay Mareexaan maxaa dhacay oo xukuumadii Siyad Barre ay u turjumi weyday ? Maxaa looga baqaa in Buugan la turjum siiba beesha Darood ay uga baqatay in Fatuh Al Habash ay u turjumaan?

Buugan waxaa ku qoron sir weyn oo ay beesha Mareexan ka baqatay oo ah xiligii Axmed Gurey beesha Mareexan wexey aheyd Dir!!! Haa beesha Mareexan waxaa ku qoran in ay Kamid ahayd beelweynta Habar Magaadle ama Isaaqa. Habar Magaadle waxaa laysku oran jiray (Garxajis iyo Habar Awal).

Mida kale buugu waxaa ku cad in Axmed Gurey yahay Madaxeyne Dir ama beeleynta Mandaluug Dir ( Gadabuursi).


Mudan Dirsame Ma waxaad hadaleedahay Mareexaan Sade Darood wexey ahayeen Habar Awal 1560 ?


Haa Mareexan wuxuu ahaa Habar Awal sida ku qoran buuga" Fatuuh al Habash" Daroodkuna afka Kaliya ayay ka sheegtaan in Axmed Gurey uu ahaa Darood. Hase ahaatee haddii ay dhabtahay wexey turjumi lahayeen Daroodku buugan laakin wexey ka baqaan ceebaha soo bixi kara.


Mudane Dirsame: anigu Galgaduud ayaan ka soo jeedaa waagii Dirka Waqooyi la xasuuqi jiray ayaan abtiyaashey waxaan ka maqli jiray Gadabuursigu waxay ka guureen Gobolka Gedo oo Gadabuursi wexey ka timid " Gedo-biirsay". Ah Haaa Haaa (qosal)

Mudane Dirsame: Jawaab

Walahay Mareexankaa ka tagay Boorame oo ka mid ahaa Gadabuursiga abtiyashood Habar Awal, Marka arintaas ayay xasuustaan mindhaa.




Fathul Habash (conquest of Abyssinia)
________________________________________
Futuh Al-Habasa: The Conquest of Abyssinia
Click to enlargeby Sihab ad-Din Ahmad bin Abd al-Qader bin Salem bin Utman
Translated by Paul Lester Stenhouse with annotations by Richard Pankhurst
Format: paperback; 417pp; map
ISBN: 0-9723172-4-4
About the Book
Sihab ad-Din Ahmad bin ‘Abd al-Qader’s account of the early sixteenth century Jihad, or holywar, in Ethiopia, of Imam Ahmad bin Ibrahim, better known as Ahmad Gran, or the Left handed, is an historical classic. The Yamani author was an eyewitness of several of the battles he describes, and is an invaluable source. His book, which is full of human, and at times tragic, drama, makes a major contribution to our knowledge of a crucially important period in the hisoty of Ethiopia and Horn of Africa.
‘Futuh al-Habasa,’ or ‘Conquest of Abyssinia’ - which undoubtedly reflects the situation as it seemed to its Yamani author at the time of its composition. The forces of Imam Ahmad bin Ibrahim had occupied the greater part of Ethiopia. The resistance of Emperor Lebna Dengel had virtually come to an end, and many Christians had chosen to convert to Islam. The victorious Imam’s regime seemed there to stay.
This was, however, far from the end of the story. The Imam was killed in battle on February 21, 1543, whereupon his army almost immediately disintegrated. Those of his soldiers who could do so made their way back to the East. Not a few Muslim converts reverted to their former faith.
The Futuh thus refers to a relatively short, though crucially important, period in Ethiopia’s long history. The book is nevertheless valuable, in that its author was an eye-witness of many of the events he describes, and writes, as far as we can judge, with a degree of objectivity rare for his time.

.... What people are saying about this book ...
This book is the first ever complete English translation of the Arabic account on the campaigns of Imam Ahmad b. Ibrahim al-Ghazi (popularly known as Gran) as written by the Yemeni jurist, Shihab al-din Ahmad b. Abd al-Qadir b. Salim b. Uthman (also known as Arab Faqih)... it is a welcome addition to the rich corpus of Arabic literary and historical sources relevant to the sixteenth-century Ethiopia and the Horn. It is particularly useful for English-speaking researchers and established scholars who cannot read either the Arabic text or the authoritative French translation prepared by Rene Basset...both Stenhouse and Pankhurst, and the publisher, deserve high commendation, respectively, for producing such a valuable work that represents a major contribution to the history of Ethiopia and the Horn, and for making it available to the wider English-speaking readership and scholarship.


-- Hussein Ahmed. Hussein, the leading historian of Islam in Ethiopia, is a full professor of history in Addis Ababa University.
"In the history of conflict in Africa and beyond, "few stories of drama and human tragedy equal" Imama Ahmad's conquest of the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia (1529-1543). His short lived spectacular victories and determination to replace Christianity by Islam and the remarkable survival of Christianity in Ethiopia" is a story of epic proportions" which still generates strong emotion among both the Christian and the Muslim population of Ethiopia. In other words, Imam Ahmad's jihadic war besides being legendary was a major turning point...

CUSHITIC LANGUEGES KUSHITIC SOMALI

The Cushitic of East Africa


Afro-Asiatic
Geographic
distribution:Horn of Africa, North Africa, northern Central Africa,
northern West Africa, Southwest Asia. Genetic
classification:One of the World's major language families
Subdivisions:

Egyptian group
Berber group
Chadic group
Cushitic group
Omotic group
Semitic group
Birale (unclassified)



SOMALI AND RELATED BAYSO (AF JIIDO), RENDILLE, DESENECH (MURILLE), RENDILLE,BONI (AF BONI)

Heine in 1978 classified Bayso as the Northern branch of Omo-Tana (The Sam languages) while Sasse (1975) established the Western branch with the closely related languages Dasenech, Arbore and Elmolo. Rendille and Boni are included together with Somali, the Eastern branch of Omo-Tana.

BAYSO (AF JIIDO)

However, there are two distinct communities indigenous to Gidiccho island speaking different languages: the Bayso, and the Harro.

Bayso is the name of a village on the southern tip of Gidiccho island and the name
used by the entire community to refer to themselves as an ethnic group, as well as to their
language.


Leo Reinisch

1. linguistic evidence, especially livestock terminology

saa, "cattle"
This root is a suppletive plural for "cow", i.e. "cattle" throughout
Eastern Cushitic and Beja. Hudson reconstmcts *sa?a for Highland
East Cushitic and Ehret (1987: 61)

Cushitic

The Cushitic languages are mostly spoken in central, southern and eastern
Ethiopia (mainly in Afar, Oromia and Somali regions). The Cushitic languages use
the Roman alphabet and Ge'ez script. For example, Oromo is written in the Ge'ez
script whereas Somali is written in the Roman alphabet.

The Cushitic Languages:

Afarigna
Agewigna
Alaba
Arbore
Awngi
Baiso
Burji
Bussa
Daasanech
Gawwada
Gedeo
Hadiyya
Kambatta
Kemant
Konso
Kunfal
Libido
Oromigna
Saho
Sidamigna
Somaligna
Tsamai
Werize
Xamtanga

Omotic VERY CLOSE TO CUSITIC

The Omotic languages are predominantly spoken between the Lakes of southern Rift
Valley and the Omo River.

The Omotic Languages:


Anfillo
Ari
Bambassi
Basketto
Bench
Boro
Chara
Dime
Dizzi
Dorze
Gamo-Gofa
Ganza
Hammer-Banna
Hozo
Kachama-Ganjule
Kara
Kefa
Kore
Male
Melo
Mocha
Nayi
Oyda
Shakacho
Sheko
Welaytta (Welamo)
Yemsa
Zayse-Zergulla

Ethiopia has 83 different languages with up to 200 different dialects spoken.
The largest ethnic and linguistic groups are the Oromos, Amharas and Tigrayans.


East Cushitic languages -

East Cushitic Geographic distribution:Ethiopia Genetic classification:Afro-Asiatic Cushitic

East Cushitic
Subdivisions:

Boon (AF AWEERI SOMALIA)
Yaaku
Dullay group
Highland East Cushitic group
Konso-Gidole group
Oromo group
Rendille-Boni group
Saho-Afar group
Somali group
Western Omo-Tana group


The East Cushitic languages
comprise more than thirty languages belonging to the Cushitic family within the Afro-Asiatic phylum. East Cushitic languages are spoken mainly in Ethiopia, Somalia and Djibouti, but also in parts of Kenya.

The most prominent East Cushitic language is Oromo, with about 21 million
speakers. Other prominent languages include Somali (spoken by ethnic Somalis in
Somalia, Ethiopia, Yemen, Djibouti, and Kenya) with about 15 million speakers,
Sidamo (in Ethiopia) with about 2 million speakers, and Afar (in Eritrea and
Djibouti) with about 1.5 million.
In the internal classification of East Cushitic, the most common major division
is between Highland East Cushitic and Lowland East Cushitic. Western Omo-Tana is
a distinct branch, as are the two branches represented by Yaaku (extinct) and
Boon (endangered).

List of Eastern Cushitic languages
Highland East Cushitic

Alaba (or Alaaba)
Burji
Gedeo
Hadiyya (or Hadiya)
Kambaata
Libido
Sidamo

Lowland East Cushitic



Somali languages
Somali
Af-Maay
Rendille-Boni (Rendille and Boni)

Saho-Afar languages
Saho
Afar
Konso-Gidole
Konso (or Komso)
Dirasha (or Gidole, Kidole, Diraytata)
Oromo
Dullay
Bussa (endangered)
Gawwada
Tsamai
Western Omo-Tana
Arbore
Baiso
Daasanach

El Molo/Elmolo (extinct; all speakers have shifted to Elmolo-Samburu)
Yaaku (moribund; all speakers have shifted to Mukogodo-Maasai, only three
fluent speakers left)
Boon (endangered, possibly extinct)



The “Islanders” of Lake Abaya and Lake Ch’amo:
Harro, Ganjule, Gats’ame and Bayso
by Matthias Brenzinger

Introduction
The four names included in the title are referring to communities speaking two distinct
languages. The Harro on Gidiccho Island, the Ganjule to the west of Lake Ch’amo and the
Gats’ame west of Lake Abaya speak varieties of one and the same Ometo language. Since
they belong to the “Ometo” cluster and therefore are included with the Omotic family,
their linguistic affiliation with the second language spoken on the “islands”, namely
Bayso - an East Cushitic language - comes in on the macro-level of Afro-Asiatic only.
The “Islanders” of Lake Abaya and Lake Ch’amo - i.e., Harro, Ganjule, and Gats’ame -
speak an Ometo language closely related to other languages of this region such as Zayse
and Koorette, while Bayso is a geographical as well as linguistic outlier of the Omo-Tana
group.
The Bayso people identify themselves by their language, which has been analyzed as
forming a sub-group of its own within Omo-Tana. Heine in 1978 classified Bayso as the
Northern branch of Omo-Tana (The Sam languages) while Sasse (1975) established the
Western branch with the closely related languages Dasenech, Arbore and Elmolo.
Rendille and Boni are included together with Somali, the Eastern branch of Omo-Tana.
Inconsistent use of names which are used to refer to the people of the islands and their
languages has caused quite some confusion in the past. According to our information, the
following use of names seems to be established among the people of that area at present:
Gidicho is the name of the largest island in Lake Abaya and according to Wedekind
(p.c.) it derives from a Gedeo term meaning “small thing inside [the water]”. At the same
time the term Gidiccho is widely misused to refer to people living, as well as languages
spoken, on the island. However, there are two distinct communities indigenous to
Gidiccho island speaking different languages: the Bayso, and the Harro. Haberland in
1955 (Haberland 1963) used “Gidiccho” to refer to the Bayso people, whereas Fleming
classified the “Gidicho” language as belonging to the East Ometo branch of Omotic; that
means his “Gidicho” was actually “Harro” (Fleming / Bender 1976).
Bayso is the name of a village on the southern tip of Gidiccho island and the name
used by the entire community to refer to themselves as an ethnic group, as well as to their
language. Gats’ame and Ganjule call the Gidiccho island Alk├íso and the Bayso Alkalli.

Wordlist of Bayso

HALGANKII BIMAAL DIR IYO AKISHO IYO WIIL WAAL

Beelaha Dir waxaa hayaankan uga qayb qaatay reerka Biyamaal oo sida sheekooyinka lagu hayo ka soo guuray gobollada waqooyi bartamihii qarnigii 18-aad. Waxaa la tilmaamaa in ay sababtu ahayd gar-colaadeed oo lagu heshiisiinayay iyaga iyo beesha Gadubiirsay oo uu dagaal xumi dhex maray. Gartaas oo ay galeen odeyaal u dhashay beelaha Isaaq iyo Ciise ayaa Biyamaalku waxay ka tirsadeen in laga eexday. Markaas baa reerihii Biyamaal waxay guddoonsadeen talo uu xargihii reerku u dhamaa oo ahayd in ay degaanka isaga guuraan. Adeerow inkasta oo waddadii ay Biyamaalku soo raaceen aanan sheekooyinka lagu xusin, misana waxaa la hubaa in hayaankoodii ay ku soo fureen koonfurta webiga Shabeele, halkaas oo illaa maanta ay degan yihiin. Xilligaas waxaa ay degaanka ugu yimaadeen beesha Gelledi oo lahayd maamul siyaasadeed oo hanaqaad ahaa. Labada Beelood (Gelledi iyo Biyamaal) dagaalo badan ayaa dhex maray, kuwaas oo ay Biyamaalku ku dileen saddex suldaan oo Gelledi ahaa oo is dhalay (suldaa! ! n Maxamuud, suldaan Yuusuf iyo suldaan Axmad). Socdaalkii Biyamaal intaas kuma hakan ee qaybo beesha kamid ah ayaa koonfur u sii kacay oo gobolka Jubada-Hoose ku hakaday. Qolyihii koonfurta aaday ayaa dhexdoodii colaadi ka aloosantay. Dabadeed jifi kamid ahayd baa waxay u tallaabeen bulshooyinka Baantuuga ah ee ku dhaqan gobolka waqooyi-bari iyo bariga dalka Keenya halkaas oo ay ku milmeen dadyowgii ay u tageen. Adeerow xus oo beelo kamid ah reeraha la yiraahdo Reendiille ee ku nool yuulada Mkunuumbi oo ka tirsan degmada Laamo waxaa la rumaysan yahay in ay yihiin dadyowgii kuushiitiga ahaa ee ku noolaa koonfurta Banaadir. Sheeko-dhaqameedyada reeraha Biyamaal waxaa ku xusan in qayb kamid ah reeraha Reendiille ay yihiin dad iyaga ka tegey oo absaxankooda la garanayo. Dadkaasi waxay ku tageen dagaal ay jifiyadii Biyamaal isugu tageen. Magaca reerka tegey waa Kalafoow, absaxankooduna wuxuu gelayaa Sacad oo ah jifi Biyamaal kamid ah.
Dhaqdhaqaaqii ganacsatada reer Cumaan wuxuu raad ku yeeshay qaybo kamid ah gobollada Soomaaliya. Saldanaddii beesha Gelledi ayaa xilligii ay is-beddelayeen labadii qarni, kii 18-aad iyo kii 19-aad, waxay yeelatay maamul hanaqaaday. Saldanaddaas oo xarunteedu ahayd degmada Afgooye ayaa waxay xiriir la lahayd maamulkii ka jiray magaalada Xamar. Xilligii suldaan Yuusuf oo qiyaastii ku beegan 1812-kii - 1845-kii ayaa saldanaddu xoogowday. Waxaa ballaartay dhulka uu ku baahay ganacsigii saldanadda. Dekadda Xamar ayaa waxaa laga dhoofin jiray dalayga ka soo go´a beeraha reerka Gelledi iyo xubnaha dugaagga. Reerku waxay dekadda kala soo degi jireen waxyaabaha ay dibadda uga baahnaayeen oo dharku uu kamid ahaa. Waxaa kale oo ay soo dhoofsan jireen dadka addoomada ah, kuwaas oo beeraha ka shaqayn jiray. Adeerow waxaa xusan, sanadihii u dhexeeyay 1820-kii iyo 1840-kii, dekadaha Xamar iyo Marka in sanad walba lagala soo degi jiray dad gaaraya 10.000 oo addoomo ah.
Adeer ! wakhti ku dhow xilliga ay Biyamaalku hayaameen ayaa galbeedka Soomaaliya waxaa iyaguna ka soo kacay beelo kamid ah reeraha Kablalax (Ogaadeen). Beelahaas waxaa kamid ahaa , Maqaabil, Cawlyahan, jifiyo kamid ah reerka Maxamd Subayr iyo Caabud-waaq oo kamid ah jifiyada Talamuge. Geediga reerkan wuxuu soo maray gobolka Bay. Sida ay isku raaceen da´wayntii sheekooyinkan laga wariyay, muddo sanado ah ayay halkaas ku sugnaayeen. Dabadeed waxay u soo tallaabeen degaanka Jilib, halkaas oo ay ka samaysteen saldhig ay ka sahan sadaan degaanka.
Waxaa jira sheekooyin tilmaamaya in beelaha soomaaliyeed ay si wadajir ah ula dirireen dadkii Baantuuga ahaa ee ku noolaa degaanka Juba, arrintaasi waxay xoojinaysaa aragtida oranaysa in beelaha soo hayaamay ay isugu yimaadeen degaanka Jilib oo markaas ahayd degaan Tunni. Oday la yiraahdo Xasan Ribadle oo Ogaadeen ah, kana mid ah facihii dambe ee ka qayb qaatay hayaankii ay beeshu ku degtay dhulka Juba ayaa wuxuu tilmaamay sababta uu u qaxay in ay ahayd colaadaha reerka dhexdiisa ka socday. Xasna ayaa muddo laga joogo 150 sano wuxuu tiriyay tix gabay oo uu ku tilmaamayo sababta uu u qaxay, wuxuuna yiri :
Jiilaalkan ruuga ah waxaan Raari uga guuray
Oon ramashe doogoobay iyo roob la sugi waayay
Reer Caraale uun baan ka tegi ruun colowgiisa
Warankay ridahayaan ayuu ruuxda iga goyne
Ama towbaday iga raddiyi oo raq baan dhigiye

