Wednesday, May 4, 2011


The following pages are extracts taken from an unpublished draft manuscript titled ‘Stars, Seasons and Weather in Somali Pastoral Traditions’ written by the late Musa. H. I. Galaal (1909-1982). I am currently re-editing and revising this valuable manuscript for future publication which was originally written by Musa. H. I. Galaal (in 1972); a distinguished Somali academician who has produced many pamphlets, essays, periodicals and books on the varied aspects of Somali culture-poetry, folklore, nomadic lifestyle and the vigour and richness of the Somali language.
In acknowledgement of our profound debt to Musa and his life’s work, we will honour him and pay our tribute by featuring in the coming months in Somaliland Times weekly publication extracts taken from his ‘Stars, Seasons and Weather in Somali Pastoral Traditions’ manuscript.
Text in Italics is where I felt a broader meaning or explanations was needed and are of my own words, including illustrations and graphics.
Your feedback/comments will be most welcomed.
Rashid Mustafa, X. Noor
Part one: First appeared in Somaliland Times newspaper issue 187 20/08/2005

Somali astrological & meteorological traditions and literature

Somalis, particularly those who still follow the traditional nomadic life, have a profound interest in, and knowledge of the weather, the stars and planets, and their penetrating effects upon the lives of this people. This is reflected in the language itself, which contains a large number of sayings, riddles and songs which link astronomical phenomena to events in nomadic life with which they are associated. I was myself a camel herder when I was a boy, and I recall many of these sayings and songs. They have always interested me, and during my life I have collected very many more.
There are for example phrases, in the language (especially, those in replying to a greeting) that closely associate the weather and the well being of my people: such as the Dabayl Caafimmad, the breeze of health and tranquility. Nabaad iyo naq-roobaad, peace and the greenness that follows rain. Bash-bash iyo barwaako, this term has the underlying phonetic representation of waterlogged undergrowth which has soaked up recent heavy rains and means a period of plenty and prosperity, for all'.
Some terms are deeply allusive: Abaar iyo oodo-lullul, meaning in the vicinity of a drought, also lurks the rattling or shacking of one's thorn-fence. The image here is of drought -stricken nomads who have lost all their livestock and try to force their way into the corrals of those more fortunate ones who still have cattle, or other livestock left.
There are moreover, countless songs in Somali traditionally sung to girls, to camels or to cattle which link astronomical phenomena, as observed omens, to years of prosperity or drought, to the deaths of important persons, to wars or storms. This song I remember clearly from my youth:
Xaydho-dayihii, Kuu xiddiginjirey, Xareed bardiyo, Xays inoo sheeg. (My beautiful camels)
The reader of the Xaydho,¹
Who is also the expert on stars,
Announces a long-lasting supply of rainwater,
An unexpected season of heavy rain
Note: 1. Xaydho, this term refers to the fat that covers the stomach of the goats. This fat was used in the past by the Somalis for telling the future. It was removed from the goat and held to the light. Inductions were then made from looking at the inside of the fat – about the weather, wars, rain, etc.
There is a famous saying ascribed to one or two such persons who use to read the Xaydho for the sultanate of the Iidaagale clan. On one such occasion, in the coronation of Sultan Diiriiyey, of the Iidaagale clan in around 1880’s, when the Xaydho readers completed their inspection of the fat, they were asked what the Xaydho foretold regarding the new sultan. One of the Xaydho readers said that ;“This new sultan, unfortunately will not be as wise as his father use to be” , and the other replied, while gazing at the fat: “ Even worse! According to my inductions his reign will be long and live a long time, God willing” . Oddly enough, Sultan Diiriiyey died at the ripe old age of around 80 to 85 ’yrs.
Going back to our subject theme: Another song depicts the anguish felt by the herder, seeing that the beginning of the spring rains and the passing of the spring rains has gone by without a drop of rainwater. For, he knows that the season for spring rains has begun, due to the setting of the Urur stars or Pleiades in the early hours of the twilight. And the end of the spring rain season, due to the setting of the stars in Afagaale or virgo constellation Castor, Pollux, Procyon and Gombiza. This is song alliterated in the vowel letters:
Haddaan ururkiyo, Afaggaal ridey, Mugga eeddaa, Ilaah bayska leh',
Anna orodkay, Waa intii hore. My lovely cow,
now you can see that the Pleiades (Urur) and the twin stars of Virgo have set,
And still there is no sign of the spring rains. I have laboured hard to keep you well,
So that you may live through the harsh dry season,
Be witness, then, it is the Will of God, (A traditional "Hees Lo'aad" or cattle song)
Particularly, severe droughts seem to occur in the Somali nomadic regions every eight years. The singer sings of this, with parched lips, to his lovely girl: Alliterated in the B letter.
Beydaney Berdaale gudh, Bullaalena gaabi orodkii,
Anna biifihii dhigey,
Xaggaan biyo kaaga doonaa. Oh, my lovely Beydan, The well Berdaale is dry,
And my horse Bullaale is old and weary,
How can I then fetch water for your thirst?
(A traditional Hees Cayaareed or dance song )
Knowledge of the stars and the weather is part of every child's upbringing in the nomadic countryside. In this chorus dance song made up of riddles, alliterated by letter D, a group of nomadic girls challenge their nomadic counterparts, the boys, to show their knowledge of the stars.

Young nomadic girls challenge their nomadic counterparts, the boys.

End of Part One back

Waar xiddigaha maxaa dira? Maxaa deris iyo walaalo ah?
Maxaa dan-u-heshiisyo ah?
Maxaanse daabano kala gelin?
Which constellations are most ancient?
And which are both neighbours and cousins?
Which live in peace and unity, together?
And which are strangers?
and the boys answer
Naa xiddigaha waxaa dira
Dib-qalloocyadaa dira,
Waxaa deris iyo walaalo ah,
Afagaallaa dushaas mara,
Waxaa dan u heshiisyo ah,
Laxahaa dan u heshiisyo ah,
Waxaanse daabaano kala gelin,
Lixda dameerajoogeen iyo,
Inta uu dayaxu maro

The oldest constellation is Scorpio.
The stars that are both neighbours and cousins
Are those of the Virgo constellation.
The Pleiades live in peace, in union and together.
And the stars that are strangers to each other
Are the six stars of Sagittarius
And those that lie on the moon's path.
Home | Contact us | Links | Archives

Somali astrological & meteorological traditions and literature

The stars play a vital role in the Somali nomadic countryside. Yet, for those Somalis, who dwell in the urban cities, will show a great deal of enthusiasm in the stars and their knowledge. Although, many Somalis of second or third generation city dwellers will not have experienced, a true life in the countryside. Yet, if you ask him/her the names of the stars, planets or the time, the Pleiades set in winter or spring seasons, many will know the answer. And this is because of the Somali language or the influence of traditional & modern literature. For, you will always find a reference to some star, planet or astronomical phenomena of some kind or another made in every song played on the radio, theatrical play or a poem. Somalis love of poetry and the verbal arts was, so much so that Richard Burton, the English explorer, in his travels to Somaliland in 1854 commented:
The country teems with "poets, poetasters, poetitos, poetaccios": every man has his recognized position in literature as accurately defined as though he had been reviewed in a century of magazines-the fine ear of these people causing them to take the greatest pleasure in harmonious sounds and poetical expressions, whereas a false quantity or a prosaic phrase excite their violent indignation. Richard Burton, First footsteps in East Africa (New York: Praeger, 1966), p.93
Because, the Somali people are an oral society, much of their traditional and modern literature has become inseparable from the stars and the heavens above. And this can be said as to the reason why so many of the city dwellers know so much of the stars, than of animal husbandry.
The crucial distinction between different forms of Somali poetry is in the number of syllables in each line. The following rough guide may be found useful;
Halaanhal normally 12 syllables (oldest metre)
Gabay normally 14 to 16 syllables
Geeraar normally 7 syllables (classical metres)
Jiifto normally 7 syllables (classical metres)
Heelo normally 10 syllables
Hees-Xoolaad normally 1 to 5 syllables (livestock husbandry song)
Hees-Cayaareed normally from 6 to 11 syllables (dance song)
Hees-Caanood normally from 6 to 9 syllables (milk-shaking song)
Hees-Mooye normally 6 syllables (wheat-maize grinding song)
Hees-Carruureed normally 8 syllables (nursery or sung to children)

From last week, we can see that the weather is all-important for the nomadic people of this country: if rain fails at the expected season, there is drought and suffering, heavy losses amongst the herds, and consequent poverty, leading often to war. It is therefore hardly surprising that they should have become so closely acquainted with the paths of the moon and the stars, and should have come to rely so heavily on the interpretations and predications traditionally drawn from "the stations of the moon",
The stations of the moon, a fundamental concept in Somali astrology and weather prediction, and studied by the nomadic experts with great care and thoroughness, consists of twenty eight different groups of stars or stations fixed along the ecliptic path of the moon, and served to mark the life span of the Somali lunar month, number of days in each year, seasons and for weather predications and astrological forecasts . Each station has from one to over ten stars in its makeup. In addition, however, to the 28 stations along the visible path of the moon during each lunar month, there are said by Somalis to be one or two nights in every month during which the moon is not visible. These are the 'empty stations' when the moon is a 'new-moon' not in conjunction with any star or group of stars visible to the Somali observer. The period is known in Somali as "Dibbad or Dubbad" and means 'an invisible moon. Thus the Somali lunar calendar month will vary from 29 to 30 days
The importance of the Urur group of stars or Pleiades constellation for the Somali nomad
There is indeed a deep commitment of the Somali nomad to signs and portents, based upon long tradition, and not subject to orthodox Islamic beliefs. There is a proverb in Somali from the religious sections of the community that says; 'foolish people who spend all their time reading the stars would do better to ponder on the Divine Will'. 'Malluug moogow Maruubsatadaada fiirsoy'. And I recall a poem recited by an Arab sheikh, scorning the Somalis for their over-dependence on astronomy and the astrological deductions made from it:
Hadday laxo dhacaan
Laxona dhalaan,
Hor Soomaali-qalinley siday yeelidoontaa? If sheep start lambing At the setting of the Pleiades,
But the life giving (Seermaweydo) spring rains failed,
What would the foolish Somalis do then? (Jiifto or classical poem)
The Pleiades stars are known in Somali as "Urur" or "Laxo". Urur means 'a confederation' because these stars 7 in total are grouped tightly together and the latter word Laxo means 'sheep'. The Pleiades play a very important role in the Somali weather lore system. Because, rams and ewes are kept apart in the Somali country throughout the year, so that the ewes do not give birth to new born lambs in the dry and non-grazing seasons. Somali nomads let loose the rams with the ewes for mating on the night of "Dambasamo" : this is the night when in the middle of autumn (November) the moon is in conjunction with the Urur/Pleiades on the 15th day of the lunar month or full moon: the mating must be timed so that the lambs are born in a season of abundance.

When full moon is in conjunction with the Urur group of stars or Pleiades on the night (15th November) is known in Somali as 'the night of Dambasamo'
Lambs conceived on the night of "Dambasamo" will be born about 150 days later, which should be in the middle of the spring rains (April), and this is when the time the Pleiades will start to set at about twilight. The nomad, therefore knows when to let the rams mate with ewes in the middle of autumn by using the Urur/Pleiades as a point of cue, and also will use the Pleiades as a precursor for tracking the time period left for when the rains will begin in spring.
Going back, to the Arab sheikh's poem, the verse 'the setting of the Urur/Pleiades' signify the beginning of the rain season, and this is the time when the sheep give birth to new born lambs, and if these rains fail it will spell disaster for the nomads and their sheep. In other words, the Arab sheikh is rebuking the nomads for not taking into consideration the Divine Will as being the force behind the rains and the cycles of seasons and not the Urur/Pleiades, stars or heavenly bodies as responsible for the onset of the rains. The nomad however would defend his over-reliant attitude by saying: ' not only on man has God conferred this knowledge, but also onto the animal kingdom as well'. The nomad will argue, that ' God has taught the "Cawl" a species of the gazelle the power to read the stars, for whenever it wants to mate, it does so, in accordance by reading the stars and knowing when the rains will begin, with God's leave.'
There are countless phrases, songs, proverbs and poems in Somali, which ascribe these skills to the 'cawl gazelle and countless other wild animals. 'Cawl' in Somali is pronounced, in similar to the English pronunciation to the word ‘owl’ as in the night-bird ‘owl’. 'Cawl' is also a poplar Somali name given to boys. This Gabay by Cali Dhuux, recorded from Jaamac Daahir of Buuhoodle ascribes, these skills to the ‘Cawl’ or species of the gazelle (alliterated in the Somali vowel letter 'C' pronounced in English as 'ah'):
When the male 'Cawl' wishes to mate with his females,
he first makes astronomical calculations.
He also knows their menstrual periods and the techniques of mating, The day he wishes to cause propagation and offspring’s,
He, placing first his front knees on to the female's back,
Judges whether the young will be born in sun or green
from signs in the heavens,
His decision whether to continue mating or to descend is in accordance with his celestial induction's. (Gabay or classical poem)
Markuu cawlku cawlaa orgayn, waa u cibaaroone, Cisaday ku uuraysatiyo, caadaduu garane,
Cashaday calool gelahayaan, cannugga beertiisu, Curcurradiyo lawyada intuu, ku cuskaduu saaro, Cirridiyo cagaar miday ku dhalan, caadka kor u eegye, Hadba cirirka loo nuuriyuu, ku cimro-qaataaye.
The 'Cawl' gazelle is the only gazelle species which mate's outside the normal mating season, when all animals or gazelles are busy mating. For, whenever there is a drought, because the major spring rains have failed, many of the newborn offspring’s of the other gazelle species suffer and die. However, the same is not true for the 'cawl' gazelle.
For you will never see an 'cawl' gazelle with new born offspring's in times of failed spring rains, like you do with the other gazelle species. And this is attributed to the Somali belief that the 'cawl' stag gazelle knows when the rains will fail, because it gazes at the stars before it mates. And this is the reason the Somalis hold with such esteem this species of gazelle. One of the vital Somali seasons of the ‘Gu’ or spring rains is named after this gazelle. The three major ‘Gu’ or spring rains are called ‘Seermaweydo’ and ‘Diriir Cawl’ and ‘Diriir Sagaalo’.
Some nomads will often go to great lengths in the middle of the night to keep a track on a nearby herde of 'cawl' gazelles, so that they can know when to let their rams mate with the ewes, and all this depends on whether the 'cawl' stag gazelles have started to mate or not. Because, in the time period which 'cawl' gazelles give birth to new born offspring's is about the same time as sheep give birth to their new born lambs (five months from the time of conception).
End of Part Two

Somali astrological & meteorological traditions and literature

Somali legend of the origins of the Milky-Way “Jid-Cirir or Cir Jiidh”
The Milky Way is called in Somali "Jid-Cirir" which means "the path of the cursed child". This explains one Somali legend about the 'Milky Way’, which tells the story of a cruel son who use to beat his mother every day and drag her along the rocky ground in the hot sun. One day he was more vicious than usual, and pulled, dragging her by the leg over sharp bits of the rocky ground until she was torn and bleeding all over. Half-dead, she raised her eyes to the sky looking for some deliverance from her oppressor. The Almighty rescued the unhappy old crone by paralysing her son. He quickly died, and his body was cast up onto a special purgatory in the sky where he can still be seen as the constellation Orion known in Somali as “Nin la gigay” which means ‘The incarcerate one or man”. A representation of the rough ground over which he had dragged his poor mother was made for all to remember in the heavens - the Milky Way; and from that time on, no son has been cruel to his parents, fearing that he also would meet with the same fate.

