Tuesday, December 29, 2009

THE MADAXWEYN DIR OF ETHIOPIA: MUSIC OF BAXSAN, FAYNUS, ABDI MUXUMMED AMIN

SAYNAB CALI BAXSAN






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Heesta kowad waxaa ku luuqeyneysa Saynab Cali BAXSAN: Guleysta iyo Geeri . Sadexda danbena Faynuus Sheikh Dahi. Labadan fanaan ayaa ka soo jeeda Galbeedka Somalia, oon u kala dhashay Obo Akihso iyo Reer Aw Saciid oo Madaxweyne Dir ka soojeeda.
Wareysi Dheer oo aan Layeelanay Mudane Warsame oo Dalka Itobiya ku xeel dheer.
Su'aal Dirsame : Bal dhalinta reer konfurta Direed een kala aqoon reer tolkood wax uga sheeg Madaxweyn Dirka Galbeedka Somalia. Dhamaan Dirka dagan konfurta markii ay maqlaan Madaxweyne wexey la soo boodaan inta badan laba hobol oo Wabari ku jiray, sida Baxsan iyo Cabdi Muxummed Amiin Gabyaga, heesaga, wadaniga weyn. Dhalinta waxa kale eey yaqaanan atirisho Faynus Sheikh Dahir, siiba kuwa majajilada ruwayadaha daawada. Laakin dalkas Somali Galbeed iyo deeganada ma yaqaanan dhalinyarada reer Xamarka ah sideyda, bal waxa nooga sheeg, Madaxweyn Dir itaad Ka aragtay ?
Sida ay u kala baxaan noo sheeg horta ?
Mudane Warsame Jawaab: Marxaba anigoo hadalka soo koobi doona. Saad ogsontahay Dir wuxuu dhalay 4 wiil oo kala ha:
1)Madaxweyn
2)Maahe Dir-Isaaq;Biimaal;gadsan; dabruube iyo Bajimaal
3)Madoobe Dir-waa Ciise iyo beelo soo raaca oo isaga ladhashay lana dagan
4)Dir-Mandalluuga koonfurta dagan (sida Makahiilka, Nuure, Buufow, Reer Majuun, Reer xasan) iyo Gadabuursi (beel weynta Samaroon Saciid)
Horta Madaxweyn uma dhalan anigu (waxaan Ka soo Jeedaa Surre Dir). Laakin aad iyo aad ayaan u baaray, oo ku darsay beeshan balaaran ee Madaxweyne Direed. Dhowr safar oon Somalia, Kenya iyo Etioobiya meelaha ay dagaan ayaan ku soo maray, kadibna waxaan baaray oo yara raad raacay buugagta ay qoreen reer galbeedka. Marka, waxad odhan kartaa wax woogan ogahay, laakin cudurdaar, hadii aan wax is dhaf dhafiyo ha la ii dulqaato, hana la i saxo hadoow, oo foorumku waa furan yahay iyo comments kuba.

Madaxweyn wuxuu Dhalay:

  1. Maxamed
  2. Ali
  3. Yaxye
  4. Hordare

  1. Maxammed iyo Ali madaxweyn ayyeenu inta badan aan maqalnaa oo kala ah:
  • Gurgure (maxammed)
  • Akisho
  • Gariire
  • Guure
  • Waro Waro
  • Obo
  • Reer Aw saciid
  • Layiile
  • Madigaan
  • Iyo Barsuug
  • Reer Dayo ( Wardaay)
  • Jiido Geedle Cali Madaxweyn ( Wajis iyo Sifir)-Qoryoolley area.
2. Hordare waa sadex (Etiyoobiya iyo jubada Hoose)
  • Alaabweyn
  • Ijaaje
  • Khayre