Bilowgii qarnigii 19-aad, Garaad Wiil-waal ayaa isaguna wuxuu ku guulaystay in uu ururiyo beelo kala duwan oo ku maamulo xeer-dhaqameedyo uu isagu dejiyay. Taasina waxaa ay ka dambaysay markii uu helay kalsoonidii beeshiisa (Bartire) oo ay caleemo saarteen, markaas oo adeerow uu u caddaalad falay. Garaad Wiil-waal wuxuu ahaa nin geesinimo iyo af-tahannimo loo hibeeyay. Xeerarka uu ku dhaqmo wuxuu dadka ku bari jiray qaab suugaaneed. Tilmaamahaas uu Wiil-waal lahaa ayaa waxay kallifeen in degaankiisii ay ku soo qaxaan beelo dhowr ah oo ku qancay maamulkii uu dhisay. Waxaa kamid ahaa Abasguul, Geri iyo Ogaadeen. Wiil-waal wuxuu dhisay xulufo ciidameed iyo mid siyaasadeed oo ay ku bahoobeen beelahaas. Adeerow kalsoonidii dhex martay Wiil-waal iyo odeyadii beelahaas ayaa waxay adkaysay maamulkii ay isku xulufaysteen. Tix uu Wiil-waal u tiriyay garaadkii beesha Geri oo la oran jiray Garaad Aadan, mar uu uga soo dacwooday beeshii oo ku gadoodday ayuu Wiil-waal ku tilmaamay xiriir! ! ka ka dhexeeya isaga iyo Garaad Aadan. Wiil-waal wuxuu yiri :
Haddaad dowladda waydo anna teydu weydowdey.
Haddii lowgu ku wiiqmo anna waan wakkinaayaa.
Haddaad weer isku jiiddo anna waan isku waabi.

Ciidamadii beelihii is-xulufaystay oo uu hor kacayo Wiil-waal ayaa waxay duulaan ku qaadeen ceelashii reerka Akishe (Dir), halkaas oo lagu dhibi jirey xoolaha ay lahaayeen beelaha aanu soo xusnay. Gulufyadii colaadeed ee uu Wiil-waal dumay waxay sabab u noqdeen in ay guud ahaan beelihii soomaaliyeed ay ku faafaan dhulka biyaha badan ee ku beegan agagaarka degmada Jigjiga, halkaas oo ay ka kacsadeen beelo Oromo ah.



Beelo kamid ah reerka Mareexaan ayaa iyaguna ku soo hayaamay degaanka Gedo, iyo koonfurta gobollada Baali iyo Siidaamo. Xilligaas, qiyaastii 50 sano ayuu ka dambeeyay markii uu bilowday hirarkii hayaanka. Waxaa jiray beelo Mareexaan ah oo safka hore kaga jiray qaxan, waxaana kamid ahaa Howraarsame, Habar-Yaaquub, reer Xasan iyo Talxe. Sheekooyinkii laga dhaxlay da´wayntii hore waxaa ku xusan in beelahaasi ay geel badan wateen. Beelahan waxay ka soo qaxeen meelo kamid ah bartamaha Soomaaliya, waxayna soo mareen gobollada Hiiraan iyo Bakool. Sababta ay la qaxeen waxay ahayd colaado isugu jira kuwo ka aloosmay beesha gudaheeda iyo kuwo dhexmaray iyaga iyo beelihii ay la deriska ahaayeen. Adeerow inkasta oo eeyan isku degaan ka soo kicin misana waxaa la malaynayaa in hayaankii beesha Dagoodiye uu dhinac socday kaa beelaha Mareexaan, sidaasna ay dagaaladii lagu kiciyay reerka Booran ay ka wada qayb qaateen. Dagaaladaasi waxay ahaayeen kuwo lagu hilboobay, waana kuwa sababay in s! ! oomaalidu degaan ku yeelato halkaas. Mar ay Boorantu fadhi ku lahaayeen buurta u wayn degaanka ee la yiraahdo Humbaale ayay soomaalidii u soo tiriyeen tix iyaga oo leh :
Humbaale Humbaale
Humbaale af-wayne
Shuun oday waaye
Haddaad ood ka goyso
Aabaa iga dhaartay.
Soomaalidii waa ay ka soo jawaabeen iyaga oo leh :
Humbaale Humbaale
Humbaale af-wayne
Shuun oday waaye
Haddaad oon ku guurin
Aabaa iga dhaartay.
Adeerow waxaa kale oo xusid mudan Shiikha la yiraahdo Ibraahim Xasan Yabarow oo dhalashadiisu ahayd Wanla-wayn, kaas dalka ku soo laabtay sanadkii ugu dambeeyay qarnigii 18-aad. Shiikh Yabarow oo ahaa nin ka tirsan dariiqada Axmadiyada ayaa bilowgii qarnigii 19-aad wuxuu aasaasay xarumihii xertii Baardheere ee magaceedu ahaa Jamaacada. Sanadkii 1797-kii ayuu Shiikhu magaalada xurmaysan ee Maka wuxuu kula kulmey Shiikh Axmad Bin Idiriis oo ahaa ninkii aasaasey dariiqada lagu magacaabo Axmadiya. Adeer ! goor dambe ayuu shiikhu wuxuu noqday nin asal raac ah. Wuxuu hoggaamiye ka noqday dhaqdhaqaaq lagu nooleynayo saldhigyada diinta Islaamka. Shiikhu wuxuu qaatay aragti lamid ah tii uu Shiikh Maxamad Cabdi-Wahaab ku baaqay oo ahayd diin aanan barax lahayn dariiqona aanan ku xirreyn. Shiikh Yabarow wuxuu dadka kala diriri jiray tubaakada, heesaha, cayaaraha iyo is-dhex galka ragga iyo dumarka.! ! Wuxuu ka reebi jiray macsida. Wuxuu dadka fari jiray in laga reebtoomo ganacsiga xubnaha duur-joogta. Dumarka wuxuu fari jiray in oogadooda ay asturaan. Guud ahaanna wuxuu dadka u sheegi jiray in ay ku dhaqmaan shareecada Islaamka, cibaadadana ay ku dadaalaan. Shiikhu wuxuu yeeshay xarun u saldhig ah oo uu dadka wax ku baro. Waxaa halkaas ka abuurmay dugsiyo lagu barto noocyada culuumta diinta Islaamka. Sanadkii 1819-kii, tirada ragga ardayda halkaas wax ku baranaysay waxay dhaafsiisnaayeen 100 nin. Sanadkii 1840-kii, tirada xertii Shiikhu waxay kor u dhaaftay 20.000 oo nin, kuwaas oo badankoodu ahaa qolyihii Daaroodka ahaa ee degaanka ku soo hayaamay

Waa Socotaa... GOORTII DHULKAYAGII LA QEYBSADAY!

Beelaha Dir waxaa hayaankan uga qayb qaatay reerka Biyamaal oo sida sheekooyinka lagu hayo ka soo guuray gobollada waqooyi bartamihii qarnigii 18-aad. Waxaa la tilmaamaa in ay sababtu ahayd gar-colaadeed oo lagu heshiisiinayay iyaga iyo beesha Gadubiirsay oo uu dagaal xumi dhex maray. Gartaas oo ay galeen odeyaal u dhashay beelaha Isaaq iyo Ciise ayaa Biyamaalku waxay ka tirsadeen in laga eexday. Markaas baa reerihii Biyamaal waxay guddoonsadeen talo uu xargihii reerku u dhamaa oo ahayd in ay degaanka isaga guuraan. Adeerow inkasta oo waddadii ay Biyamaalku soo raaceen aanan sheekooyinka lagu xusin, misana waxaa la hubaa in hayaankoodii ay ku soo fureen koonfurta webiga Shabeele, halkaas oo illaa maanta ay degan yihiin. Xilligaas waxaa ay degaanka ugu yimaadeen beesha Gelledi oo lahayd maamul siyaasadeed oo hanaqaad ahaa. Labada Beelood (Gelledi iyo Biyamaal) dagaalo badan ayaa dhex maray, kuwaas oo ay Biyamaalku ku dileen saddex suldaan oo Gelledi ahaa oo is dhalay (suldaa! ! n Maxamuud, suldaan Yuusuf iyo suldaan Axmad). Socdaalkii Biyamaal intaas kuma hakan ee qaybo beesha kamid ah ayaa koonfur u sii kacay oo gobolka Jubada-Hoose ku hakaday. Qolyihii koonfurta aaday ayaa dhexdoodii colaadi ka aloosantay. Dabadeed jifi kamid ahayd baa waxay u tallaabeen bulshooyinka Baantuuga ah ee ku dhaqan gobolka waqooyi-bari iyo bariga dalka Keenya halkaas oo ay ku milmeen dadyowgii ay u tageen. Adeerow xus oo beelo kamid ah reeraha la yiraahdo Reendiille ee ku nool yuulada Mkunuumbi oo ka tirsan degmada Laamo waxaa la rumaysan yahay in ay yihiin dadyowgii kuushiitiga ahaa ee ku noolaa koonfurta Banaadir. Sheeko-dhaqameedyada reeraha Biyamaal waxaa ku xusan in qayb kamid ah reeraha Reendiille ay yihiin dad iyaga ka tegey oo absaxankooda la garanayo. Dadkaasi waxay ku tageen dagaal ay jifiyadii Biyamaal isugu tageen. Magaca reerka tegey waa Kalafoow, absaxankooduna wuxuu gelayaa Sacad oo ah jifi Biyamaal kamid ah.
Dhaqdhaqaaqii ganacsatada reer Cumaan wuxuu raad ku yeeshay qaybo kamid ah gobollada Soomaaliya. Saldanaddii beesha Gelledi ayaa xilligii ay is-beddelayeen labadii qarni, kii 18-aad iyo kii 19-aad, waxay yeelatay maamul hanaqaaday. Saldanaddaas oo xarunteedu ahayd degmada Afgooye ayaa waxay xiriir la lahayd maamulkii ka jiray magaalada Xamar. Xilligii suldaan Yuusuf oo qiyaastii ku beegan 1812-kii - 1845-kii ayaa saldanaddu xoogowday. Waxaa ballaartay dhulka uu ku baahay ganacsigii saldanadda. Dekadda Xamar ayaa waxaa laga dhoofin jiray dalayga ka soo go´a beeraha reerka Gelledi iyo xubnaha dugaagga. Reerku waxay dekadda kala soo degi jireen waxyaabaha ay dibadda uga baahnaayeen oo dharku uu kamid ahaa. Waxaa kale oo ay soo dhoofsan jireen dadka addoomada ah, kuwaas oo beeraha ka shaqayn jiray. Adeerow waxaa xusan, sanadihii u dhexeeyay 1820-kii iyo 1840-kii, dekadaha Xamar iyo Marka in sanad walba lagala soo degi jiray dad gaaraya 10.000 oo addoomo ah.
Adeer ! wakhti ku dhow xilliga ay Biyamaalku hayaameen ayaa galbeedka Soomaaliya waxaa iyaguna ka soo kacay beelo kamid ah reeraha Kablalax (Ogaadeen). Beelahaas waxaa kamid ahaa , Maqaabil, Cawlyahan, jifiyo kamid ah reerka Maxamd Subayr iyo Caabud-waaq oo kamid ah jifiyada Talamuge. Geediga reerkan wuxuu soo maray gobolka Bay. Sida ay isku raaceen da´wayntii sheekooyinkan laga wariyay, muddo sanado ah ayay halkaas ku sugnaayeen. Dabadeed waxay u soo tallaabeen degaanka Jilib, halkaas oo ay ka samaysteen saldhig ay ka sahan sadaan degaanka.
Waxaa jira sheekooyin tilmaamaya in beelaha soomaaliyeed ay si wadajir ah ula dirireen dadkii Baantuuga ahaa ee ku noolaa degaanka Juba, arrintaasi waxay xoojinaysaa aragtida oranaysa in beelaha soo hayaamay ay isugu yimaadeen degaanka Jilib oo markaas ahayd degaan Tunni. Oday la yiraahdo Xasan Ribadle oo Ogaadeen ah, kana mid ah facihii dambe ee ka qayb qaatay hayaankii ay beeshu ku degtay dhulka Juba ayaa wuxuu tilmaamay sababta uu u qaxay in ay ahayd colaadaha reerka dhexdiisa ka socday. Xasna ayaa muddo laga joogo 150 sano wuxuu tiriyay tix gabay oo uu ku tilmaamayo sababta uu u qaxay, wuxuuna yiri :
Jiilaalkan ruuga ah waxaan Raari uga guuray
Oon ramashe doogoobay iyo roob la sugi waayay
Reer Caraale uun baan ka tegi ruun colowgiisa
Warankay ridahayaan ayuu ruuxda iga goyne
Ama towbaday iga raddiyi oo raq baan dhigiye

Bilowgii qarnigii 19-aad, Garaad Wiil-waal ayaa isaguna wuxuu ku guulaystay in uu ururiyo beelo kala duwan oo ku maamulo xeer-dhaqameedyo uu isagu dejiyay. Taasina waxaa ay ka dambaysay markii uu helay kalsoonidii beeshiisa (Bartire) oo ay caleemo saarteen, markaas oo adeerow uu u caddaalad falay. Garaad Wiil-waal wuxuu ahaa nin geesinimo iyo af-tahannimo loo hibeeyay. Xeerarka uu ku dhaqmo wuxuu dadka ku bari jiray qaab suugaaneed. Tilmaamahaas uu Wiil-waal lahaa ayaa waxay kallifeen in degaankiisii ay ku soo qaxaan beelo dhowr ah oo ku qancay maamulkii uu dhisay. Waxaa kamid ahaa Abasguul, Geri iyo Ogaadeen. Wiil-waal wuxuu dhisay xulufo ciidameed iyo mid siyaasadeed oo ay ku bahoobeen beelahaas. Adeerow kalsoonidii dhex martay Wiil-waal iyo odeyadii beelahaas ayaa waxay adkaysay maamulkii ay isku xulufaysteen. Tix uu Wiil-waal u tiriyay garaadkii beesha Geri oo la oran jiray Garaad Aadan, mar uu uga soo dacwooday beeshii oo ku gadoodday ayuu Wiil-waal ku tilmaamay xiriir! ! ka ka dhexeeya isaga iyo Garaad Aadan. Wiil-waal wuxuu yiri :
Haddaad dowladda waydo anna teydu weydowdey.
Haddii lowgu ku wiiqmo anna waan wakkinaayaa.
Haddaad weer isku jiiddo anna waan isku waabi.