The constellation Orion known in Somali as “NIN LA GIGAY”
The Somali Sky-camel "awrka Cirka"
Let us know have a look at the Somali traditions associated with the legend of the Somali 'Sky Camel "Awrka-Cirka". In the region of 'the coal sack' or 'Crux constellation’ the southern cross, an area known in Somali as "wadaamo-xooro or wadaamo-lugud", is said to appear in the shape or silhouette of a huge male camel on dark nights in the months of March to July.

Image is a rough depiction of the Somali night sky above the (9:60N 44:50E) Horn of Africa and
showing outline of the sky-camel, its head lies left of the Crux constellation
The legend of the Somali Sky Camel "Awrka-Cirka" says that the camel was once, long ago, positioned in the north, above the mountains of "Cir-Shiida" in the district of Erigaabo Northeast Somalia. The name of this particular mountain "Cir-Shiida" means in Somali 'the summit, from where missiles were hurled at the sky'.
"One year, as the legend says, there was a severe drought, and the people of the district suffered greatly, losing all their lively hoods, livestock's and animals decided to attack and kill the great 'sky-camel' as a source for food. First they built a huge platform on top of the highest mountain of the Erigaabo plateau, tall enough for the people standing on it to reach up to the tail of the 'sky-camel' and cut it off. The 'sky-camel' felt the pain and raced off to the south; where it is still to be seen to this day”.

Somali Sky Camel (Awrka Cirka) under attack
End of part three
Somali astrological & meteorological traditions and literature

The 'Somali Sky-camel’ or ‘Awrka Cirka' also provides a basis for meteorological observation, i.e. the timing of the major spring rains and the changing of seasons from one season to another.
In the months before the start of the main "Gu" (spring) rains, the 'sky-camel' is seen ( image 1 ) with its head down towards the East, as if it were about to start drinking water, "Wuu afku-rubadlaynayaa" is the term known in Somali for when livestock have their heads down drinking water, seen here left in this image.

Image 1:March night sky
In April and May, its image ( Imager 2 ) is upright again, and can be seen clearly between eight and twelve o'clock at night, apparently satisfied, and chewing the cud heartedly.

Image 2: April/May night sky
In June and July, its head ( image 3 ) appears to be turned upwards towards the zenith, its back falling towards the west, apparently cropping the tops of the trees.

Image 3: June/July night sky
In fact, the three different periods of the grazing year in this region of Africa are closely pictured by the onset of the "Gu" or spring rains, all the livestock are busy from the 15th of March drinking the spring waters.
Towards 20th of April in the middle of the rains, when there is plenty of green grass and water, the animals have fed so well that they spend long periods contentedly sitting and chewing. And when the rains are finished in late June, and the green grass parches, the camels begin cropping the new tender leaves and buds from the tops of trees.
It is interesting thought that the region Sanaag in Somaliland in which the 'sky-camel' is said to have originated has a great wealth of as yet un-investigated archaeological interest.
The Maakhir coast, including the Erigaabo country famed for its frankincense and myrrh since antiquity and often referred to by the ancient civilisation of Egypt as 'the land of Punt', is the centre of an area in which numerous ancient ruined cities, whose history is still unknown, have been discovered; and there are also said to be cave paintings and rock carvings still to be examined.
The Somali legend of the 'sky-camel', and men's first ventures into the sky, may be indicative of a great ancient civilisation, which built observatories on the mountain ranges, and studied the heavens.
One Somali saying goes, (alliterated in letter D);
" Awrka-cirka nin daya mooyiye
Nin dayoo ka taga mooyiye
Nin dabrada dad laga waa..... " Man could only gaze at the sky-camel
Gaze and turn away
None could conquer it or make it tame."
This Somali proverb simply reminds us; that 'some things in life will always be beyond man/woman's wildest dreams, regardless of one’s wealth, power or stature in life’.

End of part four
Somali astrological & meteorological traditions and literature

The Somali name for planets is "Malluug" or "Siyaariin" or “Meere” and all three names reflect a regulated motion in movement. Most nomads believe the planets to be huge stars with special courses of their own: they are commonly defined by Somali traditional astro/weather-lore experts as "heavenly bodies that move round on their own orbits, and with the sun". The number of such planets, according to various traditional beliefs, is as few as five or as many as nine. A few experts include the moon among the planets, but most take it to be a satellite of the earth. Mercury is considered by some as a planet, and by others as a star. There is therefore no general agreement about what are planets and what are not, and moreover, although all these bodies are named in Somali tradition, it is very difficult to match the Somali names to the planets identified in Western astronomy. The Somali names themselves vary greatly in different regions of the nomadic country. More research is needed into the whole question of the identification of these planets, and my chart giving the names of each planet in different Somali regions by no means is complete.
Names for the Planets in different Somali regions
International Qardo name Burco name Qabridharre name Banaadiir name
Sun Qorrax Qorrax Qorrax Qorrax
Mercury Dusaa Hurjub Cudaarid Dhayl-Gaduud
Venus Waxaro-xir or Sahra
or ‎Xiddig-Waaberi Maqal xidh-Xidh
or Sahra Maqal Xidh-xidh or Sahra Waxarra-Xir or Sahra
or Xiddig Waaberi
Earth Dhul Dhul Dhul Dhul
Mars Saxal Saxal Guduud or Saxal Saxal Guduud or Saxal Saxal Guduud or Saxal
Saturn Faraare or Mariikh Mariikh Dhiigle Mariikh Mariikh
Jupitor Saxal-Cadde or Mushtar or Cirjeex Cir-Jiidh or Mushtar or Saxal-Cadde or Gob-dhawr Saxal-Cadde or
Gob-dhawr Cir-jiidh or Dhool-Mare or Mushtar
Uranus ? ? ? ?
Neptune ? Docay ? ?
Pluto ? ? ? ?

Although there is a considerable uncertainty about the identification of the planets recognised by Somalis, there is no doubt that they do constitute an important part of the sky studies of Somali astro/weather-lore experts, and are thought to have astrological influences that are by no means negligible.
The commonest Somali names for Venus are "Maqal xidh-xidh" or "Waxaro xidh-xidh", both names have the same connotation and mean 'the rounding up of sheep's and goats, at sunset back into their pens'. All Somalis accept it as a planet. There is a riddle traditionally associated with Venus, and its periodic absences from the night skies. Sometimes it is reckoned to be absent for only six nights - to correspond with alternating roles of Morning Star (in the East) and Evening Star (in the West). When the absence is of six days, it is said on its return to greet people with question "How did you spend the night" - as if it had gone on a journey and was delighted to see its old friends once more. But sometimes the absences is reckoned to be for sixty days, and then the greeting given is said to take the form of another question: "What have you lost while I have been away" and finally absences considered to last for six months, it is believed to ask: "What wealth have you still left?" The absences of six nights are traditionally held to foretell a year of plenty; those of sixty nights will be hard but not unendurable. But from an absence of six months the assumption is that there will be great drought and suffering in the land. The presence of this planet in the sky is thus considered to exert a mysterious protective influence over people. Because of the serious implications read into the period of its absence from the sky, the "maqal xidh-xidh" is closely watched by the local astronomers and weather-experts.
Significant in a different way are the movements of the planet Mars, known in Somali as "Saxal-Guduud". It is believed to ‘meet and live with' each of the twenty-eight stations of the moon (these stations of the moon are called in Somali “Goddad” and mean ’trench, den, hole or place of moon’s station or sojourn’) once in a cycle of thirty-three years. The stations of the moon, a fundamental concept in Somali astrology and weather prediction, and studied by the nomadic experts with great care and thoroughness, consists of twenty eight different groups of stars or stations fixed along the ecliptic path of the moon, and served to mark the life span of the Somali lunar month, number of days in each year, seasons and for weather predications and astrological forecasts . Each station has from one to over ten stars in its makeup. In addition, however, to the 28 stations along the visible path of the moon during each lunar month, there are said by Somalis to be one or two nights in every month during which the moon is not visible. These are the 'empty stations' when the moon is not in conjunction with any star or group of stars visible to the Somali observer. The period is known in Somali as "Dibbad or Dubbad" and means 'an invisible moon. Thus the Somali lunar calendar month will vary from 29 to 30 days.
It thus plays host to each station for an indefinite period, sometimes for one or two months, sometimes for seven or even more months. The host planet is thought to contaminate the station for as long as they stay together, thus to bring evil fortune to any person born under this station, or to a clan associated with it. The severity of its contamination is said to depend on whether the other planets are in conjunction with certain stations of the moon. It is said by the Somalis that when "Saxal gudduud" and "Mariikh" or 'Mars and Saturn' are close together, the astrologer predicts "Gob-Gob Magan gashay" meaning the fall from power of a noble clan or nation, and its consequent search for protection with another clan.
The same is also said about "Saxal Cadde" or 'Jupiter', in that when it is in a certain station; and ‘Mars or Saxal Gaduud’ is in conjunction with one's birth sign or station, one will face a great battle against all misfortune. For the duration of the conjunction, therefore, it is considered wise to efface oneself as much as possible, to avoid quarrels or involvement in other's quarrels, and most decisively to avoid tribal wars. The enfeebling influence of Mars (Saxal) in conjunction with one's personal birth station is considered a great curse. This is beautifully suggested in the following anonymous "gabey" or 'poem' (alliterated in letter S):
Adduunyadu nin bay saaciddaa, sare u qaadaaye.
Ninna waaba saranseerisaa, yare silleeddaaye.
San barra ka taag-daran ninkuu, Saxalku fuulaaye Life in this world allows one man, to grow prosperous,
While another sinks into obscurity, and is made ridiculous
A man passing through the evil influence of red Mars is feebler
than a new born lamb punched on the nose

End of part five


In the Early 50's the UN wanted to prolong the Italian administration of Somalia wich in turn angered many Somalis, Hawo taako led many demonstrations against the foreigners wich alot of times ended up in riots where Somalis threw stones at them ( hence Dagaxtuur monument)

she died in 1948 by a Italian-Somali Corps bullet during a demonstration, her death ignited nationalism through out the country and people who before had no problems with colonial rule like many other African and Arab countries  were pressing for Independence this movement for liberation was spearheaded by the Famous SYL

Today she is regarded as one of the greatest Somali women and American/Kenyan Professor Ali mazrui called Xawo taako Somalia's Joan of Arc and she played a similar role to Algeria's Jamila during their quest for independence


In the 1800's Somali women as a response to the  islamic schools being build around Somalia by their male counterparts opened Institutions for Islamic learning called ''Abay Siti'' literally meaning ''My lady sister''  The head of these Institutions was always an oldy lady skilled in Koran and wich had good knowlegde of her town's history. It was must that these old ladies had a good reputation in their town as godfearing good muslim sister.She would lend her own house to be the seat of the Abay Siti and all the women attending would pay a little amount of money to cover the expenses. The women usually met in the afternoon after they had the family, the favourite days for the meeting were Sunday, Thursday and Friday. They called each other Sisters, When the sisters came to the meeting they dressed well,prayed together and sat in a circle and burned incense and the ones skilled in Koran passed over their knowlegde to those who didn't know much, when the Islamic teachings being discussed in these sessions it was very solemn and quiet and the sisters were very attentive to their female teachers, After that religious songs were sung. In most of the religious songs the women sang praise songs to the wives of the prophet and honored them. The sisters can brough their problems to the Abay siti and a prayer would be said for them. If a woman was barren, or sick or expecting a baby and she wanted a safe deliverance she would give some gifts, food or money and ask for prayers.

