Saturday, May 14, 2011

Taariikhdii Innaga iyo Xabashi - Qaybta 1aad

Taariikhdii Innaga iyo Xabashi - Qaybta 1aad
Qore : Faisal Salah,
E-mail: fisalsh@hotmail.com

Qaybtii: 1aad | 2aad |
HORDHAC:
Awalan Waxaan Salaan Islaamka kusalaamayaa dhamaan ummadda soomaaliyeed ee Islaamka ah .Bacada Sallaan: Waxaan rabaa inaan halkan kusoo bandhigo taariikhda dhabta ah ee inaga iyo xabashi si aay ufahmaan taariikhda jiilka yar yar ama soo koraya sida umadwaliba dadkeeda ugadhaxasho taariikhda dalkeeda ama dadkeeda .
Waxaan kasoo guuriyay taariikhdan iyadoo ku qoran buwaag rag hore qoreen ,ilaahaay ha xafidee weliba Buuga magiiciisu yahay (Innaga iyo Xabashi)oo ah buug aad uqiimo badan,waxaan iskudayayaa inaanan waxbana kudarin qoraalka qoraaga laakiin dadku fursadaas ka faaiidaystaan maanta oo baahideedu muuqato .Maadaama aanan halmar soo wada qorikarin waxaan marba soo gudbin doonaa qay qayb.
GOGOLDHIG TAARIIKHEED:
Waxaan soomaalidu wada ogsoontahay yar iyo weyn in xabashidu shacbiga soomaaliyeed cadow utahay. Cadaawadaasi waxay salku kuhaysay diin,waana mid soojireen ah oo quruumo badan soo taxnayd.
Xabashida gaalada ahi waxay kamid yihiin kiristaanka kuwa ugu macangagsan ee looyaqaano (ORTHODOX), waxay iskumeel kawada cabaan SERBIYIINTA.
Waxaa kaloo xaqiiqa ah in xabashida aay cadaawad uhayso muslimiinta kunool itoobiya iyo inta deriska la ah iyo muslimiinya oo dhanba.
Iyadoo qofwalboo soomaali ah uu ogsoonyahay xaqiiqdaas ,oo naaska hooyadiis uu kanuugay,ayaa hadana soomaalidu mar mar badan arintaas hilmaansanyihiin,xabashiduse marnaba mahilmaamsana mana ilowdo.
Waxaa is xusuusin mudan maxay kaqabtaa xabishidu soomaaliya ,dad iyo dalba?
Waxaa haboon in tariikhda dib loo eego.In latixraaco dagaaladii qotada dheeraa ,ee taxanaha ahaa ee soomaalida iyo xabashida dhexyaalay quruun badan,hadbana mar laba kacleeynayay,maantana marxalad cusub galay/kujira.
Dagaalkii dhex maray muslimiinta iyo gaalada itoobiya ilaa dhamaadkii qarnigii 19aad.
Waxay itoobiya keli latahay in kaniisadeeda ORTHODOX –ka ahi aay tahay tan nasaarada Africa ugu qadiimsan marka laga reebo kaniisada hooyo ee qibdiga ah ee masar.
Waxaa kaloo itoobiya ,gaar ahaan qowmiyada tigreedu ,leedahay caqiidada kudhisan boqoro iskala dhaxla oo aay rumaysanyihiin inaay farac kayihiin nebi suleymaan iyo boqoradii bilqiis.Sidaas ayaa cilaaqo weyni ugadhaxaysaa kaniisada itoobiya iyo boqoradeeda ama madaxdeeda,waxayna ku shaqeeyaan casabiyad diineed oo aay isuhaystaan inaay shucuubta kale ee la nool kasareeyaan.
Taasi waxay dhalisay in maadaama ay dawlado islaami ah kuhareeraysanyihiin iney dhulbalaarsi galaan.Iyadoo ku xiran boqortooyinkii yurubta,waxay taageero ufidisay nasaaradii yaman ,sanadihii 523 – 525 miilaadiga boqorkii Eksuum(kaalb),Laakiin itoobiyaanku uyaqaaniin (Asbaxa),wuxuu qaaday dagaal bada ah oo uu ugu aarayay nasaaradii yaman.