Ciidamadii beelihii is-xulufaystay oo uu hor kacayo Wiil-waal ayaa waxay duulaan ku qaadeen ceelashii reerka Akishe (Dir), halkaas oo lagu dhibi jirey xoolaha ay lahaayeen beelaha aanu soo xusnay. Gulufyadii colaadeed ee uu Wiil-waal dumay waxay sabab u noqdeen in ay guud ahaan beelihii soomaaliyeed ay ku faafaan dhulka biyaha badan ee ku beegan agagaarka degmada Jigjiga, halkaas oo ay ka kacsadeen beelo Oromo ah.
Beelo kamid ah reerka Mareexaan ayaa iyaguna ku soo hayaamay degaanka Gedo, iyo koonfurta gobollada Baali iyo Siidaamo. Xilligaas, qiyaastii 50 sano ayuu ka dambeeyay markii uu bilowday hirarkii hayaanka. Waxaa jiray beelo Mareexaan ah oo safka hore kaga jiray qaxan, waxaana kamid ahaa Howraarsame, Habar-Yaaquub, reer Xasan iyo Talxe. Sheekooyinkii laga dhaxlay da´wayntii hore waxaa ku xusan in beelahaasi ay geel badan wateen. Beelahan waxay ka soo qaxeen meelo kamid ah bartamaha Soomaaliya, waxayna soo mareen gobollada Hiiraan iyo Bakool. Sababta ay la qaxeen waxay ahayd colaado isugu jira kuwo ka aloosmay beesha gudaheeda iyo kuwo dhexmaray iyaga iyo beelihii ay la deriska ahaayeen. Adeerow inkasta oo eeyan isku degaan ka soo kicin misana waxaa la malaynayaa in hayaankii beesha Dagoodiye uu dhinac socday kaa beelaha Mareexaan, sidaasna ay dagaaladii lagu kiciyay reerka Booran ay ka wada qayb qaateen. Dagaaladaasi waxay ahaayeen kuwo lagu hilboobay, waana kuwa sababay in s! ! oomaalidu degaan ku yeelato halkaas. Mar ay Boorantu fadhi ku lahaayeen buurta u wayn degaanka ee la yiraahdo Humbaale ayay soomaalidii u soo tiriyeen tix iyaga oo leh :
Humbaale Humbaale
Humbaale af-wayne
Shuun oday waaye
Haddaad ood ka goyso
Aabaa iga dhaartay.
Soomaalidii waa ay ka soo jawaabeen iyaga oo leh :
Humbaale Humbaale
Humbaale af-wayne
Shuun oday waaye
Haddaad oon ku guurin
Aabaa iga dhaartay.
Adeerow waxaa kale oo xusid mudan Shiikha la yiraahdo Ibraahim Xasan Yabarow oo dhalashadiisu ahayd Wanla-wayn, kaas dalka ku soo laabtay sanadkii ugu dambeeyay qarnigii 18-aad. Shiikh Yabarow oo ahaa nin ka tirsan dariiqada Axmadiyada ayaa bilowgii qarnigii 19-aad wuxuu aasaasay xarumihii xertii Baardheere ee magaceedu ahaa Jamaacada. Sanadkii 1797-kii ayuu Shiikhu magaalada xurmaysan ee Maka wuxuu kula kulmey Shiikh Axmad Bin Idiriis oo ahaa ninkii aasaasey dariiqada lagu magacaabo Axmadiya. Adeer ! goor dambe ayuu shiikhu wuxuu noqday nin asal raac ah. Wuxuu hoggaamiye ka noqday dhaqdhaqaaq lagu nooleynayo saldhigyada diinta Islaamka. Shiikhu wuxuu qaatay aragti lamid ah tii uu Shiikh Maxamad Cabdi-Wahaab ku baaqay oo ahayd diin aanan barax lahayn dariiqona aanan ku xirreyn. Shiikh Yabarow wuxuu dadka kala diriri jiray tubaakada, heesaha, cayaaraha iyo is-dhex galka ragga iyo dumarka.! ! Wuxuu ka reebi jiray macsida. Wuxuu dadka fari jiray in laga reebtoomo ganacsiga xubnaha duur-joogta. Dumarka wuxuu fari jiray in oogadooda ay asturaan. Guud ahaanna wuxuu dadka u sheegi jiray in ay ku dhaqmaan shareecada Islaamka, cibaadadana ay ku dadaalaan. Shiikhu wuxuu yeeshay xarun u saldhig ah oo uu dadka wax ku baro. Waxaa halkaas ka abuurmay dugsiyo lagu barto noocyada culuumta diinta Islaamka. Sanadkii 1819-kii, tirada ragga ardayda halkaas wax ku baranaysay waxay dhaafsiisnaayeen 100 nin. Sanadkii 1840-kii, tirada xertii Shiikhu waxay kor u dhaaftay 20.000 oo nin, kuwaas oo badankoodu ahaa qolyihii Daaroodka ahaa ee degaanka ku soo hayaamay

Xilliga ay dowladdu guddoonsatay arinkan, ma eyan lahayn qorshe cad oo ku saabsan dhulkii ay qabsan lahayd. Waxaase jirtay aragti u muuqatay qaar kamid ah ragga guddoonka siyaasadeed wax ku lahaa, taas oo ay ku xiisaynayeen degaamo kamid ah bariga qaaradda Afrika. Cristoforo Negri, qudhiisa waxaa uu dowladda u tilmaamay qiimaha istraateejiga ah ee uu leyahay dhulka ku heeran badda Cas, iyo xeebaha geeska Afrika, gaar ahaan kuwa ku wajahan bad-weynta Hindiya ee xilligaas hoos imanayay maamulkii suldaankii Sensibaar Sayid Barqash bin Saciid. Waxaa kale oo uu tilmaamay gobollada bariga iyo bartamaha Somaliya oo ay ka talinayeen salaadiintii Majeerteen.
Waxaa iyana jirtay shirkad gaadiidka maraakiibta oo u kala gooshi jirtay Talyaaniga iyo Hindiya. Shirkaddaas oo la oran jiray Societa Navigazione Italiana.ayaa waxaa lahaa nin Talyaani ah oo la oran jiray Rubbotino. Ninkaas oo u baahday guule ama saldhig marakiibtiisa uu ka dhuxulaysto isla markaasna ka sahay qaato, ayaa wuxuu heshiis la galay sanadkii 1869-kii boqor Cafar ahaa oo la oran jiray suldan Rehiet Beregon. Suldaanku wuxuu Talyaanigii ka iibiyay dakadda Casab iyo dhulkii ku xeernaa. Toban sano dabadeed, sanadkii 1879-kii, dhulkaas iyo dakaddii Casab waxaa rasmi ahaan ula wareegay dawladdii Talyaaniga. Tallaabadaasina waxay ahayd tii ugu horaysay oo uu ku gumaystay dadyowgii geeska Afrika.
Kaddib markii uu biya-mareenka Suways sababay is-beddelkii xoogga lahaa ee ku yimid waddooyinkii ganacsiga ayaa dowladdii Talyaaniga waxaa ay go´aansatay in ay dedejiso mashruuca ay ku doonaysay in ay Afrika ka hesho dhul ay gumaysato, si ay u xoojiso midnimadeeda, isla markaasna ay u kobciso ganacsiga ay dibadda la leedahay.
Damacii Talyaanigu ka lahaa badda Cas iyo dadyowga ku deegaanka dhow ayaa wuxuu noqday mid sugan sanadihii 1870-aadkii, markaas oo uu xoogoobay dhaqdhaqaaqii uu Talyaanigu ka waday degaanka Eriteeriya iyo xeebaha badda Cas. Taasi waxay u gogol xaaraysay damaca gaarka ah ee uu ku doonayay xeebaha Soomaaliya ee ku jeeda bad-weynta Hindiya, taas oo howl-galkeedii uu bilawday sannadihii 1880-aadkii.
Ingiriiska ayaa mar walba dhiiri-gelinayay in Talyaaniga ay u tallaabaan badda Cas, gaar ahaan degmada Masawac oo ay ku yaraanaysay awooddii Turkida iyo Masaarida. 5/ 2- 1885-kii, ciidamo Talyaani ah oo ka kooban 807 nin ayaa waxay qabsadeen degmada Masawac. Ciidamadaas oo uu hoggaaminayay Col. Tancredi Saletta, waxaa taageero siinayay rag hantiilayaal ah oo u dhasahay dalka Talyaaniga. Qabsashada Masawac ayaa waxay Talyaanigu u furtay irridaha uu bariga Afrika ku soo galay. Maalintaas ayuuna kamid noqday dowladihii gumaysatada ahaa.
Talyaanigu wuxuu kamid ahaa dowladihii lagu casumay fadhigii Berliin, laakiinse aanan la awood ahayn dowladihii gumaysiga kaga horeyay. Inkasta oo siyaasaddiisa dibaddu ay difaacaysay heshiisyadii dowladaha Yurub ay ku gaareen shirka, misana majirin dhul cayilan oo dowladihii xoogga lahaa ay u ballan qaadeen Talyaaniga in ay Afrika ka siiyaan. Wasiirkoodii dibadda Pasquale Stanislao wuxuu madashii kala tegay iyada oo loo aqoonsaday xeebaha Soomaaliyeed ee ku sii jeeda bad-waynta Hindiya iyo xeebaha Eriteeriya. Waxaa u weheliyay ballan-qaad ku eg in la xushmeeyo danaha uu ku leyahay badda Dhexe Mediteranean Sea. (C. Zaghi, La conquista della´ Africa. Vol. 1 p. 192).
Waxaa jiray nin ganacsato ah oo u dhashay dalka Talyaaniga magaciisana la´oran jiray Vincezo Filonardo, oo degganaa Sensibaar. V. Filonardo wuxuu si buuxda ula socday dhaqdhaqaaqa ay Jarmalka iyo Ingiriisku ka wadeen bariga Afrika. V. Filonardo dhowr jeer buu dowladdii Talyaaniga ku abuuray dareen, isaga oo warbixinno u diray si uusan Talyaanigu uga qadin sayladaha waawayn ee degaanka ka jira. Talooyinkii uu Filonardo u soo jeediyay dowladdiisii, dhowr sano kadib ayay mira-dhal yeesheen. Sanadkii 1884-kii dowladdii Talyaaniga waxay guddoon-satay in ay howlo sahmin ah ka bilaabaan jasiiradda Sensibaar iyo gobollada koonfureed ee Soomaaliya (Juba iyo Benaadir). (Raffaele Ciasca : Storia coloniale della Italia Contemporanea. Raffaele Ciasca. pp. 15 - 28, 183 - 188. 1938).
Xilligaas, saddex xoog oo gumaysi ayaa isugu yimid Sensibaar. Xoogaggaas oo kala ah Ingiriis, Jarmal iyo Talyaani, ayaa waxay bilaabeen in ay hooshaan hantidii qoyskii reer Sayid Siciid ee muddada qarniga ah ka talinayay degaanka. Halkaas oo jasiiraddii Sensibaar ay ku noqotay meeshii ugu horaysay ee u dhaawacanta boobkii gumaysiga ee bariga Afrika. Jarmalka oo ku socda heshiisyadii Barlin lagu gaaray oo u saamaxayay in dhulka xeebaha ah ee ku yaal bariga Afrika uu si xor ah ganacsigiisa u maro iyo Talyaaniga oo dhowaan yimid isaga oo damac wado ayaa waxay bilaabeen in ay suldaan Barqash u hanjabaan, kaddib markii uu khilaaf dhex-maray iyaga iyo suldaanka.