The Abay siti institution led to the hagbad(wich is still being used today), a group of women who raise money together. Example: ten women will pay say 20/- shillings each, in each month, and one of them will take the whole amount that month, and the process is repeated until each gets her turn. At the beginning women spent this money on buying new clothes which their husbands will not buy for them or helped their poor relatives, or maintained the religious association.


In the early fifties these women supported political parties such as the Somali Youth Leagues or the Somali National League. Women like Fadhumo Xersi Cabane were famous poets throughout the country. Fadhumo sang at political rallies, always encouraged political prisoners, envisioned a better future through her lyrics and fine voice. Leaders of the political parties respected her as a fellow political agitator. Later on after independence, women found religious institutions and political participation would not fill the vacuum felt in their lives. This is why many went into business. Somali women traders travel all over the Middle East, India and Italy and they dominate small business throughout the country. The Somali townswomen those grandmothers were important members of the family do not adjust easily to the role of sitting at home, rearing children and waiting for a man to provide. This illustrates to us that Somali women did not lose their personality and independence when they found themselves in a socioeconomic setting different than the ones their great grandmothers mastered so well



Maahmaahyo Somali iyo ingiriis ah
1. Aabayeelid li'ida goorta iyo goobta. Regardless of time and space.
2. Aadane gef lagama waayo. To err is human.
3. Aammusnaan waa oggolaansho barkeed. Silence gives consent.
4. Af daboolan waa dahab. Speech is silver, silence is gold.
5. Afkeennu waysu ammaan. Between you and me.
6. Akhri sadarrada dhexdooda. To read between the lines.
7. Ammin dumay dib uma soo laabto. Lost time is never found again.
8. Aqooni waa awood. Knowledge is power.
9. Aqoonla'aani waa iftiinla'aan. Learning is the eye of the mind.
10. Aragtida qaanuunka. The eyes of the law.
11. Awr hal waa loo tu’in karaa, ninse naag looma tu’in karo. Love cannot be compelled.
12. Ballandarro waa diindarro. A promise is a promise.
13. Baruur keliya baa baruuro qurmisa. One scabbed sheep infects the whole flock.
14. Baryaaye waa aadane, bixiyana Eebbe weeye. / Dadku waa dalbade, deeqfidiyahana Daa’inka weeye. / Talo maaha aadmigu Tuu uur jecleystee, Hadba waa Ilaahay Arrintuu hirgeliyaa. Man proposes but God disposes.
15. Beeni raad ma leh. Lies have short legs.
16. Beentaada hore runtaada dambe bay u daran tahay. A liar is not believed when he speaks the truth.
17. Bidaari sibiq bay kugu gashaa. Baldness comes up on you stealthily.
18. Budee inta birtu kulushahay. Strike while the iron is hot.
19. Caano uma kabbado. Make no scruple about smth
. 20. Cagta cagta u saar. Breathe down smb.’s neck.
21. Cagweynta ayaa gabyi. Money talks.
22. Calool dheregsani calool baahan kama naxdo. A man with a full belly thinks no one is hungry. / He that is warm thinks all so.
23. Cayaar carruureed. Child's play.
24. Cir kaa dheer, dhul kaa dheer. Between the devil and the deep blue sea.
25. Cunto-u-noole uun ha ahaannin, cunnadase ku noolaasho u quudo. Live not to eat, but eat to live.
26. Dabaggaalle timir gaariwaayay `qadhaadhaa!´ buu yiraahdaa. Sour grapes.
27. Daljirka Daahsoon. The Unknown Soldier.
28. Dantaa lagu ogaadaa naflaha, kii dir kuu xiga’e. / Baahida, dadka waad ku barataa. A Friend in need is a friend indeed.
29. Degdegsiinyo door ma dhaliso. More haste, less speed.
30. Diid ama ha diidin. Willy-nilly.
31. Dil waqtiga. Kill time.
32. Dux iyo dareen la’aan. A dry stick.
33. Dhagax qudha ku dil labo shimbirood. Kill two birds with one stone.
34. Dhammaan wixii dhalaala dheemman maaha. All is not gold that glitters.
35. Dhexdhexaadiye. Go-between
36. Dhex iyo dhexaad. Betwixt and between.
37. Dhibbaan eebo waa laga bogsadaa, dhaawaca carrabka aadanase lagama bogsado. One heals from a spear wound, but not from a wound from the human tongue.
38. Dhibla’aan dheefi ma timaaddo. He that will eat the kernel must crack the nut.
39. Dhurwaaga midka ciya iyo ka aammusa, ka ciya ayaa roon. Better the devil you know than the devil you don’t know.
40. Eebbow iga badbaadi sharka saaxiibbaday; nacabkayga aniga ayaa iska difaacaya. God defend me from my friends; from my enemies I can defend myself.
41. Fadhi-ku-dirir. An armchair fighter.
42. Falka iyo iswaafaji fekerka. To practice what one preaches.
43. Faras-hadiyo foolkiisa lama feydo. Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth.
44. Fool-ka-fool. Face to face.
45. Fuley geesi hortii buu dhintaa. Cowards die many times before their deaths.
46. Fursad munaasabad. Await smb.’s convenience.
47. Fursadda ugu horreysa. At one’s earliest convenience.
48. Gaalka dil, gartiisana sii. Give the devil his due.
49. Gacmo badan ayaa garabsiin hawl fududeeya. / Wadajir bay gacmuhu wax ku gooyaan. Many hands make light work.
50. Gacmo furan. With open arms.
51. Gacmo isweydaartay ayay galladi ka dhalataa. Friendship cannot stand always on one side.
52. Garaadyo laysu keenay ayay garasho ka dhalataa. Four eyes see more than two.
53. Garo naftaada. Know thyself.
54. Geel kolkii loo heeso, goroyo u hees. Speak a different language.
55. Geeriyi nin aanad garanayn iyo geeljire ayay ku wacan tahay. Death is a commonplace only when it happens to camel-herders and to people you don't know.
56. Gees lo'aad kulaylka ayaa lagu gooyaa. Make hay while the sun shines.
57. Gogol rag waa godob la’aan. A good conscience is a soft pillow.
58. Good iyo abeeso waxba isma doorshaan. Between two evils ’tis not worth choosing.
59. Guul ama geeri. Do or die.
60. Guulle haydin gargaaro! God bless you!
61. Habar fadhida legdin la fudud. Easier said than done.
62. Hadal calool baahan ma buuxsho. Fine words butter no parsnips.
63. Hadal daan la qabto ayuu leeyahay. A word spoken is past recalling.
64. Haddii kale. Or else.
65. Had iyo jeeraale ruux toosani ma jiro. No man is wise at all times.
66. Hadduusan qadhaadh jireen, miyaa la qiri lahaa malab? Who has never tasted bitter, knows not what is sweet.
67. Ha dhaafin, ha dhiteen oo dib haw dhigan hawl eegga ku dhawri! Procrastination is the thief of time.
68. Hadhuub caano daata, dabada ayaa la qabtaa. It is no use crying over spilt milk.
69. Hal aad nin ku baratay kaama luminnin. No great loss without some small gain.
70. Hawl aan laguu dirsannin dalaq ha soo orannin. / Hawl yeello. Mind one’s own affairs.
71. Heddeedii / heddiisii baa gashay. One’s time has come.
72. Huriweyto hooyada ikhtiraaca weeye. Necessity is the mother of invention.
73. Iga fog fadqalallo. Out of the woods.
74. Ilaahow, Adaa Qaaddir ah. God Almighty.
75. Indhahaaga oo shan ah. Under smb.'s nose.
76. Indholaawe illaawe ayaa dhaama. Better one-eyed than stone-blind.
77. In la waayo raagidda ayaa ka wacan. Better late than never.
78. Inta aadan falin ka fiirso. Look before you leap.
79. Isha ayaa u macallin ah. Speaks for itself.
80. Isha ka rid. Hit the right nail on the head.
81. Ixsaanka ehelka ayuu ka unkamaa. Charity begins at home.
82. Jidka ku dhac. Hit the road.
83. Ka aammusnaan mu’aamaraad. A conspiracy of silence.
84. Kol hadday wasaayad jirto, waddana waa jirtaa. Where there's a will, there's a way.
85. Kor muuqaal u hayn. Keep up appearances.
86. Kor waayeel waa wada indho. Old birds are not to be caught with chaff.
87. Kuma weeye kuma. Who’s who.
88. Kun iyo kow hawlood. A thousand and one.
89. Kutiri-kuteenno ayaa kadlaynaya. Rumours are going round.
90. Khayr wax kaama dhimmee, shar u toog hay. Hope for the best and prepare for the worst.
91. Labawajiile. Show a false face.
92. Labo daran mid dooro. Of two evils choose the least.
93. Labo oodafo iskama abaal weydo. Claw me and I will claw thee.
94. Lama halmaamaan. Second to none.
95. Lillaahi iyo laqdabo meel ma wada galaan. Straightforwardness and slyness cannot enter one and the same place.
96. Lumi waqtiga. Lose time.
97. Macaan midnimo ayaa leh. Union is strength.
98. Ma noola mana dhimannin. Neither dead nor alive.
99. Mannooge baa raxan leh, maquuste baa reer leh. / Hawlkarnimo waa hooyada hannaanka guusha. Diligence is the mother of success.
100. Mar la dage, digtoonaa. Once bitten twice shy.
101. Mar maaha. Time and again.
102. Masallaha dhulkiyo ciiddu waa, mahudhadaadiiye. East or West, home is best.
103. Meel siday u taallo ayaa loola yaallaa. Do at Rome as the Romans do.
104. Miro gunti ku jira, kuwo geed saaran looma daadsho. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
105. Muunad cadow u ahe, waa dhalan nacab u ahe. An enemy to beauty is a foe to nature.
106. Naasnuujinta iyo naxdingelinta. The carrot and the stick.
107. Naga duw, Eebbow, aafaadka soconaya. God, save us from the present disasters.
108. Nimaad dhashay kuma dhalinnin. Your offspring are not your parents.
109. Nimaan dhididin ma dhergo. No sweet without sweat.
110. Nimaan shaqaysan shaah waa ka xaaraan. He that will not work shall not eat.
111. Nin daad qaaday xumbo cuskay. A drowning man will catch at a straw.
112. Nin dhintay kabahiisa ayaa dhaama. A living dog is better than a dead lion.
113. Nin waliba wuxuu yahay ayuu ku moodaa. Measure smb.’s corn by one’s own bushel.
114. Ninba meesha bugta isaga ayay belbeshaa. / Ninba meesha laga hayo, hay ama haabay. Every heart knows its own bitterness. / Everyone talks about the things on his mind.
115. Oofi ereygaaga! Keep one's word.
116. Qaanuun addeece. Law-abiding.
117. Qaanuunka qarjoogta. The jungle law.
118. Qalad qalad ka dabagee qallooc aan la saxin buu dhalaa. / Xumaani xumaan ma dhaqdo. Two wrongs don’t make a right.
119. Qalinka ayaa qoriga ka quwad weyn. The pen is mightier than the sword.
120. Qasad dhammaystirma waa marmarsiinyaha wasiilada. The end justifies the means.
121. Qayaxid daliileed. Burden of proof.
122. Qayblibaax. The lion’s share.
123. Ruux walbowba raaco danahaaga. Every man for himself and the devil take the hindmost.
124. Saafi. Simon-pure.
125. Sababtaas darteed. By the same token.
126. Samraa sed weyn hela. Everything comes to him who waits.
127. Sankunneefle maaha soorunnoole. Man shall not live by bread alone.
128. Sebi saancadde suxufinnimo bar. Teach one’s grandmother to suck eggs.
129. Sixinka ugu wacan safrad weeye. / Garow iidaankiis gaajo weeye. Hunger is the best sauce.
130. Shaki shafeecid shakhsi. Give smb. the benefit of the doubt.
131. Shakhsi aan is xushmaynnin lama sharfo. He that respects not is not respected.
132. Shayddaankuba farax kolkuu, shuush u toog qabine. The devil is good when he is pleased.
133. Shimbir waliba shimbirkeeda ayay la duushaa. Birds of a feather flock together.
134. Shinkeedii baa dhow. She is near her time.
135. Shulleyn ayaa shaafiyayn ka shiddo yar. Prevention is better than cure.
136. Waa wax fahamkoodu iga sarreeyo. It is beyond me.
137. Wadnaha ka qabo. Give somebody a hard time.
138. Waqtigu lacag weeye. Time is money.
139. Wararka suuqa. The talk of the town.
140. War iyo wacaal lagama hayo. Nothing is heard of smb.
141. Wasiilada dhammaystirka. Means to an end.
142. Wax qof dila ayaa qof kale dawo u ah. One man’s meat is another man’s poison.
143. Wax walbaayi waxay ku socdaan sidii loogu talaggalay. Everything is under control.
144. Waxaan naf lahayn. Next to nothing.
145 Af jooga looma adeego.
146 Af macaan, gacan macaan baa dhaanta.
147 Af wax cunay xishoo.
148 Abaal raaga rag baa leh.
149 Adduun waa hadhka labadiisa gelin.
150 Ama afeef hore lahow, ama adkeysin dambe lahow.
151 Ama buur ahaw, ama buur ku tiirsanow.
152 Amaano kugu raagtay yedaa baad moodaa.
153 Aqoon la´aani waa iftiin la´aan.