3. Yaxye waa reer zona Jubbada Hoose North of Kismayo & wamo
  • Dheere Madaxweyn
Waxa kale oo Jira beelah oo Waqooyi Galbeed iyo Itobia dagan:
  • Dalbis
  • Leyiille
  • Dayle
  • Guurejenno
Su'aal Dirsame :Deegaanada Bal noo kala sheeg, Mudane DIRSAME?
Horta madaxweyn Dirku waxaa uu deegan ahaan, asasiyan uga yimaadaa Galbeedka Somaliyada Itoobiyo Guumeysato siiba laga bilaabo Erer, Harrar, Shiniile, ilaa Qabri Bayax. Laakin laga bilaabo 1600 ilaa 1890 kii ,xiligii gumeystiihii Menelik, boqorkii Itobiya uu qabsaday Harrar ilaa maanta waxaa ku dhacay Madaxweyn Dir kala daadsanaan iyo xoogaha jah wareer oo ay u kala guureen konfurta Itoobiya ilaa Afdeer, oo Doloow Ado u dhaw, ilaa Bay iyo dooxooyinka wabiyada Jubba iyo Shabeelle.
Tusaale, Guuraha oo 180,000 ruux gaaraya, ilaa Afdheer ilaa Guure Dhaamoole oo Jarati iyo Gooblka Liiban ayaay usoo qaxeen, itooda badan waxa aa u burburiyay Menelik boqorkii Itoobiya 1890kii oo gibir ama canshuur baad ah ku qoray. Beesha Guure iyo Mandalluug waxa ay barigaa ka tageen intooda badan Tog Faafan oon ka fogeeyn Jigjiga iyo Harrar.
Qeybo kala oo Madaxweyne Dir ah qarnigii 1500, markii Mujaahid Axmed Ibraahim Qaazi (Axmed Guurey) la jabiyay ayaa waxaa jiidhay Oromo fara badan oo qabsatay, Harrar iyo nawaxigeeda.
Waagaas waxaa Galbeedka ka qaxay dadka ay ka mid yihiin, Quraanyow Maxamed Xiniftire Mahe Dir ama qaybta Garre ee Dirka ah oo deegan ahaan dagay Bay, Awdheegle, ilaa Nageele. Qurac oo Mahe Dir Xiniftire ah waxa ay dageen Magalo tuulo dalka Aruusada Oromoda ah ku taal, sidoo kale Guurah oo dagay dhankaas xuduudna la leh Aruusada. Jiido Ali sidoo kale qarnigii 1600 ayay soo dageen Bay iiyo Jubo/Shabeelle Valley.
Sidoo kale, beelah Biyomaal, Bajimaal, iyo Dabruub ayaa ka mida beelah Mahe Dir ee ay Madaxweyn Dir iska soo raaceen dhankaan Harrar iyagoo soo raacaya wabiga Shabeelle ama Wabiga Jubba. Qaar Iimey iyo dhankaas ayay aadeen, Qaar shabeelle ayay soo raaceen oo waxa ay dageen Bay, Jubbada hoose iyo shabeelle. Marka, beello boqollal sanno ka hor daganaa konfurta iyo qaar dawaan ka daba yimid ayaa jira.
Beelaha dhawan ka yimid Galbeedka waxaa ka mid ah Gadsanka, Mandaluuga iyo beesha reer Aw Saciid ee fananada aad jeceshahay, Dirsame eey ka dhalatay, Marow Faynuus Sheekh Dahir.
Dirsame Su'aal :Mexeey u kala baxaan Aw Saciidka ?
Beesha Reer Aw Saciid waxa ay u kala baxaan Abkeey Xaaji oo Adeer ah iyo Farah, Abikar, Sacdi , Nuur, Ali, Cismaan, Xuseen, iyo Cumar.
Halkaan Ka daawada Sawirada iyo Bilicda Casimada Labaad ee Gurgure Dir ,Hurso: http://www.hurso.com/Photos/Index.html