Qorshihii Jarmalka ee gumaysi-doonka ahaa kuma hakan dhambaalkii suldaanku diray. Balse wuxuu xoojiyay barnaamijkii uu ku doonayay in uu bariga Afrika ku gumaysto. Bishii febrawer 1885-kii, dal-mareen Jarmal ah oo la yiraahdo Wells ayaa wuxuu heshiis la dhigtay suldaan Axmad Samaal oo Soomaali ah, degaankiisuna yahay Wiito. Bishii agosto isla sanadkaas, dal-mareen kale oo la yiraahdo Johlik ayaa isaguna 10 heshiisyo ah la dhigtay duqayda qabaa´ilka sawaaxiliga ah ee ku nool agagaarka buurta Kilimanjaro.
Kaddib markii uu Jarmalku cagaha la helay degaankii gudaha ahaa ee Afrikada-bari, waxaa ku dhalatay in uu boobo meelo kamid ah dekadaha badan ee uu suldaanka Sensibaar bilaashka ku haysto. Sababtuna waxay ahayd in, maamulkiisa gumaysi ee uu ka dhisay gudaha qaaradda, uu u helo irrido ay dunida kala xiriiraan. Jarmalkii ayaa ciidamo ku bixiyay jasiiraddii isaga oo mar-marsiinyo ka dhiganaya in uu edeb u yeelo Barqash si uusan mar danbe ugu dhiiran in uu boqorkooda waraaq canaan ah u soo diro.
Waxaa ciidamada hoggaaminayay nin la yiraahdo Comodor Bashin. Waxay dalkooda ka soo amba-baxeen 11/ 8- 1885-kii. Markii ay soo gaareen Sensibaar, waxay suldaanka u dhiibeen qoraal digniin ah oo ay ku xusan tahay in suldaanku uu ka laabto qoraalkii gilgilashada ahaa ee uu u qoray boqorka Jarmalka iyo in uu oggolaado in si madax-bannaani leh uu ganacsiga uga gudbo dekadaha ku yaal degmooyinka uu suldaanku maamulo.
Ciidamada Jarmalka markii ay soo baxayeen waxay horay u soo wateen gabar la yiraahdo Salma bintu Siciid oo la dhalatay Barqash. Gabadhaas oo horay ula baxsatay sarkaal Jarmal ah ayaa waxay dalbaysay in ay qayb ka hesho dhaxalkii aabaheed Sayid Siciid. Suldaankii waxaa u muuqatay khatarta ku soo korodhay maamulkiisii. Ingiriiskii uu isku halaynayayna waa uu ka gaabsaday in uu gacan siiyo. Wuxuu markiiba isku dhiibay saraakiishii Jarmalka ee duulaanka ahaa. Laakiin wuxuu diiday in uu dekadaha u saamaxo maamulka Jarmalka ama wax ka siiyo amaba ka ijaaro, hadba sidii ay doonayaan iyagu. (Barkhat : 1974. p. 421).
Ingiriiska qudhiisu, dhankiisa ayuu suldaanku ka khasbayay oo culays saaray si uu u oggolaado dalabka Jarmalka. Sidaas daraadeed ayaa suldaankii ula saxiixday Jarmalkii heshiis ay qodobadiisu ka mid ahaayeen :
1. Aqoonsi, maxmiyadaha Jarmalku uu ku yeeshay degaanka gudaha ah.
2. In ganacsigu uu si madax-bannaan u maro dekadaha suldaanku maamulo iyo in mid kamid ah dekadahaas la siiyo Jarmalka, iyadoo la ilaalinayo xushmadda maamulka sare ee suldaanka.
3. In cashuur-qaadku uu caadigiisa u socdo, iyada oo xadka ugu sareya ee la qaado ay noqonayso 5 %.
Kaddib markii uu suldaankii is-dhiibay ayaa dowladaha Ingiriiska, Jarmalka iyo Faransiiska waxay magacaabeen guddi u habeya sidii ay u qaybsan lahayeen dhulkan beylahda ah oo ay muddada ilaashanayeen. Xubnaha Jarmalka uga qayb-galay guddigaas waxaa hoggaaminayay Smith oo ahaa qunsulkii u fadhiyay Qaahira. Ingiriiskana Ketchinr oo ahaa hoggaamiyaha ciidamadii Suudaan ka fadhiyay, Faransiiskana Patromino oo ahaa qunsulkii u fadhiyay Beyruut. Guddigu wuxuu howshiisii ka bilaabay Sensibaar bishii disember 1885-kii. Faransiiska wuxuu damac ka lahaa in uu maamulkiisa ku fidiyo Madagaskar iyo jasiiradaha Comoro oo uu horay u haystay. Suldaan Barqash bin Siciid waxaa loo aqoonsaday maamulka jasiiradda Sensibaar iyo dhulka xeebta ah ee ku beegan jasiiradda. Xuduudda waqooyi ee maamulka suldaanku waxay ku egtahay webiga Taa! ! na. Waqooyiga webiga oo ah dhul ay Soomaalidu wax ka degaan, waxaa loo aqoonsaday Jarmalka. (Ibid : p. 422).
9/ 6- 1886-kii, Jarmalkii iyo Ingiriiskii ayaa heshiis hor leh dhigtay, kaas oo ay ku ciriiryayaan maamulkii suldaanka. Labada dowladood, waxay isla oggolaadeen, degmooyinka hoos yimaada maamulka suldaanku, wixii ka hooseya webiga Taana, in uu ku leeyahay 10 km oo wareeg ah oo keliya. Wixiise ka koreya webiga, uu ku leyahay 5 km oo wareeg ah oo keliya. Wixii dhul ah oo intaa ka baxsan, waxay u bannaan tahay dowlad kasta oo Yurub ah in ay gumaysato.
Bishii sebtember, 1886-kii, guddoomiyihii degmada Laamo ayaa wuxuu xabisay nin u shaqaynayay nin Jarmal ahaa. Jarmalkii ayaa arintaas ka faa´iidaystay oo ciidan ku hareereyay xeebihii jasiiradda, si ay mar kale u edbiyaan suldaanka. Arintaas waxaa ka dhashay in hantidii suldaanka iyo maamulkiisiiba ay qayb-sadaan Jarmal iyo Ingiriis. 26/ 10- 1886-kii, labada dowlad waxay isla gaareen heshiiskan :
1. Labada dowladood waxay aqoonsadeen, suldaanka Sensibaar iyo jasiiradaha u dhow, in uu ka taliyo dhulka xeebta ah ee u dhexeya webiga Mangabi (koonfur) iyo degmada Laamo (waqoyi) masaafo gudaha ah ee dhan 10 mail. Degmooyinka Kismayo, Baraawe, Marka iyo Xamar wareeg dhan 10 mail. Degmada War-shiikh, wareeg dhan 5 mail.
2. Ingiriisku wuxuu oggolaaday in dekadda Dar es Salaam laga ijaaro shirkadda German East Africa Company oo ay iyadu cashuuraha ururiso.
3. In labo loo qaybiyo dhulka xeebta ah ee u dhexeya webiga Taana iyo webiga Rofma, kaas oo uu kala baro webiga Awmbaah. Qaybta koonfurta ah oo ay kamid yihiin degaamada Kilimanjaro, Shaaja iyo Tabiina, waxay hoos imanaysaa maamulka Jarmalka. Qaybta waqooyi ee ku eg harada Victoria, waxaa nasiib u yeeshay Ingiriiska. Labada dowladood waxay ku ballameen in eyan midoodna midda kale ku soo dhul-fidsan.
4. Ingiriisku, saldanadda Wiito iyo xeebaha ku beegan dhulkooda ayuu u aqoonsaday in ay kamid yihiin maamulka Jarmalka.
5. In suldaanka lagu daro dowladaha saxiixay heshiiskii Berliin.
Heshiiskan oo ahaa kii lagu qaybsaday maamulkii Barqash ayaa taariikhdu markay ahayd 22/ 12- 1886-kii, labada dowlad waxay ku khasbeen in Barqash qudhiisu in uu kamid noqdo ragga saxiixay.
Kahor inteyan heshiin Jarmalka, ayaa suldaanka iyo Talyaaniga waxaa dhex-maray sheeko midaan u muuqaal eg. Sheekadaasi waxay bilaabatay mar uu dhamme Cechi codsaday in uu la kulmo suldaanka. Waxaa xusid mudan in suldaanku uu xilligaas weli sheegto in uu ka taliyo qaybo kamid ah degaamada ay ku socdeen arahda Talyaanigu. Cechi suldaankii wuxuu u gudbiyay codsi ah in ay heshiis ganacsi yeeshaan, iyo in ay dowladda Talyaaniga qunsul ka furato Sensibaar. Talyaanigii iyaga oo aanan weli jawaab ka helin dalabkii Cechi, ayaa waxay misana codsadeen in dekadda Kismayo looga kaco si ay ula wareegaan, haddii kalese la siiyo dekad kasta oo kale oo ku taal agagaarka webiga Juba. Ujeeddada uu Talyaanigu marakan lahaa waxay ahayd in uu isku xiro dekadda Casab oo uu markaa haystay iyo dekadda Kismayo. Suldaankii Sensibaar aad buu uga carooday codsiga Cechi! ! , wuxuuna ku sigtay in uu is hortaago dhammaan codsigii Talyaaniga oo idil. Si uusan wada-hadalku u fashilmin, waxaa soo dhex-galay qunsulkii Ingiriiska u fadhiyay Sensibaar oo la´oaran jiray Sir. Kirk. Qunslku wuxuu ahaa nin takhtar ah, baadari ah, dal-mareen ah, in muddo ahna wuxuu deganaa Sesibaar. Sir. Kirk wuxuu ku dadaalay in uu is af-garad ka dhex abuuro suldaanka iyo Cechi. Ugu-dambayntiina wuxuu ku guulaystay in uu heshiis ka dhex abuuro suldaankii iyo kabtankii, kuwaas oo qodobadii ay ku heshiiyeen ay sidatan ahayd :
1. In Talyaaniga la siiyo xoriyad uu dhulka Soomaaliya kaga ganacsado iyo ruqsad uu ku ijaaran karo dhulka, guryaha iyo dukaamada ganacsiga.
2. In dadka Soomaalida ahi eyan xaq u lahayn in ay galaan guryaha dadka Talyaaniga ah.
3. In la´ammaan siiyo dadka u shaqeynaya Talyaaniga.
4. In irridaha loo furo socdaalka ay dadka Talyaaniga ahi ku imanayaan kagana dhoofayaan Soomaaliya.
5. Haddii ay is-qabtaan dad Talyaani ah iyo kuwo reer Yurub ah in arrintooda loo gudbiyo maxkamad.
6. Haddii ay wax dhex-maraan nin Talyaani ah iyo nin Soomaali ah, qunsulka Talyaaniga wuxuu xaq u leeyahay in uu dhexgalo haddii uu ninka ashtakoonaya uu Soomaali yahay ,haddiise ninka ashtakoonaya uu Talyaani yahay dacwadda waxaa goobjoog ka ahaanaya Suldaanka ama ruux ka wakiil ah.
Taariikhda uu heshiiskaasi dhacay waxey ahayd 28/ 5- 1885-kii.
Heshiiskii dabadeed, dowladdii Talyaaniga qunsul ayay ka furteen jasiiraddii, waxayna u soo magacaabeen ninkii ganacsadaha ahaa Vincezo Filonardo.