Doqonkii ogaadeen ahaa doolo laga qaadye.
Alaahu akbar eedaanku waa kaa afkiyo beene Ashahaaday gaalkuba waase ehelu naarkiiye Uubo weysa waan kugu arkaa Agab salaadeede.
Weyshaan u xiray reer Subeer wiil kafura waaye markay waa Tiraahdaba baqay wagac ka siiyeene.Wadkii dililahaa iyo imoode waramadiisiiye.
Alla may wadnaha joojiyaan waaxid baajira ee.
Cad hadduu carada kaaga dhaco amase cidoobo.
Caqli nimuu ku weyn yahay ma cuno calafka qaarkiise. Anigana caruuraha yaryari wa iga caynkaase.
Maxaan Aadan carab kala hadlaa caaqil baan ahaye
Waa lagu digtaa ruux hadduu kuu darraan jiraye Bal dayaay wadaadkii wakaas sii dabayshadaye
Nimankaan Haraadkiyo aqoon, hawdka mariddiisa, Kolay haber jeclo muuse tahay, waw handamayaane,Nin waliba haruub u toshiyo,haamo gooniya,Haweenkuna hadday doonayaan,inay hidiidaane.
Iidoor wagaash lahaa wabiga jeexsiiye
Nacasku waa i wiiqaye iidoor waanigii wadaye,waatii waddada aan ku riday, wagacda jiilaale,waa tii wadnaha aan u galay, sida wadaadkiiye, Oo waalidxoortaan ogaa wiish la caridaye
Waxaan oo habeeyaba reer tolkay oodda soo jebiye waa ku waas ardaayada dhigay idhanka toomoodde.
Bada gabay Ismaaciil miraa Buuni ku ahaaye.
Beyd uu akhriyey ma odhan,ya badala kaase.
Hal igalay sida ugaxa goray ha igu gaadhnaado.
Midhihii xujaalagu arkoo lagu xariimooye xuduntay fadhiisteen ninkii xaashay laba goore xeerada kacalo aniga wayga xaaraan e.
Ogadeenka noosoo gabyoow waa gar xaajaduye.
Mooyaa ka ciyey baad maqashay reerahaad maca wadaagteene. Waxaad maqashay Madhle iyo Gobley bay midho ku yaaliine Ogadeena midhihii ku guray mohoradiisiiye in aad Himirta muudmuud sataad mihindiseysaaye.
Koley aniga oo aan hawraarsan iyo haa ku odhanaynin, maxaad gacanta ii haysataa waa habeyn dumaye.
Saddexdiiba naag loogu maray oo lagu madoobeeyey, In muraayaddeedii jabtaan marag u haystaaye, Martabtay heshaa waa carmali magac ku yeedhaaye, Iga maarso yaan ina Calaay kuugu malaqsiine.
Naagahaan dhankii loo rogiyo dhinacna diidayne. Dheddigaanshahaa lagu arkiyo, dhiigga caadada e. Haddayan dhiilka caanaha lahayn, laguma dhaarteene. wax ka dhigan gobtii dhawrsataan, ceeb ka dhiidhiyine. Nin dhirbaaxo quudheed dugsaday dhaqayadeed maalye. Dhashaaday sugtaa xaajadaad dhawrataa abide.
Cayuun shaash leh oo wiilkii lahaa shaaha karinaayo Waayeelna xeeb uga shir tegey male Shirshooruuye Isagaan shaarublow Reer Isaaq shucub aan reebeene Shamal ay tuntaan iyo haween shuqulkii mooyaane, Sharba idin ma daareen haddaad shalay na dhaaftaane Daraan idin shiddeeyeenba waa naga shisheeyeene.
War bal Baaruuda foorari inaan kugu bogi waayo.
Nin la maagay aasaan midho yaraan lagu malaynaynin oo maansada ilaahay baroo macalinkeeda in ma dhoodho loo soo tirshaa wa macno la'aan
Hadii dherer wax taro naagahaa dhicin lahaa geele.Ayaba aabahood oo dhintey dhaxal ka waayaane

Hakaraamo seegina Habaar leygu kari waaye.
Ma mucaarad baan ahay hadaan xaqa ku maansoodo.
Bal Muxuu micneeyoo itaray ministerkaan doortey.
Waan idin masaafurin ilaa toban kun oo meyle
Makhsin baan idiin furi hadhuudh lagu masruuftaaye.
Dabkii lagu gubto faruhu kuma diraabaane.
Hitler baa u weynaa wiil arlada galiya hawl weyne isagaba meel haad ku cunay hubati loo waaye.
Sabool dhargaa nabada waa iskaga safaadaaye.
Ceydiga malaynee nin raga ceymo ma udiidney.
Waa digo hoostu nooshahay korkana degel lamoodaayo.
Waa maxay raga u Muhanayaa Meheradaan haystey.
Amba kama mahoobiyin tolkay maansadaa badane, masarna iyo kharduuna uma tegin mana masaafoonee, kamana mudannin sheekh ii marsha oo macarifo i dheere, Waan mihindisaye ii ma dhigin macallin yeedhsheeye, Waa shay maqaadiir ku yimid aan yar maamulaye,Sow duul masayr ugu dhinteen madadka lay siiyey.
Mahdabtaa Shanaad baan dajoo nala murmaysaanee.
Carabkii qoyani waa hadlaa, hey canjalafaynee in cadaalad sheekadu gashaan kaa codsanayaa.
Hadii geed la jaro oo gudumo looqaato oo barka sare la googooyaa waa wax gar weyne ma guntay ugu ursadeen kan dhacay waa gobkii Maxan ee.
Kadadii la ii qoray horteed in aan dhintaa kaafka kuma taale. Ha karaama seegina habaar lagu kari waaye.
Murti baan ka reeba Hadha iyo Anigu maahmaah'e
Miisaan hadaan hadal lahayn aa macno la'aane.

Geesigii tilmaanaa marbaa fulay u tookhaaye. Nin tabiino kuu guri jiraa kuu talaal noqone. Niman adiga kugu toosin baa kuu takhaashumiye.
Asteexiyo wanaag iyo ninkii ilindi kuu keeni. Ummuurtii aad leedahay ninkii kuu ebyoonahay
Aduunka iyo Aakhiro ninkii aslaaxaahaya. Ninkii maalintaad iilan tahay aano kugu jiidin.Itaal xumana aan kaaga tegin, sow ikhwaan ma aha.
Eebow nin goba baan ahoo guni rifaysaaye
Maandhow ixsaan lagama tago eed hadaad faliye.
Ma cirkaa lagayn oo dhulka laga gawdiidsan geydhooy maraakiib miyaa gurada loo saari.
Adaa Koofilow jiitayaan, dunida joogayne
Adigaa jidkii lagugu wici jimicla'aaneede
Jahannama la geeyow haddaad aakhiro u jihato
Nimankii jannow kacay war bay jirin inshaalleye
Jameecooyinkii iyo haddaad, howhartii aragto
Sida Eebbahay kuu jirrabay mari jawaabteeda.
Mar haddaan wadaad aayad diin, ila ekeynaynin.
Amaan aniga lay oran karayn, tanu ahaan mayso.
Allow yaa af lama daaliyee, iga asluubeysta
Wax walba wow hurayaa ninkii ii walaal noqone.
Ninka yiri wax baan gani anoo,gol iyo cayn jooga.
Ee yiri badii garacad baan, gudub u weydaarin.
Godka lagu cadaabyow muxuu, go'uhu been sheegay.
Danbiguu falaayaa Uweys loogu dowgalayeCandho dogoble goortaan dillaa roobku noo da’aye
Sargaalka iyo Hindiga waa dilaan uma sujuudaane Surkana waa ka gooyaan dadkii saaxirka ahaaye Soomaalidii uma turaan saaruqa ahayde
Cudud ma leh col kula weerar gala ciidan iyo xooge. Inkastey cid kuu soo diraan waa cidloo kale. Caloosha iyo madaxay sidii dumar cantuugaane.Maandhoow cayaayirka iga daa Carabi waa naage

Qab qab dhaafay baa laba qabiil, qaran ku weydaaye
Haabiilba Qaabiil markuu, qoonsaduu dilayee.
Rag kaa faqay rafiiq nimad tihiin talo lagaa reebay Meel aan lagaa rabin indhaha lalama sii raaco Layskuma ridaan rido haddaan ruuxu ku eryaynin.
Aakhiro raggii tagey haddan Eebbe ka aqoodo Inna arri jireed iyo nimaan habarti awr goynin Sow waxaan illawaba nin xumi ima ogaysiiyo.
Aboodigu ma lalo garab hadduu iin ku leeyahaye. Orod uma holodo ooglihii adhaxda beelaaye.
Bus xagaa ah jiilaal baryaday qaranka oo biifay. Barqin doog leh nayluhu gugay banana rooraane. Lag baruur leh bowdiyo shanshiyo badhi hadduu waayo. Baraar habartii loog kama furtoo gowrac kama baajo
Baajiri jarkeed waa bukurin laba bikuuroode. Binjaday lahayd saan hadday ugu bilkaynayso. Buluskii biyaha ceel ma sido mana baqool daayo
Geeluba ugaasoow hadduu ayda miranaayo. Abeerkiisa naaxiyo hadduu aaranku is waayo. Isaguba ma kala aamusee waysu ololaaye. Haddaan ina adeereey ku idhi sowma urugootid.

Nin anbaday halkuu aaday waa ula e
koonaaye. Anigoo arkaayaan wadada Erogoo maraye. Abtirsiimadii
baa ihoday Adan Carabowe.
Ayaan iyo labo wax kabadan eregtu
waax ceebe nin amaano necebbaan ahay oo iguma aameene.
Amarkii Ilaah iyo wakhtigu waa wax kaa adage.

Luqmo dheerahaan helay hadday laqanyo kaa hayso Anigguba markaan kaa lal maday iima lood samine Lubigii walaalnimo ninkii laalay baad tahaye. Gablan lexo jecloy waa wiixii lumiyey Ayjeexe

Idin bacasa awrkay dhashiyo, aarankay wadatay.
Asxaabihii horaba, way ku intifaaceene.
aakhiro ninkaan geel lahayn, lama ammaanayne.
Maxaan idinla awlaadsadaa awgayoow,awr ma dhaansado e

Haddaan gabaygu uurkoo bukiyo, arami kaa keenin Amaan olol xanuun iyo jacayl,kugu ikbaarayni.Afkuu baad ka leedahee tixuhu, arar ma yeeshaane.

Ragoow kibirka waa lagu kufaa kaa hala ogaado.
Hadii reerka neef laga Ajalo Waa Abaar kulule Adimda Hadii ley karshoon Awlalada laasto In aan Adarka kula Fuuqsada waa Asluubxumo'e maxaad Fuudka ii soo Ag dhigi ma ihi iidoore.
Hadaan Anigu Odayoobey oo Anafadii daayey oo Ashaahado mooyee eebo ridi waayey Alaa igu og in aan aabahaa cidu u aarayne .
Kugu xiiqay sidaan kuulahaa xaaxayahay toose, xaguun labada daarood ku daran hays xakabin meele.
Inta kaamil kooriyo kudkiyo kiisku daba joogo Walee Geel nin koolkooliyow kabaradaa dhaanta.
Inkastuu dhabcaal go'an yahuu kuu dhadhamo diido Isagoo dharaar maqan koluu dumar wax kuu dhiibo. Dhan aad uga dhacdaba maal tolkaa waad dhadhamisaaye Waa dhaawac kugu yaal bahdaa dhaqasho weydaaye.
Geenyada la fuulaan xaday iyo gabadha iimowday.
Haddaad moodey in keligaa uu gubaayo jiillaalku Sangihii garbaha waynaa geed ka kici waaye wakaa gooni daaqii habsadey gubaddii hawde.
Aniga oo arkaayaa faraha laygu iibsadeye.
Ha fur furin dermada la iga waa ina fadhiistaaye.
In kastuu kallaho ama kabtiyo ama kur dheer fuulo bad kalluun ku jira koley kutahay amase koob shaaha kulligood adoomaha rabbow qeybshay kimistiiye Nin waliba waxii loo katibay waa la kulansiine Nina inaanu soo kororsanayn kaa hala ogaado

Waxba habar jeclada aan makalay, haw makaabbirine,Shan qolaa mataanaha ka jaban, maxamedkiiniiye. Madmadoobayaal oo dhan baan, loo muraad qumine, Waa muusanow iyo baroor, maansadaad tidhiye,Maadhiinka nimankaan la dhacay, miidha Habar Yoonis, Magta geedquwaax lagu xukumay, waa rag kaa maqane, Ma mardaaddi bay kaa jiraan, muuqan mahayane? Mise waa kuwii lagu mudmuday,maqasha daaqeeda?
Anna waxaan la xoodnaa shalay, iga xayuubsheene, hadba waxaan la xarakaadayaa,waa xogtaan helaye, waa kaa jirkaygii xugnaa,soo xankaakubaye,xoonkii shinnida quudayoo,xoon bax oranaayey,aan xababarshiyo awlallada,cidi la xaalaynin,xawliga durduradaan ka biqi,xeeb inaan tago e,xaaladooda niman baa qarshooy,xani ka raacdaaye,xuurtiyo waraabaha miyaa, xalay ducaynaayey
Nin darxumi waa reerkooda doc uma dhaafaane. dadka kugu diryaa iyo af xumo kugula dulmeeryaaba sidii laba dumar ah oo lawada qabuu kuula diriraaye.
Magligaad afaysaa ku goyn muruqa Yawloowe.
Xasan iyo Xuseen sidood annoo la ii xanbaarayo iyo hadoo gadhkii iyo xaadii ayga ka cadaday. Xabad iyo dilbay noo ahayd reer Xirsi Cimaanne.
Waa nimankaas Higlada quuta iyo heeligaa bariye halalacdii miyeydaan arkeyn hunuga dhiigiisa.