Markaa waa beel aad u balaaran oo kala dagta: Ijaara, wajaale, Arabsiyo W.G Somali land ilaa Qabri bayax, Diraa dhabe, Fayanbiiro, Gura Dhaamoole, Diraa Dhabe, Jigjiga, Hadana u sii fiday Maiso, Awash,Hurso,Erer goota, Harar, Kismaayo, Buaale, Luuq ilaa NFD Garseen Lake Tana area iyo Doolow Nageele xageeda. Marka dad badan oo aan lasoo koobi karin oo Malyuun Kor u dhaaf aya weeye.
Akisho
Bil Matalan, Akisho waxa ay ku leeyihiin magaaloyin ka Waqooyi Galbeed ka xiga Hargeysa beero sida beerah ku yaal Odjiid agagaarkeeda oo ay isla dagaan is na dhalaan beesha Yoonis Jibriilka. Ingiriiskii ayaa waxa ka qoray ganacsatada iyo beeraleyda beeshan, siiba Warre Kiyo Reer Carre Cumar Bullalle iyo lafahooda sida Addo Carre iyo Reer Daud Carre ( Caddale Daud iyo lafta Geelle Daud)
Mudane Dirsame maxay ku dhacdaa ama loo moodaa in Ogadeenku ugu badan yihiin Gobolka Somali Galbeed ama dhulkan Xabishidu guumeysato ee Region 5, hadii arinku saad shegeysid yahay ?
Ogadeen boqolkiiba 30 % xitaa ma gaadhan dad ahaan dadka ku nool Gobolka Somali galbeed. Qiyaastii beesha Ciise xitaa ayaa uga badan. Dirka dalkaa dagana waa Gurgure, Gadabuursi, Beelweynta Isaaq, Gadsan, Guure, Gariire, Surre oo leh Fiqi Muxummed, Nacdoor, Fiqi Khayre, Fiqi Yaxye, Mandaluug, Akisho, Obo, Bajimaal Quraanyow Maxammed Garre iyo Dabruube. Marka waa wax saxafadaha reer galbeedka (western media) laga dhaadiciyay. Dirka waxaa weheliya Karanle Hawiye, Murille, Hiraab. Waxa agaakan dagan Shiikhaal, beelo Raxanweyn ah iyo Garre Marre, Duubo, iyo Digoodi ba. Marka waa iska probaganda raqiis ah oo hir gashay.
Tuusaale ahaan:
  • Iimey Dir ayaa ugu badan, waa run Ogaden Reer Amadin iyo beesha Duubo waa dagan yihiin.
  • Jarati iyo Liiban: Dir ayaa majority ah ilaa Waladayo, Doolo, Guure Dhamoole.
  • Godey: Iimey West iyo East iyo Booley
  • Gashaamo: Sida Nusdariiq, Kabtinuur, Qabri Dahare
  • Kalaafo Ilaa Mustaxiil. Bajimaalku waxa ay dagan yihiin iyo Dir kaleba magaalooyinka Gumar, D'are, Niman, Mayko, Qodi dudul, Burdhinle, Mustahiil
  • Baalle, nageele, dhanka kale Fayaanbiiro, Hara Maayo, Maiso, Gobolka Shiniille oo dhan Fiiq.
Ma lasoo koobi karo adeer. Hada ka hor ayaa shirkii Kenya lagu qabtay ayaa odayaal Darood iyo Hawiye ah oo Dir la yaaban ayaa waydiiyay wiil yar oo Surre Dir ah, " Waryaa Dir badatee, meeqa Gobol ayaa dagtaan?
Wiilkii Surre isagoo isku kalsoon ayuu yiri, " War adeerayaal Darood iyo Hawiyow idinkaa fudud ee is xisaabiya, wixii soo haran anaa leh, hadii aan dhaho carro Dir aan xisabinaa, waagaa baryi oo hadana baryi, marka idinkaa fudude, oo koobane lana xisaabin karaa deegankiine dee sheegta halkaad dagtaan, halkaan dagana waa dagaa anigoo Diree.
Mahadsanid Mudane Dirsame. Waxaan rajeyneynaa in aad nagala hadashid tarikhaha aad uruurisay, anaguna waa dabic doonaa.
Wareeysigu waa socon doona, kolba markii aan E-mail ka helno