.Casharadii hore
Casharkii XXX-aad


Iyaga oo isla jaan-qaadaya ayaa ciidamadii gumaysiga ay mar qura bilaabeen in ciidda Soomaaliyeed ay gudaha u soo galaan. Ciidamadaas oo horay u fadhiyay dacallada degaanka ayaa waxaa laga hagayay xarumihii afartii dowladood oo muddada damaca ka lahaa in ay nasiib ku yeeshaan hooshka bulshooyinkii kala qoqobnaa ee beelaha Soomaaliyeed. Arintaasi waxay Soomaaliya ka yeeshay labo qaybood oo midiba ay weji gaar ah leedahay. Qayb waxay ahayd dhul uu ka jiray maamullo iska lahaa hoggaamo siyaasadeed oo urursan, kuwaas oo ka danaysanayay xiriirada kala duwan oo ay la lahaayeen beelihii kula noolaa Soomaaliya iyo xoogaggii shisheeyaha ahaa ee ku soo kordhey noloshii degaanka. Qeybta kale waa meelihii uu ka maqnaa maamul dhexe oo dhaafsiisan kuwii ku jaanta go´naa heer-beeleedka. Taasi waxay sababtay in gumaystayaashu ay ku degdegaan degaamadii beelahaas iyaga oo doonayay in ay ka danaystaan.
Labadii maamul ee xilligaas ka jiray Mudug iyo Majeertiinya ayaa waxay ahaayeen kuwa keliya ee degaanka ka dhex-muuqday ee lahaa masaalix siyaasadeed oo dowli ah. Maamulkii boqor Cismaan Maxamuud wuxuu ahaa mid si buuxda ugu howlanaa xirirradii ganacsi ee uu la lahaa ummadaha inala deriska ah. Arintaasi waxay shiiqisay in xiisado siyaasadeed ay ka curtaan degaamadii maamulkan. Taasaa waxay sababtay xasillooni cimrigeedu dheeryahay oo ay heleen dadyowgii ku noolaa degaamadii maamulkaas. Waxaa in la xuso mudan in boqor Cismaan uusan lahayn damac siyaasadeed ee dhaafsiisnaa isu urursanaanta degmaamada maamulkiisa. Ingiriiska oo xilligaas eeyan qorshaha ugu jirin, in uu xoog iyo xeelad ku qabsado degaankan, ayaa sanad walba lacago laaluush ah siin jiray maamulkan. Sababtu waxay ahayd in uu amaan u helo doonyihiisa ukala tallaabayay bad-weynta Hindiya iyo badda Cas ee ku soo dhowaanaya dhulka geeska ah ee uu boqorku ka taliyo.
Suldaan Yuusuf Keynadiid, inkasta oo maamulkiisu uu ahaa mid curdan ah, misana si muuqata ayuu uga cimilo duwanaa noloshii siyaasadeed ee maamulkii ka jiray Majeertiinya. Suldaanku wuxuu ahaa nin han weyn oo xambaarsan damac siyaasadeed ee ballaaran. Wuxuu doonayay in uu maamulka Sensibaar kala wareego dhamaan degmooyinka Soomaaliyeed oo ay Cammaaniyiintu ka taliyaanayeen. Sayid Barqash bin Siciid oo horay u sheegan jiray dhamaan xeebaha Soomaaliyeed ee ku sii jeeda bad-weynta Hindiya ayaa xilligaas wuxuu ku jiray olole siyaasadeed oo uu ku doonayay in loo aqoonsado dhulka gudaha ah ee ka dambeeya degmooyinka xeebaha ku yaal. Suldaanku wuxuu doonayay in uu arrinkan kaga kabto dhaawaca kaga yimid hantidii badnayd oo ay gumaystayaashu kala wareegeen. Keynadiid ayaa isaguna dhankiisa dadaal kaga jiray uu doonayay in uu ku fashilinayo qorshaha Barqash. Isla markaasna wuxuu kaloo doonayay in uu la wareego degmooyinka koonfureed ee uu Barqash sida tooska ah uga taliyo.
Suldaanku wuxuu qaaday tallaabooyin dhaxal-gal ah oo ay kamid ahayd qoraallo uu u diray qunsulladii Sensibaar ka fadhiyay dowladihii reer Yurub. Waxaa kamid ahaa qoraal taariikhdiisu ahayd 1885-kii oo uu sidan ku yiri :
" Aniga ayaa qabsaday Hobyo, waxaana aan ku sikanayaa meelaha uu ka taliyo Sayid Barqash bin Siciid. Cashuuraha iyo dakhliga kale oo halkaas ka soo baxa waa hanti aanu annagu leenahay ". (The Somali Peninsula, Government of the Somalia 1962. p. 3-4).
Keynadiid intaas kuma hakan ee weeraro joogto ah ayaa ciidamadiisu ay ku qaadi jireen meelo kamid ah goobihii ay fadhiyeen ciidamada Barqash, gaar ahaan waqooyiga degmada Warshiikh.
12/ 12- 1888-kii, Keynadiid wuxuu Sensibaar u diray ergo ka kooban saddex nin. Ujeeddada ergada waxay ahayd in ay wada-xaajood la soo yeeshaan qunsulkii Talyaaniga ee jasiiradda fadhiyay Vincenzo Filonardi. Ergadaasi waxaa kale oo ay sideen go´aan ah in suldaanku uusan waxba ka qabin in degaankiisa uu noqdo mid hoos yimaada dul-maamulka dowladda Talyaaniga. Suldaanka ayaa arintan wuxuu ka lahaa dano siyaasadeed oo uu doonayay in uu fushado kaddib markuu xiriir la yeesho Talyaaniga. Taas oo ahayd in uu ciidamadiisa u dheelli-tiro ciidamada labada maamul ee uu xuduudda la lahaa ee xilligaas ka xoog weynaa. Waxay kala ahaayeen Barqash iyo boqor Cismaan. Suldaan Yuusuf Keynadiid, waxaa kale oo uu doonayay in uu Talyaaniga ka dhigto il uu hubka kahelo marka uu bilaabo in uu Barqash kala wareego dhulka. Waxaa xusid mudan in Barqash uu xiriir la lahaa Ingiriiska oo uu ka heli jiray taageero ciidan.
Talyaaniga horay ayuu ugu tala jiray in uu nabad ama colaad ku helo dul-maamulka gobollada bariga iyo bartamaha Soomaaliya. Isaga oo ka faa´iideysanaya fursaddan uga timid dhanka Keynadiid, ayuu wuxuu markiiba bilaabay in ay Ingiriiska ku heshiiyaan halka ay marayso khad-xuduudeedka u dhaxayn doonta dhulka Soomaaliyeed oo ay maamulayaan. Markaasna weli wax heshiis ah oo dhex maray Talyaaniga iyo suldaan Keynadiid ama boqor Cismaan ma jirin. Gumaystayaashu marka ay xuduud samaynayeen waxay adeegsan jireen kaarta joqraafi ah, taas oo dusheeda ay xariiqi jireen. Dabadeed dhulka ayaa waxaa loo soo diri jiray arah kaartadii sidata, kuwaas oo sawirkii xarriiqda ahaa dhulka ka calaamadeeya iyaga oo adeegsanaya dhirta, buuraha, togagga iwl. Marxaladda saddexad ayaa waxay ahayd in la sameeyo calaamado dhismo ah oo muujinaya halka ay xuduuddu marayso.
14/ 1- 1889-kii ayuu dhacay heshiiska xuduudda Talyaaniga iyo Ingiriiska ay ku xariiqdeen khadda ay dhex-dhigeen labada dul-maamul ee waqooyi-bari iyo waqooyi-galbeed. Khaddaas ayaa waxay ka bilaabanaysaa tuulada Bender Seyda oo Boosaaso ka xigta 20 km dhanka galbeed. Tuuladaas oo ku beegan bartamaha afar-geesoodka ay dhisaan labada khad ee taaga ah longtitude 48 iyo 50, iyo labada khad ee legdan latitude 10 iyo 12. Koonfur ayay u xariiqeen illaa iyo bartamaha afar-geesoodka koonfur kaga beegan, dabadeed waxay u weeciyeen xagasha kaga beegan koonfur-galbeed. Waxay halkaas ka qabsanaysaa xuduudda ay Xabashidu wax kala xariiqatay dowladahan gumaystayaasha ahaa.
Markay taariikhdu ahayd 7/ 2- 1889-kii ayuu Vincenzo Filonardi wuxuu soo gaaray Hobyo. Saddex toddobaad kaddib, 28/ 2- 1889-kii ayaa isaga iyo suldaankii ay kala saxiixdeen heshiis qoraalkiisu u dhacay sidan :
" Aniga oo ah Yuusuf Cali Yuusuf, suldaankii Hobyo iyo dhulka la xiriira, laga bilaabo Mareeg illaa iyo Raas-Cawad, waxaan gacantayda ku saxiixay waraaqdan. Aniga oo caddaynaya in aan saldanadaydii Hobyo (ka dhisneed) iyo degaanka la xiriira ee aan soo xusay, Mareeg illaa iyo Raas-Cawad, waxaan oggolaaday in ay hoos timaado maamulka dowladda Talyaaniga ee weyn iyo boqorkooda Umberto I, isaga oo uu ka wakiil yahay qunsulkiisa fadhiya Sensibaar Vincenzo Filonardi .......... ". (Barkhat.1974. p. 234).
Xiriirkii uu V. Filonardi la yeeshay madaxdii maamulkii Hobyo ayuu wuxuu ka ogaaday in boqor Cismaan, gabadha uu ugu jeclaa xaasaskiisa ay tahay gabar uu dhalay suldaan Keynadiid. Talyaaniga ayaa markaas wuxuu bilaabay in uu xiriirka Hobyood kaga faa´iideysto si uu xiriir ula yeesho maamulka Majeertiinya. Si toos ahna madaxdii Hobyo fadhiday ayuu uga codsaday in lala xiriirsho boqor Cismaan. Taasi waxay irridaha u furtay xiriirkii uu Talyaaniga la yeeshay reer bariga, taas oo ku dhamaatay heshiiskii dhacay 1/ 4- 1889-kii oo lagu caddaynayay in Majeertiinya ay kamid noqotay degaanka uu Talyaaniga dusha ka maamulo. Nuqulka heshiiskan ayaa wuxuu lamid ahaa kii suldaan Keynadiid lala saxiixday. Waxaa la xusaa in boqor Cismaan uusan damac siyaasadeed ka lahayn heshiiskan, balse uu u galay si uusan u lumin isu dheeli-tirka xoogga maamulkiisa iyo kan Hobyo. (Italian Colonialism in Somalia. Robert L. Hess. 1966 p.124).
Heshiisyadii dabadeed, Talyaanigu wuxuu degaanka soo booqday sanad kaddib, taas oo ku beegnayd socdaallada joogtada ah oo uu qunsulku ku mari jiray dhulka maxmiyadda u ahaa shirkadda, markaas oo V. Filonardi uu hadiyad u waday suldaan Keynadiid ay kamid ahayd 25 qori iyo 5000 oo rasaas ah. Sanadkii 1993-kii, dowladdii Talyaaniga ayaa waxay qunsulkeeda soo fartay in uu labada maamul gaarsiiyo in ay oggolaadaan qodobo kamid ah heshiisyadii lagu gaaray fadhigii Baljam iyo kii Barliin. Qodobadaasi waxay ahaayeen in la reebo ganacsiga adoomada iyo in la xadeeyo hubka iibka ah oo Afrika la geynayo. Filonardi waxaa xilligaas ka haystay gobolka Banaadir caqabado la xiriira xagga maamulka. Sidaa darteed waxaa adkaa in uu dhambaalkan hor dhigo maamulladii ka jiray bariga iyo bartamaha oo uu ogaa in ay diidayaan. Sanadkii xigay waxaa gobolka loo soo diray ergey hor leh oo la yiraahdo Cecchi. Ganacsiga adoomada oo aanan ku xooganayn degaanka, waxay sababtay in reebitaankeeda uusan ergeygan kala kulmin wax dhib ah. Waxaase ay boqorkii iyo suldaankii ka diideen arrinta ku saabsan in ay joojiyaan soo iibsiga hubka. Taasi waxay abuurtay khilaaf sababay in muddo sanooyin ah uusan degaanka iman markab Talyaani leeyahay. Mar danbe oo Talyaanigii uu bixiyay hadiyado badan oo uu hub kamid ahaa ayay ka heshiiyeen arrintii. (Ibid. p.124-125).
Dhulkii ay Soomaalidu ku noolaayeen, wixii ka baxsanaa xuduuddii labadaas maamul, ayaa waxay ahaayeen meelaha judhii horeba uu saameyn ku yeeshay hooshkii ay dowladaha shisheeyaha ah la damacsanaayeen degaanka. Faransiiska oo soo degay xeebaha waqooyi-galbeed (Jabuuti) ayaa damaciisa wuxuu ku ekaa dhul kooban oo leh ahmiyad istraateejiyadeed. Sidaas darteed ayaa qarniga dabayaaqadiisii wuxuu dhamaystiray mashruuca uu ku qeexayay dhulkii uu ku habsaday. Degmada Jabuuto ayaa dekad iyo magaalo-madaxba u noqotay maxmiyaddii uu ka dhisay halkaas. Waxaa u weheliyay dhul kooban oo ku hareereysan oo uu kaga kaaftoomay in uu kharaj badan ku bixiyo hoosh dhul ballaaran oo gudaha ah.
Ingiriiska oo ku habsaday gobollada waqooyi ayaa markii uu hubsaday in uu ku guulaystay hannaankii dul-maamulka ahaa ee uu halkaas ka dhisay, wuxuu u tallaabay in uu si tartiib ah ugu fido dhulka gudaha ah oo ay Soomaalidu xoolaha daaqsadaan, gaar ahaan dhulka ay degaan beelaha Gadubiirse, Isaaq, qayb kamid ah Ciisaha iyo qaybo beelaha Harti (Dhulbahante iyo Warsangeli). Waxaa kale oo uu ku sikanayay dhulka gudaha ah oo ay degaan beelaha Absame. Ingiriiska,bilowgii hore wuxuu lahaa qorshe uu ku damacsanaa in nadaamka dul-maamul ee uu waqooyiga ka dhisay uu xuduud uga dhigo illaa iyo 100 km. oo gudaha ah, dhul ku bar-bar ah xeebta. Waxaa markaas maamulkiisa hoos imanaya magaalada Biya-qaboobe oo ahayd degmada ugu milgaha adag waddada ay ku socdaali jireen awrta ganacsiga ee ka dhex shaqeeya Harar iyo Seylac. Waxaa kale oo 100-ka km. hoos imanaya degmada Jigjiga oo ku taal dhul biyo badan isla markaasna ah albaabka loo maro dhulka lama-degaanka ah ee glbeedka Soomaaliya.
Talyaaniga ayaa isaguna markii uu cagaha la helay Kismaayo, intuusan Banaadir u tallaabin wuxuu markiiba bilaabay in uu ku sikado dhulka uu maro webiga Juba. Cap. Bottego oo ahaa jaajuus Talyaani ah ayaa wuxuu gaaray degmada Luuq bilowgii sanadkii 1893-kii. Magaaladan ayaa xilligaas waxay ahayd mid uu camiray xiriirkii ganacsi oo ay la lahayd gobollada Banaadir iyo Shawa. Waxaa kale oo magaalada ay ku caan ahayd beeraha waawayn. Biyaha badan oo ay webiga ka heli jirtay ayaa waxay sabab u ahaayeen in dadku ay tabcadaan beeraha. Bishii disember isla sanadkaas ayuu Cap. Bottego ku soo laabtay Luuq isaga oo ciidamo wata. Markuu laabanayay, wuxuu magaaladii kaga tegay ciidan dhan 42 nin iyo bakhaar rasaas ah. Waxaa jirtay in Luuq ay kamid ahayd meelaha uu Menelik isha ku hayay, dood badan oo degmada ku saabsanna waa ay dhex martay isaga iyo Talyaaniga.
Damaca Xabashida oo ka duwanaa damaca gumaystayaasha kale ayaa wuxuu ahaa mid kana xoog weynaa inoogana khatarsanaa. Xabashida oo markaas hoggaan u ahayd qawmiyado badan ayaa waxay sheeganayeen dhamaan dhulka Soomaalidu degaan in uu yahay mid ay iyagu leeyihiin. Waraaqda wareegta oo uu Menelik ku xusey arintan ayuu hoggaamiyayaashii reer Yurub uu kaga helay gacan buuxda. Madaxda ay waraaqdu gaadhay waxaa kamid ahaa qaysarkii Ruushka, embradoorkii Jarmalka, boqorkii Talyaaniga, boqoraddii Ingiriiska iyo madaxweynihii Faransiiska. (The Somali Peninsula, Government of the Somalia 1962. p. 36).
Menelik, wuxuu qorsheystay in uu hoosho dhulka Soomaalidu degaan, hadba inta ay awooddiisa gaarsiiso. Ololihii ciidameed ee uu qaaday bartamihii sanadihii 1890-aadkii, ayaa waxay ku soo gaareen dhulka uu maro webiga Shabeelle, illaa iyo degmada Balcad. Waxay ku soo dhowaadeen Xamar. Beelihii ay sida xun u dhaawaceen waxaa kamid ah beesha Karanle. Soomaalidii, kaddib markii ay dagaallo kharaar la galeen ayay ku guulaysteen in ay iska soo eryaan ciidamadii Xabashida. Beelaha dagaalladaas ka qayb-qaatay waxaa kamid ahaa Jiidle, Jajeello, Moobleen iyo Gabroon. (The Shaping of Somali Society. Lee V. Cassanetti. 1982. p. 199-200).
Beelaha Soomaaliyeed ee ku dhaqan waqooyiga Soomaaliya, qudhooda kama eeyan badbaadin dabkii ciidamada Menelik. Bishii may 1891-kii Cap. Swayne oo ahaa nin wax-badan dhulka Soomaalida maray, wuxuu ku war bixiyay in Xabashidu ay soo direen ergey ka yimid Jigjiga, kaas oo farriin soo gaarsiiyay reerka la yiraahdo Yoonis Jibriil (Gadubiirse). Farriintu waxay ahayd in ay xoolo cashuur ah bixiyaan oo ay siiyaan maamulka boqortooyada Xabashida. Haddii ay oggolaadaan waxaa abaal looga dhigayaa in ciidamada Xabashida eeyan hooshin beesha sida ay ku hayaan beelaha kale ee Soomaaliyeed. Fadhi ay duqeydii reeraha ku qaateen meel u dhexeysa labada tuulo ee Meydir iyo Suurel ayaa waxay ku guddoonsadeen in ey diidaan cashuuraha ay Xabashidu dalbayaan. (The Somali Peninsula, Government of the Somalia 1962. p. 36-37).
Reerka la yiraahdo Nuux Ismaaciil (Habar-Awal) ayaa waxay kamid ahaayeen beelaha Soomaaliyeed oo ay beeshan duddo wadaagta ahaayeen, isla markaasna la qabay dhibaatada ay ciidamada Xabashidu geysanayeen. Shiikh Madar oo kamid ahaa culimadii Soomaaliyeed ee wax ku bartay Harar una dhashay reerka ayaa Ingiriiskii wuxuu ka codsaday in ay hub ka iibiyaan si ay Soomaalidu isaga caabiyaan daandaansiga Xabashida.
Maamulkii Ingiriiska waa uu ka diiday, iyaga oo tilmaamay in degaanku uu yahay mid hoos yimaada dul-maamulka Ingiriiska. Sidaa darteed ay tahay waajib saaran Ingiriiska in uu diyaariyo ciidamo ilaaliya beelaha Soomaaliyeed. (Ibid. p. 36).
Waxaase la hubaa in dowladihii reer Yurub ay ku ballan fureen dadkii Soomaaliyeed oo ay heshiisyada la galeen. Waxay uga dhaqaaqeen meel cidla ah iyaga oo aanan u hurin taageero la bixiyo midda ugu yar ee ah damiir xanuunsada. Soomaalida oo aanan aqoon u lahayn hannaanka cashuurta ayaa waxay arkeen ciidamo dhulkoodii marti ku ah oo misana dadkoodii boob iyo dhac ku haya in ay xaaraan tahay in loogu daro xoolo la siiyo. Arrinkaas Soomaalidu geeri ayay ka xigeen. Xabashiduna wax arxan ah uma eeyan gelin. Falka ay kaga jawaabi jireen diidmada Soomaalida wuxuu ahaa gumaad aanan cidna loo aaba yeelin.
Sandkii 1896, boqor Cismaan Maxamuud iyo suldaan Yuusuf Keynadiid waxay Talyaanigii u soo jeediyeen qorshe ay difaacayaan beelaha Soomaaliyeed kaga daan-daansiga iyo duulaamada kaga imanayay Xabashida. Waxay soo bandhigeen in ay wadajir u soo agaasimaan ciidan tiradiisu dhanyahay 50.000 oo dagaalyahan. Waxay Talyaaniga u sheegeen haddii uu ciidankaasi siiyo qoryo iyo rasaas, in ay Harar ka kicinayaan ciidamada Menelik, oo weliba dadka Soomaaliyeed ee degaanka ku nool ay gacan kaga helayaan arintan. (Italian Colonialism in Somalia. Robert L. Hess. 1966 p.126).
Abwaan Soomaaliyeed ayaa suugaan taariikhda gashay ku tilmaamay goobashada laysugu tegay Soomaalida xilli eeyan diyaar ahayn in ay is difaacaan. Eebe naxariistii janno haka waraabiyo abwaan Faarax Nuur wuxuu tix gabay ah ku yiri :
Ingiriis Axmaariyo Talyaani, wey akeekamiye
Arligaa la kala boobayaa nin u itaal roone
Anse ila ah aakhiro Sabaan iligyadiisiiye
Waa duni la kala iibsaday oon nala ogeysiine
Waa duni ninkaad aamintaa kuu abeeys yahaye
Anse ila ah aakhiro sabaan iligyadiisiiye
Waa duni xaqii la arkayaa la arjumayaaye
Waa duni Akhyaartii lahayd iib ku doon tahaye
Anse ila ah aakhiro sabaan iligyadiisiiy
Afka iyo adduunkaa hadloo oodna sadarkiiye
Ninka gacanta midig oodan tahay laga ilroonaaye
Anse ila ah aakhiro sabaan iligyadiisiiye
Waa Socotaa...
GOORTII DHULKAYAGII LA QEYBSADAY!
Casharkii XXXI-aad