Lama siisan karo xoolo kale, sidigta dhaameele
waxba yaan surweel midab leh iyo,
saacad lay xirane Sicirka dunida geeleennu waa,
ugu sarreeyaaye,
Soomaaligii diidanow waad silloon tahaye

Waxba yaanu xeerkay i marin xoolona i siine
Xaashee nin libin kaa xistiyey xumihi waa yaabe
Dumarkuba xublada foosha way xanaf wareeraane Balse inay xusuus daran yihiin xaylka kale mooge
Wax libaaxu dhacadiidiyaa gool u dhays bidaye Goortuu dhergaabuu dugaag ugu dhawaaqaaye Ragbaa libinta maantuu dharqado dhaata abidkiise Isagoo dhantacay faarax nuur dhuda ma luuqeeyey
Haddaad ficil hinaasiday asaad hilin kari weydey Ma afkaad ku hawl bixi cidlaad ka hanjabaysaaye
Gabadh waliba waa hooyadeed tay u gurataaye Goonbaartu waxay caasidaa midaanay gaadhayne Ma gudboona gaarida sare iyo gibirta naaxdaaye
Cankabuudka caaradu xidhee lagu cayaaraayo iyo wiil cartiis qaba intuu amar la ceeryoomay Cindallaahi waa siman yihiin waana laba cayne

Haddey boogi kugu taal, ninkale tiisu kaa dedane.
Haddaad adigu tuur leedihiyo, tootir iyo qaallo.
mid kaleeto inaad toosisaa waa tu aan dhicine.

Dhibaatiyo adoo gaajo qaba, dhaxanta jiilaalka.
Dhoor caano laga soo lisoo, yara dhanaanaadey.
Nin dhadhamiyey waa garanayaa, dhul ay qaboojaane.
Goortaad dhantaa baa jidhkaba, dhididku qooyaane

sayidkii cishqiga fuuliyo caliba soo gaadhye
Carruurtay sideen ciirshe meesha iyo Nebigiiye
Cidla lagama beermeen dadkoo cudud waaxida ahe
Waxba qaarba cayn looga dhigay ha iscajabiyaane.

Allhayoow nin ii daran maxaan daafta hore seexshay. Nin i daaqsanayaana maxaan daafidow kariyey.Jidhku nimaan doonayn maxaan hadalka deeeqsiiye
Ma degdego xaajada maxaan rag u dulqaad yeeshay.

Sagalkii guduutaba miyaan sarar hayaa buuran
Soomaali rubuceed miyaan siin karaa hilib wan

Aduun yadan sidii luqunta diin laabatiyo hooya Goortii an laacaba haddii layga lalinaayo. Oo ayan lugi lug ii raacahayn ma aniggaa laylyi.

Cirku waa daruuraynayaa gooru di'i yaa og. Waa la ii dardaar werinayaa darajaday yaa og. Anigiyo daraawiish midkii dhiig ka di'i yaa og.
Hadii aannan subuubaha ku bixin siriqda layqoolay, maxaa aniga iyo seediyaday saancad kala haysta.
Hadalba waxaan isga dhaafay oo aan haabkiiba ugooyay hooyaday kuway dhashay iyo Hiirad baa inacay e.

Gidigeeda Soomaalidaa guudka ka islaan dheh. Gun markaad u sii fiirisana gaalo taag daran dheh.
Nabi Muxamed baa loo jeclaa jaah mar la arkaaye (csw)
Isagana waxaa lagu jirabay inuu jihaadaaye
Idinkuna xornimo saa jirtaad jiif ka damacdeene
Waxaa murugo iyo qoomamiyo maanqashiyo ciil leh. Maskax iyo garaad iyo wixii muruqba kaa liita. Markuu adiga sharaftaad mudnayd kaa maroorsado e
Naftu inay maqnaato iyo inay mahad ku noolaato. Maaweelis weeyaan haddii mid u dhexeeyaaye
Wallee in ayna laakiin ahayn laydha socotaaye. Libin baa dhow ruuxii jihaad laabta ku hayoowe
Soomaalina macnaa lagu yaqaan meel ay joogtaba e. Oo waa hiddaha noo macaan malab siddiisiiye. Mar kastana ma moogaano ee wuu naga dhex muuqdaaye
Waraabaha ku ruugaaya iyo aar ku raamsanaya
Sidday kuugu kala roon yihiin maad u kala reebtid
Ninkii rodolna miisaama ee kiilo raajiciya
Ee raasamaalkuu helaa rubuc ka hooseeyo
Xisaabtaa inuu dib u rogrogo sow ra'yigu ma aha
Danbaaburiyo gaaraabidhaan fiid is daba yaacay. Danbas iyo wax nool kay yihiin daa'imaan garane. Dab iyo qiiqna waan kala aqaan saa duqbaan ahaye
Qof walaalkii gaday meel shishaa laga ganaaxaaye. Gacal uu xigaalkood hagraday gocosho dayn waaye

Allaa faxane faroweey haddan kugu filaan waayey. Nin fadeexad neceb baan ahoo waan ku furayaaye.

Lix halkaa ku joogtaan dagaal laabta ka ogaada
Luquntana haddii laydin jaro lugaha meermeersha

Ramadaan ninka soomay,
Oo soddonkeeda idleeye. Iyomaqaayad mid rudaaya.
Oo hadba rooti karaaneIsma raaci karaane.
Alloow yaa kala reeba

Ma mooyaan kuu tumay Habar Jeclow, gun waa loo mashxaradaaye, ma libin aydaan lahayn baan idin mihiibsiiyey.

Ninba maalin baa loogu iman maxashadiisiiye.
Qoladay markaa haysataad kaga maqnaataane Xaasidnimada maarowday waydiin macaan tahaye.

Dillaal saylad ku raagey, xadhiguu la raftaa.Rubbiyadaan sarrifnayni, kiishadday rafataa.Awrkii heeryo ridaa, haamuhuu ku raftaa
Ruuxa biilka waayana,hilibkuu la raftaa

Nin Qalbi la' Quraan kii u dhigay,Qaaf dheh ku harradye.
Qayrkii ka hare waa ninkii qalay walaalkiise.
Kutubada sidii lagu qarriray,qiil la'Aakhiro.
Halbawlaha suntii idin jartaad hinif ka siiseene
bahashii khalqiga heemisaa loo hadoodilaye
heerkaa intay taagan tahayoo kala higoonayso
anuunbaa u hinqanayee wanaag uma hilawdaan.
Dul iyo hoosba waan ugu dhigaye, waa dix-dhagaxeede
Anuunbaa damqanayee dheguhu, uma daloolaane
Dadkaan la hadlayaa baan lahayn, dux iyo iimaane
Bal inay dalfoof tahay caqliga, dooni laga saaray
nin qabyaalad heensaynayaa guul ma haybsado e

Hala rooro run mooday

Waxaa la yiri (Awoowga aan wax horumar ah qaban intuu noolaa, awlaadiisu waxay ka dhaxlaan inay caayaan Awowgii wax qabtay).

‘Libaax laba raqood lagama wada kiciyo’ (‘Do not attempt to make a lion
surrender two carcasses.’)

 Habar Yoonis, having lost the Presidency, now contested their allocation. A Somali proverb described their mood:

The Hargeysa Peace and Reconciliation Conference, October 1996-February 1997
The Hargeysa Shir-beeleed signalled the formal conclusion of the 1994-6 war. Like Boorame
the conference employed the Beel system of representation to work out a new power-sharing
formula – one that addressed the grievances of the opposition, particularly the Habar Yoonis
among the Garxajis19. This conference also benefited the minorities. The Habar Yoonis clan
gained five more seats in Parliament. Cigaal also gave them four cabinet posts and several
assistant ministerial posts. The Madigaan, Akisho, Abba-yoonis, Gurggure, Jibraa’iil,
Gahayle, Gabooye and the Carab minority clans who were not represented at Boorame, were
given representation in the parliament through the addition of nine new seats.

Hosting a hot tea as Somali traditional way of life spells, he said to them "I tend to suppose that you are Majeerteen. Are you from Omar Mohamud or Osman Mohamud?" Cogitating a response of Omar or Osman, they conversely and rigorously said, "We are from Liban Geshe." Liban Geshe is said that they are less than 50 men, and were never seen two of them residing a place. My ancestor, a poet, was severely astonished by the clan they belonged to and said, "Anigoo lixdan boqol, tolkeey laba nin dheeraaday, miyaa Liibaan Geshe, caawa iga lib roonaaday, oo Lug iyo Leg baan rabaa lig isla soo siiyey." (Sawaqroon is larger than Liban Geshe as Sayyid Mohamed Abdulle Hassan said, "Sawaqroonba waa dad, markey socoto Xaafuun." I have never seen one individual from Liban Geshe, but Nuur Shire Osman who was a BBC correspondent in Puntland five years before was the only Sawaaqroon I have ever met).
Faaarax Oomar ; "Dhulkeyga wax la kala qeybiyo ka yar" in ay maanta ay diidaan somalilnimadii .

(SSNM/BIRAM/SRRC) Mudane: Ambas.Cabdullaahi Sheekh Ismaaciil iyo (SSNM/SNA/SRRC) Mudane: DR. Cabdulcasiis Sheekh Yuusuf

(SSNM/BIRAM/SRRC) Mudane: Ambas.Cabdullaahi Sheekh Ismaaciil iyo (SSNM/SNA/SRRC) Mudane: DR. Cabdulcasiis Sheekh Yuusuf

(SSNM/BIRAM/SRRC) Mudane: Ambas.Cabdullaahi Sheekh Ismaaciil iyo (SSNM/SNA/SRRC) Mudane: DR. Cabdulcasiis Sheekh Yuusuf

Ra’iisal Wasaare Nuur Cadde oo soo dhisay Xukuumad aad uga tiro yar Xukuumadihii soo maray Dowladda Federaalka Soomaaliya
Jimco, January 04, 2008(HOL):

Xukuumadda uu soo dhisay Ra’iisal Wasaare Nuur Cadde ayaa waxaa ku jira xubno aan ku jirin Baarlamaanka Soomaaliya, kuwaasi oo loo magacaabay xilal muhiim ah, iyadoo dhinaca kalena aysan soo gelin xubno ka muuqan jiray Xukuumadihii horay u soo maray Dowladda Federaalka Soomaaliya, kuwaasi oo ay ka mid yihiin Wasiirkii hore ee Arrimaha Gudaha Maxamed Maxamuud Guuleed (Gacma-dheere) iyo Wasiir ku xigeenkii Gaashaandhigga Salaad Cali Jeelle.
Ilaa seddex Wasaaradood ayuusan ku dhawaaqin Ra’iisal Wasaaraha, kuwaasi oo loo qaatay in magacaabistooda ay u baahan tahay la-tashiyo dheeraad ah, waxaana wasaaradaha harsan ka mid ah Caafimaadka, Xanaanada Xoolaha iyo Kalluumeysiga iyo Kheyraadka Bii'ada.

Ra’iisal Wasaare Nuur Cadde ayaa wuxuu horay u soo magacaabay Xukuumad ka koobneyd 73 Wasiir, taasi oo ay Beesha Caalamka si weyn u dhaliishay tiro badnideeda iyo tayo la’aanteeda, iyadoo ay xusid mudan tahay in ay Xukuumaddaas xubnaheeda u badnaayeen Xukuumaddii hore ee uu Guddoomiyaha ka ahaa Ra’iisal Wasaarihii hore ee Soomaaliya Prof. Cali Maxamed Geeddi.

1- Xildhibaan Saalim Caliyow Ibrow = Ra’isu wasaare ku xigeen ahna Wasiirka Garsoorka =Digil Jiiddo

2-Xildhibaan Caydiid C/llahi Ilka Xanaf = Ra’isu wasaare ku xigeen ahna Wasiirka Waxbarasahada iyo hiddaha =Dir/Isaaq/Habar Yoonis.

3-Axmed C/salaan Xaaji Aadan = Ra’isu wasaare ku xigeen ahna Wasiirka Warfaafinta, Arrimaha dhalinyarada iyo Isboortiga=Hawiye/Habargedir Ceyr

4-Muxiyidiin Max’ed Xaaji Ibraahim =Wasiirka Gaashaandhiga=Dir/Biimaal

5-Xidhibaan Xuseen Ceelabe Faahiye =Wasiirka Ganacsiga, Wershadaha iyo Dalxiiska =Dir/Gada biirsi.

6-Max’ed Cali Xaamud = Wasiirka Maaliyada iyo Qorshaynta

7-Xildhibaan Max’ed Ibraahim Xaabsade =Wasiirka Gaadiidka, Duulimaadka iyo Dekadaha Mirifle/Leysaan.

8-Xildhibaan Muuse Nuur Amiin = Wasiirka Arrimaha Gudaha iyo Amniga Qaranka =Hawiye/Gaaljecel Barsane

9-Xildhibaan Cali Axmed Jaamac Jengeli =Wasiirka Arrimaha Debada iyo Iskaashiga Caalamiga =Daarood Dhulbahante

10-Max’ed Cali Saalax Kaange = Wasiirka Macdanta iyo Tamarta =Daarood Warsangeli.

11-Xildhibaan Mustaf Sh. Cali Dhuxulow=Hawiye/Murasade =Wasiirka Beeraha, Biyaha iyo Horumarinta,

12-Nuur Iidow Beyle = Wasiirka Howlaha Guud, Dib u dhiska iyo Kaabiyaasha = Hawiye/Xawaadle Cali Madaxweyne.

13-C/risaaq Ashkir Cabdi = Wasiirka Dib u heshiisiinta, Horumarinta Gobollada iyo Arrimaha Federalka= Daarood/Mariixan.