Glossary
Gurra -a group of Dir living between wabi Gastro and Dumale. Gurra Dhaamole, Afdeer, lands of the Guure Madax weyn Dir, group very related to Akisho and Gurgure numbering over 260,000.
Gurra- top
Gurro- ear
Gurratti- Black
Qurac- Mahe Dir Group living in Magalo, Bale.


JARSO MADAXWEYN DIR

Beesha Jaarso deegaanada ay ku nool yihiin waxaa ka mid ah :

1. Degmada Jigjiga
2. Degmada Jinacsani
3. Degmada Ajasa Koora
4. Degmada Baabili
5. Degmada Gursum
6. Degmada Hawaday
7. Harar,Haramaya,Diridawa,Naserat,Baali,Dhangago
8. Degmada Tuli Guuled
9. Waxay Kale oo Ay Ku Nool Yihin Qaybo Badan Oo Ka Mid Ah Kililka Oromada
10. Gobolka Liibaan

Hadaan usoo noqono beeshu waxay ka kooban tahay lix (6) jilib oo waa wayn waxayna kala Yihiin:

1. Wara dhaqo ( Reer Dhaqo )

2. Wara sayo ( Reer Sayo)

3. Walaabi

4. Wara Oogo (Reer Oogo)

5. Dawaro

6. Oroma

Erayga Waro waa eray oromo ah wuxuuna la mid yahay Reer

1. Wara Dhaqo iyaduna waxay usii kala baxdaa Tobadaba (7) Jilib.

Wara Yan’a
Wara Yaanyo Igo
Wara Maxamed
Wara Yaanyo Guyo
Wara Akaako
Wara Areelo
2. Wara Sayo iyaduna waxay ukala baxdaa sadex (3) jilib oo waa Wayn
Wara Buuko
Abiye
Oroma
3. Walaabi waxay ukala baxdaa sadex (3) jilib oo waa Wayn
Wara Cusmaan
Wara Cumar
Baalcad
4. Dawaro
5. Wara Oogo
6. Orama

F.G. Fadlan wixii Talo iyo Tusaaleba Ah ama Sixid Aad Iga Saxaysid Wixii Ka Qaldan Qoraalkan iigu Soo Hagaaji Ciwaankan jaarsocommunity@hotmail.com



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THE SOMALI ISSA DIR DJIBOUTI: Beesha Ciise Madoobe Dir






ISSAS OF DIR CLAN IN SOMALIA, DJIBOUTI, AND ETHIOPIA
The Issas are the sons of Madoobe Dir Aji. There are over 400,000 Issas in Ethiopia. Another 370,000 live in Djibouti where the Issa Madoobe Dir and their related brothers the Gadabursi Samaroon Mandaluug Dir live. There are also about 120,000 Issas in Somali's Zaila district around the vicinities of Loyacade, Siliil and Abdulqadir.


In North Eastern Somalia still lives a small group of Madoobe Dir (Elleeye),Minsaanle Dir, Cabbas Muuse (Surre) and the Magaaldle Dir, in Ceerigabo district along the Dir, Muuse Carre, Habar Issaq. According to the Dir of North Eastern Somalia the common ancestor of the Issas Madoobe Dir is buried in Eerigaabo District, not far from where the Gadabuuris Samaroon Saciid is buried, Gudmo Biyeys.
There are small groups of Madoobe Dir amoungst the Surre Mahe Dir futher South and in Western region 5 areas of Doollo and Luuq areas were the Suure call them simply Madoobe Dir.


The Issas live in the same regions that the Gurgure Madaxweyn Dir of Ethiopia Dira Dhawe area.The name of this location means were the "Dir Hit" Meeshii Dir Dhabah in referrence to 1500 battles between the Gallas or Oromos who entered after the Awadal and Ifit Dir sultants collapsed.
Ugaas of Issas
The traditional Ugaas comes from the smallest Issa clan, Wardiiq and rules from his settlement Waruf located 180 Km south of Djibouti, west of the Harrar road. One of their Ugaas's was Ugaas Hassan Xirsi Ugaas.
Somali National Hero Mahamuud Harbi
Mahamuud Harbi is a national hero of Djibouti and Somalia where several schools were named after him. In the 1958 referrendum when the French controlled puppet parliment voted Djibouti to remain with France instead of unity with Greater Somalia, Mahamuud Harbi fled to Somalia and his political career ended in October, 1958 when he was killed in an air crush (mysteriously) while on his way back to Mogadisho from a visit to the Peoples Republic of China. Many believe he was killed and his death remains shrouded in a mystery.