Shirkaddii laga asaasay Sensibaar ee la oran jiray IBEAC (Imperial British East Africa Company) ayaa rool weyn ka cayaartay in Talyaanigu uu ku fido koonfurta Soomaaliya. Shirkaddan oo horay kula heshiisay suldaankii Sensibaar in ay la wareegto maamulka degmooyinka bariga Afrika, ayaa waxay V. Filonardi ku wareejisay gebi ahaan qorshihii ay ka lahayd gobolka Banaadir. Talyaaniga oo xilliyadaas hore aanan fir-fircooni ka muujin xiriirka uu la yeeshay maamulladii ka jiray gobollada bariga iyo bartamaha Soomaaliya, ayaa shirkaddu waxay u suurogelisay in ay caga-dhigtaan gobollada koonfureed ee Soomaaliya.
Waxaa intaa weheliyay Ingiriiska oo mar-kasta suldaanka Sensibaar u shaxaadayay in ay oggolaadaan in uu ka kireeyo Talyaaniga dekadaha Banaadir oo uu maamulkooda ku wareejiyo. Wxaa jirtay waraaq uu suldaankii Sensibaar Xaamid bin Tuwayn u qoray dowladdii Ingiriiska. Waraaqdaas oo uu ku xusay in qsulkii Ingiriiska uu ka codsaday in degaanka Banaadir iyo dekadeheedaba lagu wareejiyo gacanta Talyaaniga, ayuu wuxuu u qoray sidan :
" Zenzibar, may 14 - 1893
(Ammaan dabadeed)
Sida ay saaxiibadaya rajeynayeen, Talyaanigii ayaa la wareegay dekadihii Banaadir. Halkan waxaan idiinku muujinayaa, aniga oo awood buuxda idiin siiyay arintaas in aad ku kacdaan tallaabo kasta oo aad u aragtaan in ay hagaagsan tahay, hadba sida sharaftiina waafaqsan. Waxaan aaminsanahay, wax aanan wanaag ahayn in aydnaadan inoo sameyneen. Waxaa amarka suldaanka ku qoray biddihiisii oo ah Saalem bin Maxamad ". (Ex-Italian Somaliland. E. Sylvia Pankhurst 1969. p. 18).
Talyaaniga dhankiisa ayuu wuxuu ka waday heshiisyo qarsoodi ah oo uu la gelayay qaar kamid ah beelaha Soomaaliyeed ee gobollada koonfureed. Isla markaas wuxuu feer waday wada-hadallo uu Soomaalida ka qariayay oo uu la yeelanayay suldaankii Sensibaar. Shaxaadkii Ingiriiska ee suldaankii Sensibaar iyo wada-hadalladii uu suldaanku la yeeshay Talyaaniga ayaa waxay ku dhamaadeen in sanadkii 1893-kii dekadaha Banaadir lagu kireeyo lacag dhan 50. 000 oo £ oo uu suldaanku qaatay. Waxaa xusid mudan, sanadkii 1905-tii, in isla dhulkaas Talyaanigii uu ska kaga iibsaday oo kula lahaansho-wareegay lacag dhan 144. 000 oo £. (Italian Somaliland. London. 1920. p. 810).
Talyaaniga, ituusan wax tallaabo ah qaadin, wuxuu ishaa-falataysi kaga dhur-sugayay natiijada cadaadiskii uu Ingiriisku saaray kacdoonkii ay wadeen Soomaalidii ku noolayd gobolka Juba-land. Talyaanigu waxay ka baqayeen in kacdoonku ku soo faafo Soomaalida ku nool Banaadir. Ingiriiska oo gacan aanan arxan lahayn ku muquuniyay kacdoonkaas ayaa qudhiisu ka cabsi qabay in kacdoonku u gudbo gobolka Taana, oo xilligaas uu ka waday olole uu ku cadaadinayay xoolo-dhaqatadii Soomaaliyeed si eeyan degaanka ugu fidin.
Maamulkii Ingiriisku ka dhisay gobolka Juba wuxuu bilaabay in uu si tartiib ah xilkii ugu wareejiyo Talyaanigii. Arintaasi waxay ku fulaysay calanka suldaanka hoostiisa iyo saxiix mar-walba laga soo qaadanayay isaga, iyada oo ay dusha kala socotay dowladda Talyaaniga. Kaddib Talyaanigii oo loo xasiliyay dhulkii ayaa la wareegay maamulkii gobolka Juba. Wuxuu bilaabay howlihii lagu ogaa gumaysiga. Wuxuu la wareegay dhamaan dhulkii banaanaa ee aanan la deganayn. Wuxuu dhisay maxkamado iyo xarumo cashuurta lagu ururiyo. Wuxuu qortay rag ciidamo ah iyo howl-wadeeno rayid ah. Waxay hagaajiyeen ganacsigii, iyaga oo habeeyay bangiyo iyo cumlado loo adeegsado lacag ahaan.
Bartamihii sanadkii 1893-kii, wasiirkii dibadda ee Talyaaniga Benedetto Brin ayaa wuxuu la soo xiriiray V. Filonardi. Wasiirku wuxuu soo diray dhambaal uu ku amrayo in la bilaabo sidii xiriiro wanaagsan loola sameysan lahaa odeyada dhaqanka iyo hantoolayaasha ganacsatada ah ee koonfurt Soomaaliya, si ganacsiga Talyaaniga uu u gaaro dekadaha ku yaal gobolka Banaadir. Dowladda Talyaaniga, xilligaas weli diyaar uma ahayn in kharaj iyo ciidan badan ay ku gumaysato dadka Soomaaliyeed. Waxay is-tusiyeen in ay dalka ku qabsadaan qaab ah la wareeg maamul iyo heshiisyo maxmiyadeed.
Filonardi ayaa xilligaas wuxuu ahaa isha keliya oo dowladda Talyaaniga ay ka hesho ogaallada ku saabsan xaaladda nololeed ee ka jirtay gudaha Soomaaliya, gaar ahaan Banaadir. Si ay u helaan il kale ayaa dowladdu waxay soo dirtay sarkaal dhallinyaro ah oo la yiraahdo Leuit. Count Giovanni Lovatelli, kaas oo ka tirsanaa ciidamadii badda ee Talyaaniga. Waxaa xusid mudan in ninkani hadda ka hor loo magacaabay in uu la shaqeeyo arahyo Ingiriis ah oo loo diri jiray Kismaayo iyo gobolka Juba. Arrintaas oo uu guul ka keenay darteed ayaa boqoraddii Ingiriiska Queen Victoria uu kaga helay billad-sharaf. Count G. Lovatelli qoraalladii uu Banaadir ka soo diyaariyay ayuu wuxuu ku sheegay in eeyan u baahnayn kharaj badan si Talyaanigu u maamulo gobolkan. Sababta wuxuu ku sheegay in dadku yahay kuwo u diyaar ah soo dhoweynta Talyaaniga, gaar ahaan kuwa ku nool xeebaha. (Italian Colonialism in Somalia. Robert L. Hess. 1966 p. 40 - 41).
Filonardi wuxuu xiriir toos ah la lahaa wasiirkii dibadda ee Talyaaniga B. Brin. Wakhti badan ma qaadan in uu soo gaarsiiyo hor u marka uu ka gaaray xiriiro uu la yeeshay qaar kamid ah duqeydii Soomaaliyeed iyo ganacsatadii ku nooleyd xeebaha Banaadir. Waxaa jirtay arrin Talyaanigu dhayalsaday oo ku xusnaa qoraalladii Filonardi uu u diray wasaaraddii dibadda ee Talyaaniga. Waxay ahayd talo uu soo jeediyay odey kamid ah duqeyda beesha Biyamaal. Ninkaas oo la yiraahdo Fiqi Caddow, ayaa Filonardi uga digay in uu shaqo siiyo Abuubakar bin Cawad oo ahaa ganacsade kamid ah carabtii ku noolayd gobolka Banaadir. Ninkan ayaa wuxuu xiriir la lahaa ganacsadayaal badan oo ahaa carabtii Banaadir ku nooleyd. Laakiin Soomaalida dareen ayay ka qabeen oo waxay diidanaayeen in uu odey ka noqdo degaanka laga talo-geliyo. Filonardi ayaa wuxuu ninkan ka doonayay in uu kala shaqeeyo geedi-socodka uu ku doonayo in uu ku hanto Banaadir, sidaa darteed buusan dheg u raaricin dareenkii Soomaalida iyo digniintii Fiqi Caddow.
Filonardi oo tan iyo markaas aanan marna hakad gelin howlaha la xiriira mashruuciisa gumaysi-doonka ah, ayaa wuxuu la xiriiray ninka la yiraado Edoardo Incoronato. Ninkani wuxuu ahaa sarkaalkii hoggaaminayay markab weyn oo kuwa dagaalka ah ee uu Talyaanigu lahaa. Markabkaas oo la oran jiray Staffetta ayaa wuxuu ku sugnaa Sensibaar.
Filonardi wuxuu ninkan ka doonayay in uu la dejiyo qorshaha ay ku baxayaan.
Filonardi, intuusan u soo ambabixin Banaadir, wuxuu diyaariyay qoraallo uu ugu talo-galay in uu ku maamulo degaanka. Sidii gobolka Juba ayuu Filonardi ku caddeeyay qoraaladiisaas in maamulkiisu xaq u leeyahay in uu la wareego dhamaan dhulka bannaan oo aanan cidna lahayn. Wuxuu si gaar ah u tilmaamay dhulka hantida dabiiciga ah leh sida dhulka beeraha ku wanaagsan iyo dhulka dhirta waaweyn ee dhuxusha laga shito. Waxaa kale oo uu tilmaamay dhulka macdanta iyo cusbada leh. Dhulalkaas ayaa si looga shaqeysto, sida uu Filonardi qoray, wuxuu ku xiray ruqsad laga haysto maamulka.
Si uu Soomaalida u raali-geliyo, caadifaddoodana u soo jiito ayuu Filonardi qodobka VI-aad ee qoraalkiisa ku xusay in uu degaanka ku dhaqayo shareecadda diinta Islaamka.
Isaga oo ilaalinaya heshiiskii lagu gaaray Baljam ayuu wuxuu reebay ganacsiga addoomada iyo hubka (qoryaha iyo rasaasta). Sidaa darteed wuxuu xusay in dhamaan doonyaha ku soo xiranaya dekadaha Banaadir ay oggolaansho ka heystaan maamulka. Waxaa kale oo qoraalkiisaas ku xusnaa inta ay le´egtahay cashuurta laga qaadayo waxyaabaha laga dhoofinayo dekadaha iyo waxa laga soo dejinayo. (Italian Colonialism in Somalia. Robert L. Hess. 1966 p. 39 - 43).
5/ 10- 1893-kii waxay ahayd taariikhda uu Filonardi u doortay socdaalkiisii rasmiga ahaa ee uu ku iman lahaa Banaadir. Isaga oo la socda Staffetta ayuu taariikhdaas aanu soo xusnay ka soo degay degmada Baraawe oo uu horay si dadban maamulkeedii ula wareegay. Degmadan ayaa dadka ku nool waxay ahaayeen kuwo aanan culays u arag imaatinka Talyaaniga.
7/ 10- 1893-kii, hoggaamiyihii ciidamadii markabka Edoardo Incoronato ayaa arah u diray dhulka baadiyaha ah ee ka tirsan degmada, iyada oo ujeeddadu tahay in la soo indha-indheeyo. Arahda waxaa kamid ahaa Cap. Ugo Ferrandi oo ganacsade dal-mareen ah iyo Leuit. Maurizzio Talmone oo ahaa takhtarkii markabka. Waxaa weheliyay ciidan dhan 30 askari oo kamid ahaa ciidamadii waaligii Baraawe iyo 10 nin oo lababa ay ka socotay beel kamid ah shan beelood oo reer Baraawe ah. Arahdan oo ku socdaashay waddada magaalada ka baxda ee aadda Baardheere ayaa muddo toban saacadood ah lugeynayay. Ogaallada ay heleen ayaa waxay isugu jireen kuwo soo dhoweyn iyo khatarba lahaa. Arrinta dareenka gelisay, madaxdii arahda, oo si gaar ah qiimo ugu lahayd mashruucoodii gumeysi ayaa waxay ahayd raggii Soomaaliyeed oo ay baadiyaha kula kulmeen oo dhamaantood ku hubeysnaa qalab dagaal. Taas oo kamid ah hiddo-nololeedka ay leeyihiin xoolo-dhaqatadeena ayaa waxay ahayd arrin ku cusbayd raggii gumeysi-doonka ah ahaa. Waxay halkaas ka akhristeen arrin ka duwan fudeydkii ay sugayeen in ay dalka ku maamulaan. Waxaa kale oo ay soo arkeen dhulka beeraha ku wanaagsan oo goofafka ah, kuwaas oo lagu waraabinayay biyaha kanallada ku socda oo laga soo leexiyay webiga Shabeelle. Soo dhoweyn ka muuqatay wejiyadii dadkii ay la kulmeen ayaa waxaa wax ka tilmaamay Leuit. M. Talmone. Qoraal uu socdaalkan ka diyaariyay ayuu wuxuu ku qoray sidan :
" Xasilloonida maamulkayaga Banaadir, xataa haddii hodantooyada aan aamin sanahay awooddeeda uusan helin natiijo si deg-deg ah looga miro dhaliyo, ................ Taasi noqon meyso arrin aanan inoo soo jiidin in aanu ahaano horseedayaal meel haboon u diyaarinaya facaha danbe ee Talyaaniga iyo aayahooda. Halkaas oo noqon doonta meel ay ku soo qul-qulaan dadkayaga iyo wax soo saarkayaga ". (Italian Colonialism in Somalia. Robert L. Hess. 1966 p. 45. Laga soo xigtay Brave to Commander of Staffetta. October 9. 1892. Libro Verde. Doc. 81. anex. Pp. 178-80 ).
Rajadii wanaagsanayd oo xiddigle Talmone ka qaaday booqashadii Baraawe ma noqon mid hesha cimri dheer oo ay ku raagto. Sarkaalkan ayaa markii uu qoraalkiisii dhameeyay, muddo 48 saacadood ah dabadeed waxaa loo geystay dhaawacii uu la dhintay. 10/ 10- 1893-kii, isaga oo ka soo degay doon yar ayaa meel xeebta magaalada Marka ah waxaa waran geliyay nin dhallin-yar oo u dhashay beesha Biyamaal. Ninkii wax dilay isla goobtii ayaa waxaa ku toogtay askari carab ah. Dhacdadan oo aanan lahayn wax hor-dhac u ahaa, ayaa waxay ahayd casharkii ugu horeeyay oo uu Filonardi ku ogaaday in Soomaalidu ay iskala weyn-yihiin Talyaaniga. Dabadeed wuxuu qaaday tallaabooyin cadaadis ah oo uu bulshada ciqaab uga dhigayo. Wuxuu gacanta ka jaray ninkii wax dilay isaga oo meyd ah, magaaladiina waa uu xabadeeyay. Wuxuu waafaqay in ay magaalada ka howl-galaan 280 askari iyo 8 sarkaal oo calooshooda u shaqeystayaal ah, kuwaas oo dhamaantood carab ahaa. Askartaas ayaa waxay hoos imanayeen xarun uu lahaa waali cusub oo uu degmada u magacaabay oo la oran jiray Suleymaan bin Xaamid.
Ma jirin cid u yeeratay iyo cid xataa u baahnayd nimankan doolaaliska ah ee inoo yimid. Iyagu maaheyn dad habow ah oo soo lumay, bal waxay lahaayeen ujeeddo dheer oo ay ku ballameen in ay facahooda danbe u gudbiyaan. Qorshahooda dhabta ah ayaa waxaa inoo turjumay falalkii ay nagula kaceen markii ay inaga itaalka roonaadeen. Soomaalidu maahayn dad garasho ka arradnaa oo kasi waayey ujeeddada gumeysiga. Inkasta oo laysugu tegay oo xoogag badan ay isu kaashadeen hooshka dhulkooda, misana ayaan-darrada keliya oo haysatay baa waxay ahayd maqnaanshaha maamul-dhexe oo mideeya, sida maantaba inoo muuqata.
Sayid Maxamad Cabdaulle Xasan ayaa goor danbe tilmaan wacan ka bixiyay, guud ahaan, heerarka uu marayo geedi-socodka gumeysiga. Isaga oo Soomaalida baraya ayuu gabeygiisii Dar-daaran wuxuu ku tiriyay tixdan :
Marka hore dekaduhuu ku iman daawashiyo beene
Dalxiis in uu yahay idin latahay weydin dagayaaye
Marka xiga dabkuu idin ka dhigi dumar sidiisiiye
Marka xiga dalkuu idin ku oran duunyo dhaafsada´e
Marka xiga dabaaqad ayuu idin dareensiine
Marka xiga dushuu idin ka raran sida dameeraaye
Waa Socotaa...
GOORTII DHULKAYAGII LA QEYBSADAY!
Casharkii XXXII-aad


Maantii xigtay maalintii magaalada Marka lagu dilay Leuit. M. Talmone ayaa ahayd markii ugu horaysay ee calan Talyaani la suray dhul Soomaaliyeed. Taariikhdaas madow ee u bilaabatay dadkayagii reer miyiga ahaa, waxay ku beegnayd 11/ 10- 1893-kii. Magaalada Marka ayaa waxay ahayd degmada nasiibka u yeelatay ayaan-darridaas. Waxaase dhacday ninkii calanka surayay oo askari Talyaani ahaa in lagu dilay goobtii uu calanka ka taagayay. Ninka wax dilay oo ahaa nin Soomaaliyeed, una dhashay beesha Biyamaal ayaa isla halkii isna lagu dilay. Vicenezo Filonardi, oo aanan horay u qorshaysan in uu qaab dagaal ku qabsado degmooyinka Soomaaliyeed ayaa wuxuu qaaday tallaabooyinkii ugu horeeyey ee ciidameed. Odeyaal kamid ah duqeydii beesha ayuu inta xir-xiray dabadeedna u dhoofiyay Eriteeriya. Waxaa kale oo uu magaaladii la dhacay madaafiic laga soo ridayay markabkii ahaa Staffetta dushiisa. (Italian Colonialism in Somalia. Robert L. Hess. 1966 p. 48 & The Collapse of the Somali State. A. M. I. Salwe, 1994. p. 18).