14-Xildhibaan Cabdi Max’ed Tarrax=Wasiirka Boostada iyo Isgaarsiinta =Daarood/Ogaadeen

15-Xildhibaan Khadiijo Max’ed Diiriye =Wasiirka Horumarinta Haweenka iyo Arrimaha Qoyska Beesha Shannaad/Yaxar.


1-Xildhibaan C/kariin Axmed Cali =Wasaarada Arrimaha Debada iyo Iskaashiga Caalamiga =Hawiye/Baada Cadde.

2-Xildhibaan Carab Cali Diiriye = Wasiirka Dib u heshiisiinta, hormarinta Gobolada iyo Arrimaha Federalka Dir/Isaaq/ Habar Jeclo.

3-Xildhibaan Cali Muumin Ismaaciil = Wasiirka Maaliyada iyo Qorshaynta =Daarood/Leelkase.

4-Xildhibaan Fahma Axmed Nuur = Wasiirka Arrimaha Gudaha iyo Amniga Qaranka Beesha Shannaad/Reer Xamar.

5-Xildhibaan C/kaafi Macalin Xasan= Wasiirka Howlaha Guud, Dib u dhiska iyo Kaabiyaasha =Digil/ Garre.

Salaad Iidow Xasan (Xiis), Hiiraan Online
Beledweyn, Somalia

Mar lagu yiri si kaftan ah, "Indaha Caddow" dadka deegaanka maad maamulka ku wareejisid " ayaa waxuu ku jawaabey" Xoolo, aan waxba kala aqoonin , maamul looma dhiibo ee waa la daajiyaa ", taasi oo uu ka wodey dadka deegaanka inay woda yihiin xoolo la daajiyo oo keli, reerkiisana ay yihiin qoosaartii daajinta ku haaysey.
Waxaa dhacdey in la af duubey suldaanaddii beesha Biimaal iyo xubno ka tirsanaa hay'addii ay madaxda u ahayd , dhowr bilood ka hor, hase yeeshee ilaa maantana aan lasoo sheegin nolosheeda iyo geerideeda, taasi oo la woda ogyahay dadka ka dambeeyo oo ay qaar yihiin kuwa daba dhilif ah , oo u dhashey beesha ay kazoo jeeddo suldaanaddaa faaduma Xaajow, oo la dhalatey Maana Xaajow "Allaha u naxariistee".
 Beesha miyo maal

 Golaha Guurtida Beelaha Dirta Koonfureed loo doortay Prof. C/llaahi maxmed Caddoow (Food cadde), Guddoomiye ku xigeenka 1-aad waxaa loo dooraty Xuseen Geeddi Jimcaale, Xasan Geeddi Rooble ayaa isna loo magacaabay Guddoomiye ku xigeenka labaad ee Golaha Guurtida Dirta Koonfureed, halka Xoghayaha Guudna loo doortay Mudane bashiir Isaaq Cabdulle. Somali National Movement (SNM) The Isaaq ( Dir) based movement that let the opposition to Siad Barre in the late 1980s. The SNM was formed in 1981 and was supported by Ethiopia during much of the 1980s. In 1988, the SNM occupied much of northern Somalia and suffered brutal attacks from Siad Barre. The SNM won control over the north (former British Somaliland) in 1991 and declared the territory the independent (but as yet unrecognized) Republic of Somaliland. Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA) A Gadabursi (Dir clan) organization from the northern Somaliland region around Boroma. Originally formed in 1989, it opposed the SNM's policy of independence and participated in the Addis Ababa talks. Allied with SSA. SSNM ( Southren Dir) Led by the Suure, Biyamal,Gadsan, Mandaluug or Qubeys families. The faction covers the vast terrritories from mudug to Kismayo.

12 killed in Somali clan violence MOGADISHU, Tuesday At least 12 villagers were killed and 46 wounded during two days of fighting between rival clans in central Somalia, witnesses said today. Fighting erupted on Sunday and Monday between the Dir and Merehan clans in the area of Xeraale in the Glagudud region, 540 km (335 miles) north of the capital Mogadishu. "Heavy casualties occurred at two small villages around the area of fighting," said an elder from the Dir clan who spoke to journalists by radio on Tuesday, putting the death toll at 12. "Five of our people were killed and 16 wounded while seven of them were killed with 30 wounded," he said. A Merehan clan member declined to comment on the number of dead or wounded. It was not immediately clear what triggered the clashes, but the Dir spokesman said they were sparked by revenge. Radio Horn Afriq reported that the fighting was caused by a dispute over ownership of residential areas. Somalia has been torn by violence since 1991, when military leader Mohammed Siad Barre was overthrown and the Horn of Africa country descended into chaos. Somali peace talks under way in neighbouring Kenya have faltered in recent weeks with the withdrawal of key faction leaders and Djibouti's decision to quit the mediating committee. —


Caddayn inaysan Beesha Saleebaan Cabdalle qayb ka ahayn nidaamka cusub ee laga hirgaliyay degaano ka tirsan gobolka Mudug, islamarkaana aan lagu casumin dhismihiisa kaasoo dhisiddiisu muddo bilo ah ay ka socotay halkaa.

Beesha iyo Degaankeeda:
Beeshu waxay ka deggentahay Mudug deegaanada iyo magaalooyin ay ka midyihiin
* Towfiiq,
* Galhagoog,
* Ceeldhanaane,
* Dhinowda,
* Garacad,
* Jarriiban,
* Balli-busle iyo, Seemade iyo tuulooyin badan aanaan soo koobi Karin.

BEESHA QUBEYS OO SOO QAB-QABATAY DABLEYDIIBeesha Fiqi Muxumad oo dhex dhexaadineysa Beelaha Sacad iyo Suleybaan

Beesha Fiqi Muxumad oo dhex dhexaadineysa Beelaha Sacad iyo Suleybaan
Posted by: editor

Wararka naga soo gaaraya Magaalada Nairobi waxay sheegayaan in maalintii shalay ahayd Beesha Fiqi Muxumad ay googol u dhigtay Waxgaradka, Nabadoonada beelaha Sacad iyo Suleymaan ee ku sugan Magaalada Nairobi waxaana soo qaban-qaabiyay Suldaan Khaliif Max’ed Maxamuud.

Suldaana ayaa mar uu ka hadlayay sababaha ay u dhigeen goshaan ay tahay markii ay u adkeysan waayeen dhibaatada dhex taala labadaasi beelood ayaa waxa uu u soo jeediyay labada beelood in heshiisyada ay gaaraan ay ka dhabeeyaan.
Waxaa laga soo saaray kualnkaasi baaq loo soo jeedinayo labada beelood oo ah in ay xabadda joojiyaan in wixii khilaaf ah ay ku dhameeyaan wada hadal, waxaana labada beelood u kala hadlay Cabdi Faarax Jaamac iyo Mudane Indha-Cadde, waxayna sheegeen in ay soo dhaweenayaan dhex dhexaadinta beesha Fiqi Muxumad waxaana halkaasi lagu saaray guddi ka kooban dhowr iyo taban xubnood oo tagi doona Gobalada dhexe.

27 - 01 - 2006 - Wararkii ugu dambeeyay ee arrimaha Soomaaliya

Dableeydii dhawaantan ka geysartay dilkii foosha xumaa isbitaalka DAARUSHIFAA' ayaa maanta gacanta lagu soo dhigay,iyagoo ku dhuumaaleysanayo meel ka mid ah xaafadda H/wadaag.
Soo qabqabashada dableydaan ayaa waxaa ka dambeeyay odayaasha iyo dhaliyarada beesha qubeys oo la sheegay in ay ka dhasheen.
Nabadoon Xuseen Geeddi Jimcaale,ayaa xaqiijiyay in ay soo qabteen nimankii falka dilka u geystay dhalinyaradii ilaalada ka aheyd cusbutaalka DAARUSHIFAA' ee ay 3da nin ku geeriyootay. Nabadoonka ayaa intaas raaciyay in ay nimankaas kasoo qabteen meel ka mid ah xaafadda H/wadaag ayna hadda ku hayaan qol 4 miter ah oo ay ugu xir xiranyihiin,waxaa kaloo uu sheegay in ay marsiin doonaan shareecada islaamka.
Arrintaan ayaa ah mid ku cusub magaalada Muqdisho oo haddii ay hirgashana abuureysa niyadsami iyo degganaansho beelaha dhexdooda ah. Dhibaatooyinka ay geystaan maleeshiyooyinka ayaa marar badan waxay sababaan in loo dilo dad aan wax shaqo ah ku laheyn iyagoo loo raacayo magaca beesha ay kasoo jeedaan.
Safiyo Abuukar Karaani


Xubnaha Labada Gole ee Muqdisho oo maanta ansixiyay qaabka loo qeybiyay Xubnaha Golaha Deegaanka Maamulka Gobolka Banaadir

Sabti, November 12, 2005: Xubnaha labada gole ee Muqdisho ku sugan ayaa maanta waxay ansixiyeen gole Deegaan oo Bud-dhig u noqon doonaa Maamul u yeesho Gobolka Banaadir, kaasi oo ay xubnahiisu gaarayaan 64 xubnood.
Afhayeenka Xubnaha Labada Gole ee Muqdisho Xildhibaan Cumar Xaashi Aadan ayaa shirkaasi kadib saxafiyiinta u sheegay in xubnaha 64-ta ah ay beelaha wax ku leh maamulka Gobolka Banaadir u kala heleen qaabkan:
Beesha Mudulood 13 Mudane
Beesha Habar Giudir 9 Mudane
Beesha Murusade 8 Mudane
Beesha Digil iyo Mirifle 6 Mudane
beesha Dir 4 Mudane
Beesha Xawaadle 4 Mudane
Beesha Daarood 4 Mudane
Beesha Duduble 3 Mudane
Beesha Sheekhaal 2 Mudane
Beesha Jareer 2 Mudane
Beesha Reer Xamar 2 Mudane
Beesha Gugundhabe 2 Mudane
beesha Gaaljecel 2 Mudane
Beesha Silcis 1 Mudane
Beesha Reer Ow xasan 1 Mudane
Beesha Ujuuraan 1 Mudane
Xildhibaan Cumar Xaashi waxaa uu intaas ku daray in dib loo dhigay ka doodista Ajende ku saabsanaa Qorshe Dib u heshiisiin ah oo uu horay u soo bandhigay Wasiirka dib u dhiska iyo Dib u dejinta Xukuumadda Federaalka Xildhibaan Barre Aadan Shire Aadan, kaasi oo lagu heshiisiinayo Xubnaha Dowladda Federaalka ee ku kala sugan magaalooyinka Muqdisho iyo Jowhar, wuxuuna Xildhibaan Cumar Xaashi sheegay in ay dib u dhigistaas timid kadib markii xubnaha shirkaas ka qeybgelayay lagu wargeliyay in dil loo geystay Wiil uu dhalay Guddoomiye ku xigeenka labaad ee Golaha Baarlamaanka Xildhibaan Cusmaan Cilmi Boqorre oo horay uga tirsanaa Xubnaha Dowladda Federaalka ee Muqdisho ku sugan.
Xildhibaan Xaashi waxaa uu dhanka kale sheegay in arrinta dilkaas uu Guddoomiyaha Baarlamaanka Guddi u saaray, isla markaana maalinta Talaadada ah ee soo socota laga wada hadli doono wixii ka soo baxay baaritaankaas iyo weliba Ajendihii maanta baaqday ee dib u heshiisiinta ku saabsanaa.
Ugu dambeyntiina Xubnaha labada gole ee Muqdisho ku sugan ayaa muddooyinkan waxay isku howlayeen sidii ay maamul ugu sameyn lahaayeen Gobolka Banaadir, iyadoo weliba uu Gobolka Banaadir u dhisan yahay maamul uu soo magacaabay Ra’iisal Wasaare Geedi, isla markaana uu Guddoomiye ka yahay Maxamuud Xasan Cali (Cadde).