Madoobe Dir has six sons:
Issa Madoobe
  1. Howlqaade
  • Makahiil
  • Iidleh
  • Mahamuud
Three brothers are known as Walaaldon
2.Hoolleh
  • Mahadleh
  • Saxiib
The two are known as Forlabbe
3.Eelleye
  • Mamasan
  • Muuse ( Yoonis Muuse and Sacad Muuse)
The Above three are collectivelly know as the Abdaal (Abgaal) and form a moiet or branch of Issa Madoobe Dir Aji. The Following three brother are called the Dalool branch.
4. Uurweyne
  • Fiqi ( Hussen and Muuse)
  • Abdallah ( Bur, Ahmed, Koron, Ali)
5. Wardiiq ( Waaqtishiil and Raamwaaq)
6. Hooroone
  • Habar Walaala- Geelaleh
  • Geel Walaal-Cabdalleh and Adan
Political Organizations Of Issas
  • Democratic Action League DAL early political movement of Issas in Ethiopia was led by Mohammed Sheikh Ibrahim
  • Issa Gurgure Libration Front IGLF led by Riyaal Ahmed uniting two powerful Dir clans until the Gurgure split in 1991, IGLF name continued even though a Gurgure by the name Abdul Aziz formed the independent Gurgure Libration Front which worked with their next door cousins.
Somali: Taarikhda Ciise Madoobe
Beelweynta Ciise Madoobe Dir Aji sida kor ku xusan waxa ay u kala baxdaa lix jilib oo loo kala yaqaan Dalool iyo Abdaal. Iilaa 400,000 kun ayay gaareysaa tirada beesha ee dagan dhanka Itoobiya. Dalka Jabuutina waxaa ku nool 370,000 ama ka badan boqolkiiba 55 %, halkaas oo ay kula nool yihiin Gadabuursi Mandaluug Dir, Isaaq Maxamed Xiniftire Dir, iyo Somali kale. Qowmiyada Canfarta ayaa dalkaas la wadagta Ciisaha iyo Somalida halkaas ku nool.
Waxaa Ciisaha u ah Ugaas Beesha Wardiiq oo ah beel ay doorteen sanadkii 1600 xiligii ay beesha Ciise samaysatay Xeer Ciisaha oo lagu sameyay tuulada Ayshia oo odayga Ciise ku aasan yahay. Ugaasku wuxuu dagan yahay tuulada Wurufo loo yaqaan oo Djabuti koonfur galbeed 180 Km u jirta una dhaw Harar dariiqeeda.
Waxaa jirta sheeko raqiis ah oo ay galaada wax qorta kaga fidiyaan Ciisah oo leh Ciise wuxuu u kala baxaa Sadex Ciise iyo Sadex Soo Raaca ama Ciise wuxuu dhalay lixda Ciise sadex kaliya. Arintaan oo lagu doonayo beel weynta Ciisa in lagu bur buriyo sal iyo raad malaha. Ciise iyo Sadexda uu adeerka u yahay waxaa dhalay Madoobe Dir. Marka beel weynta waxaa u hir galay magaca Ciise waxayna ka kooban tahay dhashii Madoobe Direed kaliya.
Waxa qoraaga weyn ee Ingiriiska ah, I M Lewis, Nomadic Democracy, uu had iyo goor isku dayaa in uu Dirka kala qayb qaybiyo. Isagoo fafiyay beenta ah: Isaaq waa Carab anagoo og iyo isaga, I M lewis qudiisho og in ay yihiin Isaaq Maxamed (Axmed) Xiniftire Mahe Dir dhashiisi oo uu xitaa I M Lewis ku qoro (Footnotes) ka ama xaga hoose. Tusaale ahaan Gabeyga weyn ee Guba ee Daroodku iyo Isaaqu isku xifaaleynayn ee Ogaadenku Dhulbahantah leeyahay:
" Isaaq waa Dir, dunji Habar Magaadle ee yaa la da'ah." Waxaa, uu ninka Isaaq ee Habar Yonis ku jawaabayaa," Isaaq Dir haduu duulan soo qaado (Iidoor waa dunji habar magaadle) waxaanu Daroodka leeyahay muxuu yahay Dalka lagaa qaaday soo anigu dalka ma lihi oo Donbiro Direed na anigu kuma siin, geedna kaa soo dajin, dalka oo dhan anaa leh.
Meelo fara badan oo Gadabuurisi ay ku xumeeyaan, been ka fafiyaan Ciise, ama Akisho ayaa jira nimankan Gaalada ah ee Somalia wax ka qora, oo uu I M Lewis ugu horeeyo.
Marka, su'aasha meesha taala wexey tahay magacan Direed yaa baas oo difaaca. Maxay uga hadli waayeen Ciisaha iyo Gadabuursiga iyo Isaaq beenaha qalinka lagu faafiyo ee buugagta la fidinayo ?
Ma beesha Surre ee Konfurta Somalia dagta (Qubeys ama Cabdalle Surre) un baa loo dayay magacan Direed ?

See and visit this Gurgure websit http//www.hurso.com/

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