V. Filonardi, isaga oo guddoomiye ka ah shirkad uu ku magacaabay Societa´ Filonardi, ayuu isla bishii oktoober 1893-kii soo gaaray Xamar. Waxaa xusid mudan, qaabka shirkaduhu in ay ahaayeen hannaan ay gumaystayaashu ka bilaabi jireen tallaabooyinka ay ku hooshayeen ummadaha. Hantida shirkadduhu lahaayeena waxay ahayd hantida dadka ay ku socodaan in ay soo bililiqaystaan. Qof kasta oo saamiyada shirkadda wax ku darsada (shakhsi ama dowlad), wuxuu qayb ka heli jiray hantida ma-guurtada ah ee laga boobayo dadkaasi loo socdo hadba kuwooda ayaan darrido haleesho. Filonardi wuxuu haysatay heshiis ku eg saddex sano oo uu shirkadda oday ka ahaanayo, taas oo laga soo ansaxiyay Sensibaar. Magaalada Xamar ayaa waxay ahayd degmada ugu hilan cuslayd degaanka, sidaas darteed ayuu Filonardi u doortay in ay magaalo-madax u noqoto maamulka degmooyinka Soomaaliyeed ee uu gunnimada la damacsan yahay. Xilka uu shirkadda u hayay waxaa u dheeraa isaga oo suldaankii Sensibaar wakiil uga ahaa degaanka, isla markaasna wuxuu ahaa nin ganacsade ah. Si fir-fircooni leh ayuu u guda galay in uu habeeyo howlihii maamulka iyo kuwii ganacsiga ee degaanka. Waxaase jiray caqabado saddex ah oo V. Filonardi u muuqdey, kuwaas oo xal u heliddooda ey ku xirneyd guusha shirkadda. Waxey ahaayeen :
1. Ganacsatada Carabta ah oo dekadaha Banaadir u arkayay in ay yihiin isha dhaqaale ee keliya oo ey heystaan.
2. Xoolo-dhaqatad Soomaaliyeed ee degaankoodu yahay baadiyaha Banaadir iyo Juba, kuwaas oo arkayay in suldaanka Sensibaar iyo Talyaani midkoodna uusan xaq u lahayn in ay dhulkooda ku heshiiyaan.
3. Damaca boqorkii Xabashida, kaas oo degaanka ka waday olole ciidameed oo uu ku dhul fidsanayo. Dhulka Soomaaliduna guud ahaan wuxuu kamid ahaa meelaha u tilmaanaa oo uu Menelik damaca ka lahaa.
Commander Incoronato, oo la socday socdaalkii Filonardi, ayaa markuu Xamar gaaray, dowladdii Talyaaniga u soo gudbiyay talooyin wax ku´ool ah oo ku saabsan sidii ay u hooshi lahaayeen Soomaaliya, gaar ahaan gobollada Juba iyo Banaadir. Wuxuu kula taliyey in eeyan ku deg-degin in degmooyinka Soomaaliyeed ay ka bilaabaan hab-maamul u muuqan kara qaab gumeysi, isaga oo ku tilmaamay Soomaalidu dad jeceylka ay nolosha u qabaan uu ka weyn yahay jaceylka ay dagaalka u qabaan . Haddii uu dagaal bilowdona waxaa xayiraad ku imaneysaa dhaqdhaqaaqa ganacsi oo Talyaanigu ka bilaabay degaanka. Wuxuu tilmaamay laba arimood oo dib u dhac ku keenaya howlaha Talyaanigu doonayo in uu ka bilaabo degaanka. Waxay kala yihiin xiriir la´aanta Talyaaniga iyo Soomaalida reer miyiga ah, iyo colaadaha ka dhex aloosan beelaha Soomaaliyeed dhexdooda. Wuxuu si gaar ah u tilmaamay in Soomaalidu ay ku mashquulsan yihiin colaad-beeleedyo dhexdooda ah, taasina ay tahay mid hiilo u ah mashruuca gumaysi-doonka ah ee Talyaanig. Ogaallada uu dhiibay ninkani oo ku saabsan ganacsiga wuxuu ka xusay in dhulka Soomaalidu uu yahay mid hodan ku ah xoolaha nool iyo khudaarta ka baxda beeraha ku tallaalan daamanka webiyada, sidaa darteed walxaha dalkan laga dhoofin karo ay noqon karaan hilibka, xoolaha nool iyo khudaarta. (Italian Colonialism in Somalia. Robert L. Hess. 1966 p. 48-49).

Reer miyigii Soomaaliyeed ee ku noolaa baadiyaha Banaadir ayaa markiiba dareensaday dhaqdhaqaaqan shisheeye ee ku soo kordhay noloshii degaanka. Waxaa bilawday kacaamo heer beeleed ah oo aanan isku xilli iyo isku meel ka dhicin. Inkasta oo kacdoonkii beesha Biyamaal uu ahaa midka uguna horeeyay uguna milgaha cuslaa, misana kacdoomada teel-teelka ahaa oo reer miyigii Soomaaliyeed ay kala hor yimaadeen maamulkii gumaysiga iyo raggiisii waxaa laga xusi karaa kacdoonkii beesha Gaaljecel ee uu hoggaaminayay Shiikh Xasan Barsane, kacdoonkii beesha Wacdaan iyo kacdoonkii beesha Abgaal. Kacaamadaas oo midba la xilli ahaa marka Talyaanigu gaaro degaanka beeshu degan tahay, ayaa dhamaantood waxaa hoggaaminayay rag culimo ah oo aqoon wanaagsan u lahaa culuumta islaam-baradka. Reerka Biyamaal oo degaankoodu yahay dhulka u dhexeeya Marka iyo Jamaame ayaa markiiba bilaabay dhaqdhaqaaq mucaarad ku ah maamulkan cusub ee ka abuurmay degaanka, gaar ahaan degmada Marka oo Beeshu ey ku xoogan tahay. Dhallinyaradii beesha ayaa waxay bilaabeen in ay xayiraad ku soo rogaan dhamaan waddooyinka isku xira degmada iyo baadiyaha. Taasi waxay joojisay raashinkii ay degmada ka heli jirtay beeraha iyo xoolaha ay Soomaalidu baadiyaha ku haysteen. Dabadeed Filonardi wuxuu bilaabay in uu magaalada ka quudiyo dhanka badda oo maraakiib ayuu raashin ugu keeni jiray. (The Collapse of the Somali State. A. M. I. Salwe, 1994. p. 18).

Kacdoonkaas hore ee reerka Biyamaal ayaa wuxuu ahaa mid aanan si wanaagsan loo agaasimin, sidaa darteed ma noqon mid dhaawac muuqda gaarsiiyay Talyaaniga. V. Filonardi, qudhiisu maahayn nin diyaar u ahaa in uu dagaal culus la galo beelaha Soomaaliyeed. Wuxuu sitay xoogaa hub fudud ah oo uu Eriteeriya kala yimid, kuwaas oo muddo ugu kaydsanaa bakhaarrada Sensibaar. Hubka culus oo uu isku halaynayay wuxuu ahaa madaafiicda culus ee saarnaa markabka Staffetta, kaas oo heshiisku ahaa in uu muddo afar bilood ah uu soo joogo xeebaha Banaadir(sebtember 1893 - janaweri 1894). Haddii loo baahdona uu ka howl-galo. Howlihii uu Filonardi ka qabay Banaadir waxaa kamid ahaa maamul uu ka dhisay degmooyinkii Soomaaliyeed, kuwaas oo uu madax uga dhigay niman Talyaani ah. Wuxuu dhisay maxkamado uu masuul uga dhigay niman carab ah. Howlaha uu qabtay waxaa ugu cuslaa dhismo gidaar oo uu magaalada Xamar ku soo wareejiyay, cabsi uu ka qabay awgeed, kacdoon kaga yimaada bulshooyinka beeralayda iyo kuwa xoolo-dhaqatada ah ee Soomaaliyeed.

Maamul xumo dhaqaale darteed ayaa Filonardi iyo shirkaddiisii waxaa helay caqabado culus oo eeyan ku tala gelin. Gadoodka beesha Biyamaal ayaa iyana culaab kale ahayd oo hor is-taagtay mashruucii shirkadda. Sidaa darteed wuxuu taageero uga baahday dowladdiisii. Wuxuu u diray farriin uu kaga codsanayo in mar kale wada-hadal lala yeesho suldaankii Sensibaar oo laga codsado in heshiiskii lala dhigtay wax laga beddelo si dhaqaalaha kirada ah oo suldaanka lagula heshiiyay uu wax u dhimo. Heshiiskaa hore ayaa wuxuu dhigayay in suldaanka sanad walba la siiyo dul-saar gaaraya 60 % faa´iidada laga helo dekadaha Soomaaliyeed. Ra´iisul-wasaarihii Talyaaniga ayaa, howlaha ka socda Banaadir, u arkay talo qardajeex ah oo Filonardi uu horseede ka yahay, taas oo aanan natiijo wanaagsan laga filayn. Taasi waxay ka dambaysay war-bixin uu ra´iisul wasaaruhu helay ee ku saabsan maamul-xumida Filonardi. Sidaa darteed waa uu diiday in uu yeelo codsigii Filonardi. Wuxuuna tilmaamay in heshiiska lala galay suldaanka Sensibaar uu yahay mid mudan in la xaq-dhowro. (Italian Colonialism in Somalia. Robert L. Hess. 1966 p. 49. Laga soo xigtay Filonardi Report nr. 221. Zenzibar. December 31. 1893).

Dowladda Talyaaniga, markeedii hore waxay ugu deeqdey shirkaddii Filonardi 300.000 oo liiraha Talyaaniga ah. Heshiiska ay la dhigatay shirkadda waxaa kamid ahaa in ay dowladda u soo celiso kharaj lix biloodle ah oo dhan 160.000 oo liiro. Taasina shirkaddii waa ay awoodi weyday. Filonardi wuxuu filayay in uu taageero ka helo hantiilayaasha Talyaaniga ah oo ay saamiyada shirkadda qeyb xoog leh ka qaataan, iyaduna daah baa helay. Waxaase dhacday in cimrigii shirkadda uusan noqon mid raaga. Sababtu waxay ahayd eedeyn madaxdii shirkadda kaga timid dhanka dowladda Talyaaniga. Maamul-xumida lagu eedeeyay Filonardi waxaa kamid ahaa kharajka badan ee uu geliyay gidaarka uu Xamar ka dhisay. Arrimaha musuq-maasuqa ahna waxaa ugu waynaa laaluush uu hantidii shirkadda ka bixiyay, kuwaas oo uu sii yay qaar amid ah madaxdii dowladda Talyaaniga. Ujeeddada uu ka lahaa ayaa waxay ahayd in madaxdaasi ay gacan ka geystaan socodsiinta howlaha la xiriira shirkadda. Sidaa darteed ayaa shirkaddii waxay awood u weyday in ay bixiso dhaqaalihii lagu lahaa. Waxaa xusid mudan qunsulkii markaas Talyaaniga u fadhiyay Sensibaar Antonio Ceechi, in qudhiisu uu raad ku lahaa kalsooni-xumida ka dhex abuurantay madixii shirkadda iyo dowladdii Talyaaniga.

Shirkaddii waxaa loo diiday qoryo dhowr boqol ahaa oo Sensibaar yiilay, kuwaas oo horay loogu ballan qaaday. Markabkii Staffetta ayaa isna markii ay u dhamaatay muddadiisii, ka baxay xeebaha Banaadir. Bishii abriil, 1894-kii, inteeyan bilowmin bad-xiranka, xafiisyadii shirkadda irridaha ayaa loo xiray. Shaqaalihii Talyaaniga ahaa, Sensibaar ayay u wareegeen. Askartii carabta ahayd ee u shaqaynayay shirkadda, xataa waxaa loo waayay qoryo ay isku difaacaan. Dabadeed Filonardi, wuxuu ku dadaalay in dowladdiisa uu qanciyo si ay u taakulayso shirkadda. Wuxuu tallaabadan ku tilmaamay mid dadka iyo dowladda Talyaaniga u keeni karta magac-xumi. Qoraal cabasho ah oo uu u diray dowladdiisii ayuu sidan u qoray:
" U faa´iidaynta dhulka aabe darteed, shirkad ka howl-gashay dhul aad u ballaaran, maahan mid noolaan karta, haddii eeyan gacan ka helin dowladda. Fudeydka (qormada) iyo hadafka laga leeyahay heshiiska oo ah mid ballaaran oo qallafsan ayaa si aad ah u muujinaya in shirkaddu ay sheegto in ay ku khasban tahay i dowladdu ay la shaqayso. Wadda kale ma jirto. Heshiiska dhex-maray shirkadda iyo dowladda, haddaanan loo garan sidaas oo ifaysa, taasi waxay horseedaysaa in dowladdu ay ka aragti qaadato sabool taag-daran oo aanan lahayn maskax caafimaad qabta ". (Ex-Italian Somaliland. E. Sylvia Pankhurst 1969. p. 54).

Dowladdii Talyaaniga, dheg uma raaricin cabashadii Filonardi. Dowladdii Ingiriiska oo arintan la socotay ayaa qoraal u dirtay Talyaaniga ay ku waydiinayso in ay ku tala jiraan in ay isaga baxaan Banaadir. Qoraalkaas dabadiis, muddo laba toddobaad ah ayaa Talyaanigii waxay u magacaabeen degaanka Banaadir qunsulkoodii fadhiyay Sensibaar Antonio Ceechi. (Italian Colonialism in Somalia. Robert L. Hess. 1966 p. 50).

Antonio Ceechi oo horay u ahaa ninka ay dowladdu u dirtay in uu daba-gal ku sameeyo howlaha shirkadda ayaa markii uu la wareegay masuuliyaddii shirkadda ka beddelay magacii oo ku magacaabay Sociata Anonima Commerciale Italiana del Benadir. Isla markaas Filonardi waxaa la gaarsiiyay in uu maamulka shirkadda madax ka ahaado si looga faa´iidaysto khibraddiisa. Mushaharka loo ballan qaaday ayaa wuxuu ahaa 30.000 oo liiro sananadkii. Waxaa kale oo jiray ganacsade Talyaani ah oo xagga dowladda laga soo magacaabay in uu kamid noqdo howl-wadeennada shirkadda. Ninkaas oo magaciisa la yiraahdo ayaa Giacoma Trevis ayaa wuxuu degaan u doortay magaalada Baraawe.

Dhan kale dowladda Talyaanigu, waxay xilligaas isu diyaariaysay duulaankii ay ku qaaday Xabashida ee la magac baxay Cadawa. Dowladda ayaa u baahnayd dhaqaale badan oo ay ku bixiso mashruucii dagaalkaas. Xilligaas Talyaanigu ma uusan haysan dhaqaale ku filan howlaha dowladeed ee dalka gudihiisa. Sidaa darteed ayaa Barlamaanka waxaa ka dhici jiray doodo culus oo ay siyaasiyiintu isku dhaafsanayeen aragtidooda. Qoraallada ii soo diro General General Oreste Baratieri, oo ahaa hoggaamiyihii maamulkii Ereteeriya, ayaa waxay ahaayeen kuwo barlamaanka laga akhriyo. Ugu danbayntii, jananka waxaa loo ansixiyay in la siiyo taakulaynta uu u baahan yahay idaylkeed.
Ogow oo waa raggaas iyo jaalkood kuwa ina gumeeyay fac hore iyo fac danbe. Waa kuwaas kuwa aasay magaca iyo maamuuskii ummadeed ee lagu yiqiin awoowayaashii hore ee Soomaaliyeed. Waa kuwaas kuwa tallaalay ragaadka taariikheed ee umaddayadu la kici la´dahay. Waa kuwaas .....

GOORTII DHULKAYAGII LA QEYBSADAY!
Casharkii XXXIII-aad

Bishii nofember 1895-kii, dowladdii Talyaaniga waxay u yeertay qunsulkeedii Sensibaar Antonio Ceechi, si ay ugala xaajooto arimaha ku saabsan maamulka gumeysi ee Banaadir. Qunslkan ayaa markuu gaaray Talyaaniga, wuxuu socdaalkiisii ka bilaabay degmada Milaano si uu u dhiiri-geliyo hantiilayaasha diyaarka u ah in ay ka qayb-qaataan saamiyada hore ee lagu khamaarayo, kuwaas oo ay shirkadda ku fulinayso qaybaha hore ee mashruuca ay ku hooshayeen dhulkii Soomaaliyeed. Shirarkii badnaa ee uu ku qabtay magaalada Milaano ayaa waxaa ka dhashay in A. Ceechi la raaciyo siddeed nin oo kamid ah xubnihii saamilayda ahaa. Ujeeddadu waxay ahayd in ay wax ka maamulaan mashaariicda hooshka Banaadir. Hantiilayaasha degmada Rooma ayaa ka gaabsaday arintan. Iyagu waxay doonayeen in marka hore ay arkaan in dowladdu ay si xoog leh faraha ula gasho howlaha ay ku gumeynayeen dadkayagii ku noolaa gobolladaas. (Italian Colonialism in Somalia. Robert L. Hess. 1966 p. 55-56).
15/ 4- 1896-kii, A. Ceechi wuxuu dhisay shirkaddii la magac-baxday Sosieta Anonima Commerciale Italiana del Benadir. Inkasta oo dowladdu ay qunsulka ka codsatay in si nabadgelyo leh uu ku dabaalo dhismaha maamulka Banaadir, misana dowladdu waxay ka gaabsatay in ay dusha ka ilaaliso gabood-falka ay kula kacayaan dadka ay gumaysanayaan. Sidaa darteed buusan maamulkan ka arxan roonaan kuwa kale ee goballadeena wax ka hooshayay ee isugu jiray Xabashi, Ingiriis iyo Faransiis.