Akisho (var. Akisha, Akishe; also known as Gurre) is a Somali subclan, part of the larger Dir group whose members live in Ethiopia and northern Somalia. The Akisho are a subclan of the Ali Madahweyn Dir, and they are reputed to be the eldest sons of the Madaxweyn Dir. The Madaxweyn Dir include the Gurgure, Gariire, Guure, Layiile, Reer Aw Said, Jiido and Wardaay. The last three groups inhabit Southern Somalia especially in the Lower Juba and Shabeele rivers area;however, most Madahweyn Dir live in Ethiopia.
Akisho is one of the oldest clans in the Horn of Africa. According to Somali history, two of the oldest monarchies in the region, the Ifat and Adal Sultanates, were Akisho.[citation needed] The great horn African hero Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi ("Ahmed Gurey") was Akisho.[citation needed]
The Akisho inhabit both Somaliland and Ethiopia. In Somaliland, Akisho members live in the southern Waqoyi-Galbeed Province, Wajaale, Ala’ibaday, and Gabiley. In Ethiopia, where the Akisho are the most widespread Somali group, Akisho members inhabit Jijiga, Baale (Nagelle), Baabule, Fayaanbiiro, Qabri-Bayah, Fiiq, Hara-Maaya, Harar, and Dadar.
Akisho members are predominantly adherents of Sunni Islam, though one might find a Christian Akisho in the Shewa area of Ethiopia.
The Akisho (Gurre) clan consists of 12 major subclans:
1. Akisho
o Waro-Miyo
 Reer-Warfaa
 Reer-Dalal
 Reer-Hawade
 Reer-Agal
 Reer-Buuke
 Reer-Naaleye
o Waro-Bito
o Waro-Dayo
o Waro-Luujo
o Waro-Ito
o Waro-Kiyo
o Waro-Heebaan
o Waro-Kurto
o Obo
o Igo
o Asaabo
o Eejo
2. Abiju
3. Akiju
4. Heebaana
5. Huumo
6. Jaarso
7. Maya
8. Obara

Alle ha u naxariistee Drs. Sakiyo C/salaam Caalin


Alle ha u naxariistee Drs. Sakiyo C/salaam Caalin oo ka mid ahayd Xidhibaanada Soomaaliya oo maanta ku geeriyootay magaalada Nairobi
July 03, 2005.
Waxaa maanta ku geeriyooday magaalada Nairobi laguna Aasay Allaha u naxariistee Drs Sakiyo Cabdi Salaan Caalin oo ka mid aheyd Xidhibaanada Dowladda KMG ah ee Soomaaliyeed sida uu Xaqiijiyay Dr Jaylaani Cali Kadiye iyadoo Muddo labo Asbuuc ah ku jiraneyd Cusbitaalka Nairobi,
Drs. Sakiyo Cabdi Salaan waxa ay ka mid ahayd Xidhibaanadii Dowladii Carte sidoo kale waxa ay ka mid aheyd Bulshada Raydka ah iyadoo qayb ka ahayd Dadkii doorka Lixaadka ah ku lahaa Shirkii Dib u heshiisiinta Soomaaliyeed ee ka dhacay wadanka Kenya,
Waxa ay ka qalin Jabisay Kuluyada Dhaqalaha ee Soomaaliya iyadoo sidoo kalena wax ku Baratray Dalal Dibada ah waxa ayna la soo shaqeysay Ururada Bulshada ee hoos taga Qaramada Midoobay Drs Sakiya waxa ay aheyd Shaqsi Sumacad Badan ku leh Bulshada dhaxdeeda,
Waxaa isla Maanta lagu Asay Qabuuraha Muslimiinta ee Kenya oo ku Yaala xaafada Islii ee magaalada Nairobi waxaana Askeeda ka soo qeyb galay Boqolaal Muslimiin ah Siyaasiyiin Wasiiro Xidhibaano Iyo Siyaasiin Soomaaliyeed,
Dadkii Aaska Marxuumada ka qeyb qaatay waxa ka mid ahaa Musharxii madaxweynanimada ee Soomaaliya Dr Cabdulaahi Axmed Cadow,Gudoomiyaha Bankiga Dhaxe Ee Soomaaliya Dr Maxamuud Maxamed Culusow Wasiiro iyo Xidhibaano ka tirsan Dowlada Soomaliya,
Drs. Caasha Xaaji Cilmi iyo Drs Fahmo Axmed Nuur oo ay Saxiibo isku dhaw ahaayeen Allaha u naxariistee Drs Sakiyo Cabdi Salaan Caalin ayaa maanta waxaa ka muuqday murugo iyagoo Tacsi gaara gaarsiinaya Eheladii iyo Qaraabadii ay ka geeriyootay Drs Sakiyo Cabdi Salaan Caalin Allaha u naxariisto.
Inaa lilaahi wa inaa ilaahu Raajicoon,

Mid ka mid ah haweenka xildhibaanada ah oo ku geeriyootay Nairobi

Waxaa xalay ku geeriyootay Nairobi xildhibaanad Zakiya C/salaan Caalin oo ka mid aheyd xildhibaanada baarlamanka ee ka soo jeeda beelaha Direed, waxaana la sheegay xildhibaanada inay muddo dhowr cisho ah ku xanuusaneysay Nairobi.
Marxuumada oo ka mid ah aheyd gabadha baarlamaanka kuwooda ugu firfircoon, waxeyna aheyd Zakiya C/salaan xubnihii ururrada bulshada rayidka ee ka mid noqda baarlamanka, iyadoo dowladdii Cartana ka aheyd xubin baarlamaan.
Marxuumada ayaa galabta lagu aasay magaalada Nairobi, waxaana tacsi u diraya xildhibaanada kala ah Caasha Xaaji Cilmi & Caasha Axmed Cabdalla
Nairobi:- Xildhibaan Zakiya C/salaam Caalin oo ka mid ahaa Xildhibaanada Baarlamaanka DFGM ayaa saaka ku geeriyooday isbitaal ku yaal magaalada Nairobi
Marxuumad Zakiya ayaa waxay ku geeriyootey 13:30 waxaana la sheegay inay mudo xanuunsanaa ALLE ha u naxariistee Zakiya C/salaan ayaa waxa uu ka mid ahaa Baarlamankii lagu soo dhisey shirkii Carta ee dalka Jabuuti oo uu madax ka ahaa Dr:C/qaasim Salaad Xassan
Waxaa lagu wadaa in isla maanta lagu aaso Qabuuraha Islaamka ee magaalada Nairobi.

1. Zakiya cabdisalan Caalin
2. Qamar Aden Cali
3. Mahad Cabdala Cawad
4. Cabdulaahi Sheekh Ismail
5. Cabdi Warsame Isaaq
6. Cabdiraxmaan Aaden Ibraahin Ibbi

44- Hon. Qamar Aadan
45- Hon. Zakiya Sh. C/salaam

beesha layiile ali madaxweyn dir iyo kal habowgeedi iyo reer aw saciid

( Dir ) waxaa lagu tiriyaa inay ka mid tahay kuwooga ugu taariiqda fog. deegaanka geeska afrika. haday noqon lahayd xaga hogaanka, siyaasada, xadaarada, waxaana ka soo jeeda runtii hogaamiyaashii diimeed ku wooga ugu caansan gayiga soomaaliyeed mana aha mid qoraal lagu soo koobi karayo muhiimada ay inoo leeyihiin geesiyaashaasi oo ahaa hormuudka saldanadihii aanu cadceedu ka dhici jidhin;
waxaanu qaybtaan maanta ku soo qaadanaynaa qabiilka Layiile,,

Layiile Sidaan Lawada Socono Waxay ka Tirsan Yihiin
Umadda Direed ee Faraha Badan. Waana Beel dagan konfurta Soomaliya oo ay
qaybo fara badan kaga kala dadsan yihiin Kismayo Ilaa Beledweyne. Mida
kale, Reer Awa Saciid iyo Layiile anaga xagayaga waa ka mid oo waa isla Cali
Madaxweyn. 2-1995-kii anigu waxaan isku dayay in aan uruuriyo Tariikhda
Dadka Direed meelkasta oo ay joogaan Geesta Afrika anigoo isku dayay in aan
Baaro waxa ay Reer Galbeedku ka qoreen dadka Direed. Isla Markaana Baari tankeygi
waxaan ku Tagay Dalka Djabouti, Dire- dhabe, NFD,
iyo Waqooyiga Soomalia. Marka ugu
Horeeysa qoraaga I.M Lewis ee Ingiriiska ah oo Waqooyiga ka qoray Bugaagta ay
ka mid yihiin "Nomadic Democracy"oo ku saleyn jiray Buugaagtiisa Baritaano hore oo Qoraaga Talyaaniga ee la yiraahdo Cerruilli ayaa aad uga
hadlay Tariikhda Layiile Ali Madaxweyne.

In uu layiile Ali
Madaxweyn ahyeen nimanka ugu awooda weyn Madaxeeyn Direed ilaa 300 sano. ka
Horna ay Jabiyeen Labo Beelood oo kala ah Isaaq iyo Ogaadeen
iyo Ajuurankii ka talin Jiray Dhanka Qalaafe. I.M Lewis "The Layiile Ali
Madaxweyn Dir Became Highly Dispersed and Lost Their Tribal Integrity" 2)
I.M Lewis waxaa uu qoray oo uu sheegay in Dadkan Direed ee Layiilaha ah ay kala
Daadasho, iyo Firir weyn ku Dhacay oo ay ku Dhex Milmeen Ummado kale oo Dir iyo
Shisheeyaba Leh. Waa sidii ku Dhacday Beelah Baajimaal
iyo Dabruube oo Labaduba ku Dhamaaday
Dagaladii ay Ajuuraanka Qalaafo kula galeen qarnigii 1700. Sanadkii
2000-2001 anigoo isku Taxluujinaya inaan ka Salgaaro oon Wax Ka Ogaado
Dadkaan Direed iyo Tariikhdooda ayaan Waxaan Tagay Dalka Ethiopia
oo aan Safar Dhulka ku kala Maray ilaa Dira
Dhabe---Jijiga--Hargeysa---Sheeikh--- Burco---Boorame-Arabsiya iyo meelo kale
oo fara badan waxaanan soo ogaaday Taarikho bada:

Magaalada Diraa Dhabe iyo Jigjiga intaa u Dhexeysa Waxaan
kula kulmay Dadka Indheer Garadka iyo kuwa Tariikhaha Uruuriya oo u kala
Dhashay Dadka Direed Sida Barsuuga, Gurgurah, Akishoda, O Layiile, Gadabuursi
iyo Ciisaba. Waxaa la ii sheegay in
Layiilah Badankiisu ay Dhex Dagaan Gurguraha
oo ay Dad isugu xigaan. Waxa kale oo la ii sheegay in ay Degaan Layiilah Carro Ogaadeen oo xitaa Qaar kamid Ahi ay Xukumaan
Ogadeenka Qaybo Dhan. Waxaa la ii sheegay in Gabyaaga weyn ee Dhoodaan uu Asal ahaan ka soo Jeedo
Beesha Layiile oo waxaa La’yidhi Ninkii Layiile ee Dhalay ayaa Nin Layiilaha
Dilay Una Cararay Deegaanka Ogadeenka Isagoo Wata Canugiisi iyo
xaaskiisii. Odeyaashii aan La kulmay ee Layiile ee Gurgurah la Dagaanaa waxa ay
ii Sheegeen in Kala Daadasho Xoogan ay ku dhacday Beesha Layiile oo ay
Badh Dhankaas Nageele-- ilaa Guure Dhaamoole
ay Gurrah Wada Dagaan, Badhna ay
Waqooyi Galbeed Hargeeysa xageeda jiraan,
laakin xooga Beesha uu u Badan yahay Dhankaan Howdaka.
Magaalooyinka Harta sheeikh iyo Qabri bayax Layiile fara badan ayaan Kula kulmay.
Bartamihii 2000, Waxaan Soo Gaadhay Magaalada Hargeysa oo aan ku soo Dagay
Xaafada la Yiraahdo Xero Awr. Malin maalimaha ka mida, ayaa Dagaal xoog Badan
ka Dhacay xaafad Xero Awr oo ilaa 400 oo Nin ay isku Soo Baxeen oo ay Suuqa
ilaa Xafadah Dhexdeedi la is Eryadaay:

Maalintii Ayaanu Ku Barjaynaynay Aqal waxaanan La
fadhiyay niman Isaaq oo Habar Awal ah waxaa la igu Yidhi Waxaa Dagalamay
Beel Habar Awal ah iyo Layiile. Anigii yaab ayay igu Noqotay Arrintii, Gadaal
ayaa waxaa la iiga sheegay in Layiilaha ay ku Badan Yihiin Magaalada Hargeeysa
oo ay Si Wayn Isu Dhalaan Reer Gadiid
oo ka mid ah Habar Awal, Waxaa ay Iisheegeen Ragaas inkastoo ay Layiilah aheyn
Isaaq Hadana Reer Gadiika ayaay isla Dhiig Baxaan Layiilah. Maalintii uu
Dagaalka Dhacay Ka Dib Ayaa Waxaanu Israacnay Labo Nin oo
Midna Gurgure yahay midna Surre laakin ku Dhashay waqooyiga,
waxaanu Fariisanay Guri uu leeyahay nin Layiile ah oo odey u ah Layiilah Xafada
Dagan Waxaana Lagu Yidhi nin Direed oo Konfurta ka Yimid ayaa Doonaya
inuu kula kulmo. Ragii meesha iigu Yimid waxa ka mid ahaa Cabdisamad X.
Cabduulahi iyo Xasan Cabdi. Ragaan ayaa ii Sheegay in ay Dadkooda ay Dagaan
Ethiopia Dhanka Hawd oo ay Qaarkalena ay Mandaluug Uwada Guureen Kismayo iyo Hiiraan
oo ay la Dagaan Dirka Dalkaas. Waxa
kale oo ay ii sheegeen Layiilaha in ay Rag iyaga ka mid ah Ay Soo Dageen
Waqooyiga Hargeeysa 200 sano ka hor, Markii ay soo Dageen la Ximiyay oo ay
Dagaalo Fara Badan Galeen Oo Markaa Mag ( Diyo ) Farabadan loo Qabsaday oo ay
Sidaa Darteed Diyada ku Darsadeen Beesha Hargeysa Dagta ee loo Yaqaan Reer
Gadiid inkastoo Aysan Iska Heyb Aheeyn:

Ragaas waxa ay ii Sheegeen in ay isku Dad Yihiin Guurah iyo Gurgurah
Waxa aynaa ii Xisaabsheen Xildhibaanada Barlamaanka iyo Dowlad kilinka Shanaad
ku Jira ee Gurgure iyo Guureba Sidii ay Yihiin Rag Layiila ah.
Qabiilka Direed ee Reer Dood Maalin
Niman Isaaqa Ayaan Qaad la Cunay Markaas Ayaa Ruux u soo Galay oo uu ku Yidhi
Ninkan Idiinla Fadhiyaa Yuu Yahay waxaa ay ku Yirahdeen Waa Nin Direed. Markaas
ayuu Ragii ku xanaaqay oo uu Yidhi, War Soo Idinkoo Dhan Dir MaTihiin, Isaaqow
Maxaad ka Wadaan. Ninkii Markaanu Sheekeysanay in aan nin Direed oo Reer Mahe
Dir ah u Sheegtay oo Ladhashay Maxamed Xiniftire
ayaa (Lilmo Indhihiisa ku soo Joogsatay) Waxaa uu ii sheegay in uu 70
sano jiro Walina Uusan Horey u arkin Qof Dir Sidaan u kala sheeg sheegi
kara, Odeygii ayaa i Weydiiyay Miyaad Maqashay Reer Dood, Hadii Aad Tahay Wiil Direed oo Maxamed Xiniftire
dhalay ? Waxaan ugu Jawaabay Maya ee ii Sheeg, Tolkeey aan Bartee? Odeygii
Waxaa uu igu Yiri Waxaan Ahay Reer Dood,
Reer Doodna waa Dad Direed oo La daga Habar
Jeclo, kana Mida Habar Jeclo Laakin ka soo Jeeda Maxamed Xiniftire. Waxaa u ii Sheegay Odeygaan
in Fananda Weyn ee Guduudo Carwo Ay
Ka Soo Jeedo Reer Dood, Waxaana uu i Siiyay Walakeed oo Jigjiga Dagan oo
uu Igu Yiri Raadi:

Qabiilka Maxbuubta
Aad sheegeyso waxan kula kulmay Nin Darawal ah oo Dagan Magaalada Abaarso Habeen aan ka Doodnay Dirnimada iyo
Shirkii Carta ayaa Rag waxaa i Weeraray Habar Awal ah oo Yidhi Wax Dir la
Yidhaada Majiraan, Geelaa Carta ku sameeyay. Ragii Isaaq ahaa ayaa waxaa iiga
soo dhex Baxay Nin Difaacaya Dirnimada
oo Markii Danbe Si Cad u Yiri Anigu Waxaan Ahay Nin Direed oo ma Diidayo
Dirnimo. War Yaad Dir ka Tahay ayaan ku Idhi Darawalkii Waxaa uu iigu Jawaabay
Anigu waxaan Ahay Nin Direed oo Maxbuubta
ka Mida oo La Dhiig Baxa Reer Shirdoon (Habar
Awal). Markii aan sii War Wareystay ninkii waxaa soo Baxday in Ninkaan
uu Yahay Gaaljecel-- Maxbuub oo Waligood
la Dagaanaa Rerkan Habar Awal Lana Dhiig Baxaan Reer Shirdoon. Ninkaan
adinku Hawiye u arka ama iska Daaya Isagu Waxaa uu ii Sheegtay in uu Yahay
Maxbuub Dirna Yahay Dalkaa Waqooyigana uusan ka Xigin Nina. oo uu Yahay Dal
Direed. Magaaloyinka Arabsiyo-Awbare-Gibiley-Ijaara
-Taysa-Darbiga Waxaan La kulmay Rag fara Badan oo ay ka Mid Yihiin Mandaluug reer galbeeda iyo Gurgure( Reer awbare)
iyo Madiigaan
iyo Beel weynta Gadabuursi oo Si Wacan iiga Waramay Tariikhaha Dadka
Direed:Lasoco Qaybaha Xiga,,,,,,,,,

Beesha Layiile Waxa ay ukala Baxdaa

1 Abkeey Xaaji oo Aderkii Ah

2 Faarax Saciid

3- Abiikar Saciid

4- Sacdi

5- Nuur Saciid

6- Cali Saciid

7- Cismaan Saciid

8- Xuseen Saciid

9- Xasan Saciid

10- Cumar Saciid

Isha Tixraaca: Mr Agoon Hagaajintii: Suxufi AbrooneAdal Ghost Group-Ururka Ruuxaanta AadalUnited Kingdom


Name Dir and its meaning
Dir is a clan family with various clans in Djibouti, Ethiopia, throughout Somalia and northeast Kenya. The Gadabuursi are a section of the Dir living in northwest Somalia and adjoining parts of Djibouti and Ethiopia, and speaking Northern Common Somali. The Isxaaq are a major clan grouping in northest Somalia, some in Djibouti and Ethiopia, speaking Northern Common Somali.

All Somalis agree on one thing: that is the Dir are the most ancient and first born of the noble Somali clans. Both foe and friend, Arab and Western writers and all Somali agree in the distant past the Somali Dir were the establishers of Somali nation , its culture and ancient norms. The use the epithet “ Dir Cawslafil ”or Dir is as old as the grass.
Cultural legacy of the Dir:

Name Dir and its meaning
Dir is a clan family with various clans in Djibouti, Ethiopia, throughout Somalia and northeast Kenya. The Gadabuursi are a section of the Dir living in northwest Somalia and adjoining parts of Djibouti and Ethiopia, and speaking Northern Common Somali. The Isxaaq are a major clan grouping in northest Somalia, some in Djibouti and Ethiopia, speaking Northern Common Somali.

All Somalis agree on one thing: that is the Dir are the most ancient and first born of the noble Somali clans. Both foe and friend, Arab and Western writers and all Somali agree in the distant past the Somali Dir were the establishers of Somali nation , its culture and ancient norms. The use the epithet “ Dir Cawslafil ”or Dir is as old as the grass.
Cultural legacy of the Dir:


The old and pagan genealogies still known to the Somal, are Dirr, Aydur, Darud, and, according to some, Hawiyah. Dirr and Aydur, of whom nothing is certainly known but the name10, are the progenitors of the northern Somal, the Eesa, Gudabirsi, Ishak, and Bursuk tribes. The Hawiyah are doubtless of ancient and pagan origin; they call all Somal except themselves Hashiyah, and thus claim to be equivalent to the rest of the nation. Some attempt, as usual, to establish a holy origin, deriving themselves like the Shaykhash from the Caliph Abubekr: the antiquity, and consequently the Pagan origin of the Hawiyah are proved by its present widely scattered state; it is a powerful tribe in the Mijjarthayn country, and yet is found in the hills of Harar.
10 Lieut. Cruttenden applies the term Edoor (Aydur) to the descendants of Ishak, the children of Gerhajis, Awal, and Jailah. His informants and mine differ, therefore, toto coelo. According to some, Dirr was the father of Aydur; others make Dirr (it has been written Tir and Durr) to have been the name of the Galla family into which Shaykh Ishak married.

The old and pagan genealogies still known to the Somal, are Dirr, Aydur, Darud, and, according to some, Hawiyah. Dirr and Aydur, of whom nothing is certainly known but the name10, are the progenitors of the northern Somal, the Eesa, Gudabirsi, Ishak, and Bursuk tribes. Darud Jabarti 11 bin Ismail bin Akil (or Ukayl) is supposed by his descendants to have been a noble Arab from El Hejaz, who, obliged to flee his country, was wrecked on the north-east coast of Africa, where he married a daughter of the Hawiyah tribe: rival races declare him to have been a Galla slave, who, stealing the Prophet’s slippers12, was dismissed with the words, Inna-tarad-na-hu (verily we have rejected him): hence his name Tarud ([Arabic]) or Darud, the Rejected.13 The etymological part of the story is, doubtless, fabulous; it expresses, however, the popular belief that the founder of the eastward or windward tribes, now extending over the seaboard from Bunder Jedid to Ras Hafun, and southward from the sea to the Webbes14, was a man of ignoble origin. The children of Darud are now divided into two great bodies: “Harti” is the family name of the Dulbahanta, Ogadayn, Warsangali and Mijjarthayn, who call themselves sons of Harti bin Kombo bin Kabl Ullah bin Darud: the other Darud tribes not included under that appellation are the Girhi, Berteri, Marayhan, and Bahabr Ali. The Hawiyah are doubtless of ancient and pagan origin; they call all Somal except themselves Hashiyah, and thus claim to be equivalent to the rest of the nation. Some attempt, as usual, to establish a holy origin, deriving themselves like the Shaykhash from the Caliph Abubekr: the antiquity, and consequently the Pagan origin of the Hawiyah are proved by its present widely scattered state; it is a powerful tribe in the Mijjarthayn country, and yet is found in the hills of Harar.

The Somal, therefore, by their own traditions, as well as their strongly marked physical peculiarities, their customs, and their geographical position, may be determined to be a half-caste tribe, an offshoot of the great Galla race, approximated, like the originally Negro-Egyptian, to the Caucasian type by a steady influx of pure Asiatic blood.

Imama Ahmad's conquest of the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia (1529-1543)
Laba go’ad
Shimbra Kure el 1529
Shiekh. Awbarkhadle
Usha iyo xeerka
Saan cade
Rooble rulers
Madar pivot
Afarta iyo Adeerka faal ku dayasho Dir 4ta iyo Digaale adeerka

 Descent or birth origin- neefkaa dirkiisu wuxuu ka soo jeedaa…..
 People Dirkii hore ama dadkii hore
 Man of noble character and who is bold warrior waa nin dhiiran
 Dhiiraa iyo dhalaa man and women
 Beenadir and Diraa dhabe
 Digaale Digil connection through Ali and Dir
 Dances Dadku waa Dir iyo Darood Heehaa
 Aideed’s book
 Daarod ku boqor
 Gabeeygii Guba
 Awbuube, Aw barkhadle, iyo Aw barre
 Dire Asse iyo Dire Ade myth
 Oda Ali Afar connection
 Xarla, jaarso, noole, and oromization
 Ogadeen/ Darood beliefs of land being land of Dir
 Hadraawi – a northern poet I don’t want to name and his hawiye encounter.

The Afar refer themselves to the First Afaar and Booran (oldest Oromo group who have a moiety called Diire , but when with Dir they defer to them and say we are the first after Diire.

Pagan Dir of Booran, Watusi, and Chadic tribes as attested to Hussien Habre. Sambuura Ariel and Iraqw of Tanzania. Samaale associated with Hawiye Saransoor like Digoodi, Garre, and Ajuuran. Ina Iigare Dir assisted Sacad after appeal to their Dirness. Muuse Galaal, Igaal, and Geele Northern Dir.

Laffeko lafaako lafaakona lafeeke, Dirre angafe Boorantu, angfa aadamu.

The Aaba Hussien Dir connection

According to local traditions, the Dir constitute an important ancestral tribe of all the modern Somali. As the most ancient inhabitants of the region ...
Page 153
... who, together with the Isa, form the largest group of the ancient Dir clan-family. 'This Chronicle opens', Lewis tells us, 'with an account of the wars ...
Page 762
... 96, 133; Ethiopia 96, 133, 139, iBo;Mali 381, 382, 395, 396, 508; North Africa 255, 257, 381, 3«*. 395. 396 Dir clan-family 138, 153 Dire Dawa 140 ...
The Cambridge History of Africa
By J. D. Fage, Roland Oliver,CAMBRIDGE HISTORY









Dear Brothers

I would love to thank you first for the wonderful forum. We need someone to promote and rise our awareness about the illustrious Dir clan.

The orgin of the Suure name

Let me add an old story about the orgin of the Suure name. As we all know by now Suure was the youngest son of Mahe Dir and he was the last one born to Mahe Dir shortly before he passed away, may Allah bless his soul.

It was said by the Dir of old, Mahe Dir one day looked at his youngest son and named him “Suure” which means in old Somali the “Wise one” or literally one who was very intelligent. Know unfortunately, this word is extinct and obsolete in modern Somali,but Suure meant “Intelligent”, Wise as in Somali we use today:

“Kibir iyo Suure badanaa”, which literally means one is full of pride and intelligency. Also the name “suure” is used in the Somali phrase:

“Maskax iyo Suure badne”

“Suurto Gal maaha”

“Waa Suuro gal ama waa aqli gal”

Therefore, in the old Somali spoken by the Dir Suure use to mean intelligent one or one who is wise. Now, this is why the Dir elders of Mudug used to say, “Suure” meant the wise one and it is the nick name given to the last born of Mahe Dir.

Mansha Allah!

Maansha Allah! Bravo! Bravo!

This is very interesting and your wonderful analysis is mind boggling.

Honestly, I have never asked or even pondered about what the heck “Suure” meant. Isn’t it a bitch, the Suure whether Qubeys or Abdaalle are obsessed with the name Dir, but yet no one ever pondered or told us what Suure meant.

I think the sad thing about the Suure of Mudug region is they forgot their own name, Suure.

Why is it that no one uses the Suure name? Why are we so obsessed with Dir, Dir, Dir and more Dir.

Don’t misunderstand me, I quite frankly love my “Dirness”,but why is it we dont even know out own Suure name and its history?

I think it is a damn shame and disgusting the Suure do not use their wonderful name. Everybody in Somali will tell you they know Qubeys, fiqi muhumad, fiqi walaal, agoon, fiqi yahye, nacadoor, dabac,ahmed farah, Etc. But the name Suure is rarely heard.

I can tell you what Dir means and we all heard that ten thousand times. That freakin Dir means:

1)the ancestor “fir” ama “ab” ama Farac.

2) we heard Dir means “Dhiiri” boldness, Dirir “Worrior”.

3)Dir means “genetically related to” like when somalis said, “neefkan Dirkiisu wuxuu ka soo jeedaa”

4)Dir also means “people”, “race” or as in old poetry Dir meant People or man.

But I have never heard anybody explain Suure and its meaning and I love your wonderful insight.

It is extremely neat, fantastic and brillent periodly.

You are wise my brother and you, yourself must be some type of a Suure”wise one”, Genius, intelligent, and insightful.
Kibir iyo Suure badanaa”, which literally means one is full of pride and intelligency. Also the name “suure” is used in the Somali phrase:

“Maskax iyo Suure badne”

“Suurto Gal maaha”

“Waa Suuro gal ama waa aqli gal”

Therefore, in the old Somali spoken by the Dir Suure use to mean intelligent one or one who is wise. Now, this is why the Dir elders of Mudug used to say, “Suure” meant the wise one and it is the nick name given to the last born of Mahe Dir.




Blog Archive