Francesco Crispi oo ahaa ra´iisul wasaarihii Talyaaniga muddadii u dhexeysay 1893- kii iyo 1896-kii ayaa wuxuu kamid ahaa sababaha uu qunsul A. Ceechi ugu soo guuleystay socdaalkiisii. F. Crispi wuxuu ahaa nin qabay in uu siyaasadda Talyaaniga ku soo kordhiyo is-beddel xagga dhaqaqalaha ah. Wuxuu doonayay in uu wax weyn u qabto beeraleyda Talyaaniga oo sababtooda ay la dhacday dowladdii isaga ka horeysay. Sidaa darteed, meelaha istraateejiga ah oo uu Crispi isha ku hayay waxaa kamid ahaa dhulka ay doonayeen in ay Soomaalida ka boobaan. Waxaa kale oo iyana jiray laba markab oo kuwa wax bambeeya ah oo ay dowladdu u ogolaatay in qunsulka la raaciyo si ay uga howl-galaan xeebaha Soomaaliyeed. Maraakiibtaas mid wuxuu ahaa Staffetta, kan kalena waxaa la oran jiray Volturno.

Waxaa xusid mudan, sanadkii ka horeeyay sanadka aanu ka sheekeenayno (1895-kii), in uu ku beegan yahay xilligii uu xajka u kacay halyeygii weynaa, aabihihii qowmiyadda Soomaaliyeed, sidihii calanak jihaadka, Sayid Maxamad Cabdulle Xasan. Isaga oo da´diisu tahay 30 jir ayaa waxay xajka isu raaceen 13 nin oo ay kamid yihiin laba abtiyaashiis ah oo lakala yiraahdo Xaaji Aadan Seed iyo Obsiiye Seed.

Xilligaas waxaa toban sano ay ka soo wareegatay fadhigii boobka ee Barliin. In badan oo go´aamadii fadhiga kamid ahna waa ay hirgaleen. Nadaamkii embriyaaliga ahaa ee gumeysiga ayaa wuxuu taabtay ummadihii ku noolaa qaaradaha Aasiya iyo Afrika, gaar ahaan dhulalkii ay deganaayeen qowmiyadaha Islaamka ah. Sidaa darteed ayaa xujayda iyo ardayda isugu yimaada xaramka, waxay is-dhaafsan jireen wararka murugada leh oo tilmaamayay xaaladaha ay ku sugan yihiin ummadahaas ayaan-darridu heshay. Waxaa kale oo ay is-dhaafsan jireen sheekooyinka xiisaha leh ee ku saabsan kacdoomadii lagu diidanaa qorshayaasha gumeysiga oo ay hoggaaminayeen culimadii dadyowgaas la boobayay. Waxaa kamid ahaa kacaamadii ka socday aasiyada dhexe, kacdoonkii Bakistaan iyo kacdoonkii Suudaan ee uu hoggaaminayay Mahdiga.
Waxaa kaloo jiray wadaad xaramka joogay oo la oran jiray Shiikh Maxamad Saalax. Wadaadkan oo ahaa ninka asaasey dariiqada Saalixiyada, ayaa odey u ahaa dariiqada. Sayid Maxamad oo xaramka ku sugnaa muddo laba sanadood ah, ayaa culimo uu kamid yahay Shiikh M. Saalax wuxuu ka bartay jaadadka kala duwan ee culuumta Islaamka iyo nadaamka dariiqada Saalixiyada. Waxaa kale oo uu sheekooyin badan ka soo dhegeystay dhaqdhaqaaqii caalamiga ahaa oo embriyaaliyaddu ay wax ku hooshayeen iyo xoogaggii ka soo hor-jeeday. Kaddib shiikhu wuxuu ku soo laabtay dalka, isaga oo aqoonta diiniga ah ka sokow, xambaarsan aragti lagu diidan yahay gumeysiga.

Bilowgii bishii mey 1896-kii, qunsul A. Ceechi ayaa ku soo laabtay Xamar, isaga oo guul siyaasadeed iyo mid dhaqaale sita. Wuxuu waraaq u waday guddoomiyihii shirkadda V. Filonardo, ay ku xusan tahay goorta uu xilka wareejin doono. Waraaqdaas oo Ceechi uu gaarsiiyay guddoomiyaha 11/ 5- 1895-kii, waxaa ku qornaa in Filonardo ay shaqada kaga egtahay 15/ 7- 1895-ka.
Sanadkii 1896-kii, dhacdada ugu milgaha culus ee Talyaaniga uu kala kulmay geeska Afrika ayaa waxay ahayd jabkii ka qabsaday dagaalkii Cadowa. Dagaalkaas oo dhex maray ciidamadii Talyaaniga ee fadhiyay Eriteeriya iyo kuwii Xabashida ayaa wuxuu ahaa natiijo ka dhalatay is maan-dhaaf ka yimid heshiiskii Uccialli oo ay labada maamul kala saxiixdeen 2/ 5- 1889.

Heshiiskaas oo sida aanu soo xusnay qodobkiisa VII-aad ay labada maamul midba si u fasirtay ayaa waxay dhalisay in lakala gar qaadan waayo. Talyaanigu wuxuu doonayay in uu qodobkaas ku khiyaano Xabashida oo uu oggoleysiiyo in ay maxmiyad u noqdaan. Menelik, oo damaciisa gumeysi ka sokow ahaa nin waddani, ayaa ka madax adaygay qorshihii Talyaanigu ka rabay. Boqorkan ayaa xilligaas isu diyaarinayay in uu hanto talada dhamaan dadyowga masiixiga ah ee Tigray iyo Amxaaro, dabadeedna uu u tallaabo in uu wax ka hoosho qowmiyadaha la deriska. Wuxuu diiday wax kasta oo hadiyad ah oo uu Talyaanigu damcay in uu ku qanciyo. Ruushka iyo Faransiiska oo iyagu kaalmo hagar la´aan ah la garab taagnaa boqortooyada Xabashida, ayaa hor is-taagay fasirka uu Talyaanigu ka qaatay heshiiska. Dowladihii Yurub intoodii kale waxay la aragti noqdeen Talyaaniga. Taasi waxay hoos u dhigtay kalsoonidii dhex-tiil boqorkii Xabashida Menelik II iyo boqorkii Talyaaniga Umberto I, taas oo jiitamaysay tan iyo sanadkii 1890-kii.

Waxaa dhacdadan ka horeeyay in sanadkii 1894, uu is-beddel xoog leh ku yimid cimiladii siyaasadeed ee maamulkii Menelik. Taasi waxay ka dambaysay markii hoggaamiyayaal Xabashi iyo Tigray ah ay oggolaadeen in ay si buuxda u hoos yimaadaan taliska boqor Menelik II. Waxaa raggaas ugu weynaa Ras Mangashe oo ahaa curadkii boqorkii Tigrayga ee la oran jiray Yohannes IV. Markaas ayuu Menelik qaatay naaneysta ah Negusa Nagast (boqorkii boqorrada). Halkaas ayuu Menelik wuxuu ku helay awood uu ku soo ururin karo ciidamo gaaraya 200.000, kuwaas oo kala-bar in ka badan ay sitaan hub casri ah.
Talyaaniga oo horey saaxiib wanaagsan ay ahaayeen Xabashida, isla markaasna u fidiyay tageero xoog leh oo hub ah ayaa wuxuu malaysan waayay in Xabashidu diidaan dul-maamulkiisa. Sidaa darteed dowladdii Talyaaniga, iyada oo iska indha tiraysa xooga halkaas fadhiya, ayaa waxay guddoonsatay in ay ku duusho Xabashida oo ay xoog ku qabsato. Amar dowladda ka yimid ayuu General Oreste Baratieri ku dhaqaaqay, isaga oo hoggaaminaya 25.000 oo isugu jira Talyaani iyo Eriteeriyaan. Waxay qabsadeen saddex degmo ee ku yaal waqooyiga Itoobiya Adigrat, Cadowa iyo Maqdalla. Dabadeed Menelik oo u habar-wacday qowmiyadihii uu u talinayay ayaa wuxuu la soo baxay ciidan dhan 196.000. General O. Baratieri ayaa dib u gurtay si uu u helo xoog uu dowladda ka sugayay. Inkasta oo jananka uu helay taakulayn siyaado, misana taasi ma-noqon mid ay kaga guulaystaan ciidamadii Xabashida.

Dagaal weyn oo labada ciidan dhex-maray ayaa ka dhacay agagaarka degmada Cadowa, 1/ 3-1896-kii, wuxuu socday maalintaas labadeedii gelin. Natiijadii dagaalkaas waxay noqotay in Talyaanigii la jebiyo. Waxaa laga dilay ciidamo isugu jira 286 sarkaal iyo tiro ku dhow 5.000 oo askari, kuwaas oo kala-bar ay Talyaani ahaayeen. Tiro intaa ka badan ayaa waxay ahaayeen wax la dhaawacay, wax la waayey iyo wax maxaabiis ahaan loo qabsaday. Dhaawacaas oo ah midkii ugu weynaa oo gumeysatadii reer Yurub ay Afrika kala kulmaan ayaa Talyaanigii wuxuu ku reebay khasaaro dhaqaale oo gaaraya 13.000.000 oo liiro.

Dagaalkaasi siyaabo kala duwan ayuu raad ugu yeeshay geedi-socodkii gumeysigii ku soo qul-qulayay geeska Afrika, gaar ahaan Soomaaliya. Dhaawaca ciidamadoodii gaaray darteed ayaa dagaalkii wuxuu caajis badan ku reebay mashruucii gumeysi-doonka ahaa ee dowladda Talyaaniga ay ka wadday geeska Afrika. Halka uu dar-dar iyo xowli-orod ku kordhiyay barnaamijkii Xabashida.
Waxaa kale oo xusid mudan, in Talyaaniga uu markiisii hore oo xiiso u hayay codsigii ka yimid boqor Cismaan iyo suldaan Keynadiid ee ku saabsanaa in ay ka hor-tagaan dhaqdhaqaaqa ciidameed ee uu Menelik ka waday dhulka Soomaalidu degaan, isla markaasna ay ka kiciyaan degmada Harar, haddii uu siiyo hub ay ku diriraan 50.000 oo nin. Dalabkii codsigaas ayaa wuxuu la fashilmay qorshayaal gumeysi-doon ahaa oo Talyaaniga kaga gubtay dagaalkii Cadowa. (Italian Colonialism in Somalia. Robert L. Hess. 1966 p.126).
13/ 11- 1896-kii, ciidamo Xabashi ah oo gaaraya 1000 ayaa waxay soo gaareen degmada Luuq. Ciidamadan oo uu hoggaaminayay Dadjazmatch Wolde Gabre waxay degmada ugu yimaadeen ciidamo Talyaani ah oo uu taliye u ahaa nin la yiraahdo Cap. Ugo Ferandi. Ciidankii Talyaaniga ayaa ku sgnaaday xeryahoodii oo aanan muujin wax dhaqdhaqaaq ah muddadii ay Xabashidu joogeen degaanka, sidaa darteed ayaanay labada ciidan eeyan wax isu yeelin. Ciidamadii Xabashida oo socodkoodii sii wata waxay u kaceen dhanka bari iyo gobolka Bay. Faduul badan oo ay kula kaceen dadkii Soomaaliyeed ee degaanka ku noolaa ayaa waxay sababtay in beelihii Digil iyo Mirifle ay sutida u qabtaan ciidamadan ku soo xad-gudbay. Kaddib markii la naafeeyay Xabashidii ayay halkoodii ku noqdeen. (Italian Colonialism in Somalia. Robert L. Hess. 1966 p.63).

Dowladddii Talyaaniga oo ku qanacday jabka ka soo gaaray Cadowa ayaa waxay ku deg-degtay wada-hadal heshiis nabadeed oo ay la yeelato Xabashida. Talyaamigu wuxuu u baqay in Eriteeriya ay gacantiisa ka baxdo oo ay Xabashidu la wareegaan. Arintaas ayaa sababtay heshiis nabadeed oo ay labada dal kala saxiixdeen dabayaaqadii sandka.
Bishii nofember 1895-kii waxaa soo cusboonaaday colaaddii Talyaaniga iyo beesha Biyamaal. Taasi waxay ka dambeysay dil loo geystay qaar kamid ah shaqaalihii Talyaaniga. Ragga la dilay waxaa u weynaa Giacoma Trevis oo ahaa ganacsade kamid ah masuuliinta shirkadda. Talyaanigii, oo sida u caado ahayd, bilaabay in uu ka aarsado dadkii rayidka ahaa, ayaa sababtay in magaaladii Marka ay markale noqoto gol colaadeed. Is ugaarsi iyo aarsi ka dhex-bilowmay shaqaalihii Talyaaniga iyo beesha Biyamaal ayaa muddo sanad ah socotay, taas oo ku danbeysay in dilo qonsulkii Talyaaniga Antonio Ceechi.

Talyaanigu wuxuu in muddo ah ku haminayay in maamulkiisa uu gaarsiiyo dhulka gudaha ah ee gobolka Banaadir, gaar ahaan tuulooyinka ay ka taliyeen beesha Gelledi oo ahaa seyladaha u dhexeeya ganacsiga dhulka gudaha ah iyo degmooyinka xeebaha ku yaal ee Banaadir. Iyada oo la baadi-goobayo arintan, ayaa arah ballaaran oo laga soo ansixiyay xagga dowladda Talyaaniga waxay bilawday in ay ka baxdo Xamar 25-kii bishii nofember 1896-kii. Arahda oo uu hoggaaminayay qunsul A. Ceechi, waxaa weheliyay Commander Ferdinando Maffei oo ahaa hoggaamiyihii Staffetta iyo Commander Francesco Mangiardin oo isna ahaa hoggaamiyihii Volturno. Waxaa kale oo la socday 14 nin oo badankoodu ahaayeen saraakiishii labada markab. Raggaas oo si xoogan u hubysnaa, waxaa weheliyay 70 askari oo ilaaladooda ahayd.

Kaddib markii uu gabalkii dhacay, arahdii waxay ku furteen meel Xamar u jirta 12 mail. Goor ay fiidkii tahay waxaa helay weerar ay garan-waayeen cidda ka dambeysay. Inkasta oo ay iska caabiyeen, misana habeenkaas waxaa ay seexdeen iyaga oo ka shaki ka qaba colka soo weeraray, Xabashi iyo Soomaali cidda ay yihiin. Shakiga ay arahdu habeenkaas la seexdeen ma noqon mid raaga. Subaxnimadii ay bishu ahayd 26/ 11- 1896-kii, iyaga oo isu diyaariyay in ay dhaqaaqaan, ayaa si kedis ah lagu soo weeraray. Marakanse weerarku waa uu ka habeysnaa kii hore. Muddo daqiiqado ah ayaa waxaa lagu laayay 14 kamid ah xubnihii arahda, kuwaas oo ay kamid ahaayeen qunslkii A. Ceechi iyo madaxdii labada markab. Askartiina waxay noqdeen wax la laayo iyo wax carara. Lafihii dadkaa la laayey oo muddo warnaa dhulka ayaa sababay in degaankii loogu magac-daro Lafoole. Waana meesha ay inooga dhisnayd, waageynu aadamiga u ekeyn, kuliyaddii ay macallimiinta inooga soo qalin-jebin jireen.
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