Boqorkii kale ee eksuum(Qabra Maskaal) waxuu Abraha udiray 570kii inuu kacbada soo dumiyo ,waa tii ilaahaay quraanka kaga sheekeeyey jabkii ku dhacay,waana sanadkii nebigu dhashay nabad iyo naxariisi korkiisa ha ahaatee .
Waxaana kuxigtay in eksuumiyiintii Seyf bin dii yazan oo faaris kaashanaaya uu kasaaray yaman
Markii islaamku soo shaac baxayna waxuu ku faafay hareeraha itoobiya oo dhan ilaa aay kadhasheen dawlado islaamiya oo todoba laga sheego loona yaqaanay (Dawladihii diraaska islaamiga.Taasina mudo dheer waxay dhalisay dagaalo isdaba jooga ee quruun badan socday inaay muslimiinta iyo gaalada xabashida dhexmaraan ,guushuna hadba dhinac ayay ahayd .Xoogeeduna waxay bilaabantay markii boqorkii (YEKUNO AMALAK) xukunka qabtay 1270 – 1285m.
Waxaa dhinaca muslimiinta aad ugua qayb qaatay (XAQUDDIN)waa suldaankii (UFAT),iyo suldaankii (DAWAARO) Inkastoo itoobiya ka adkaatay oo masaajidadii gubtay dad badana gumaysatay ,waxaa jihiidkii sii waday (XAQUDDIN 2) iyo walaalkiis (SACADUDDIN) iyagana waxay kudhamaatay in laga adkaaday oo itoobiya saldhigoodii (Zaylac qabsatay 1402m.
Laakiin muslimintii weey soo rogaalceliyeen oo (HARAR)ayaan markaan saldhig kadhigteen ,waxayna dhiseen imaaardii la oranjiray (CADL),taasoo hiil iyoo hooba unoqotay muslimiintii itoobiya.Waxayna isku biirsatay shucuubtii dagaalka qaraarayd ee soomaalida iyo cafarta .Dgaaladii dhexmaray iyaga itoobiyaankana ilaa labo boqor aya aku nafwaayay 1412 – 1430m.Laakiin muslimiintana waxaa gaaray khasaarooyin iyo jabab badan oo aay kudhinteen dhawr suldaan ilaa 1445m.
Mudadii udhaxaysay (1434 – 1468m) waxay ahayd waqtigii aay ugu xoogweynayd dawlada itoobiya xaga dagaalka iyo siyaasada maxaa yeelay intii kadanbaysay boqorada itoobiya waxay kujireen difaacid dulaamada isaba jooga ahaa ee muslimiinta.
Isbedelkaa xaga itoobiya waxaa lasocday isbedel xagga muslimiinta ah ,ee suldadii nimanka madaxda ee itoobiya heshiiskeeda waday ku daciiftay,kuana weynaatay awoodii nimankii ducaada iyo culimada ahaa eshacabka badidiisa ixtiraam iyo kalsooni ka haystay .
Taasina mudo kadib waxay dhalisay iney soo baxaan rag madaxa oo mid walbaa labaxo (IMAAM) umadana ugu yeeraya in gaalada xabashida jihaadka aan laga joojin.
Akhri qaybta 2aad ee jihaadkii Imaam Axmed Guray (1506 – 1542m).
Qore : Faisal Salah,
E-mail: fisalsh@hotmail.com
Afeef: Aragtida qoraalkan waxaa leh qoraaga ku saxiixan
Faafin: SomaliTalk.com | Jan 4, 2007
::Murtida Maanta iyo Hadalkii Xuseen Caydiid... Guji..
________________________________________
EEG BOGGA ARAGTIDA/MAQAALADA DADWEYNAHA..... GUJI...
Imaam Axmed Guray (1506 – 1542)
Qaybtii: 1aad | 2aad |
Waxa uu ahaa Imaam Axmed Gurey Ragii ducaada ahaa ee aadka ugasoo horjeeday in jihaadka laga joojiyo gaalada itoobiya ,waxa aay muslimiinta ugaysanayeen awgeed,taasoo keentay in musliimiinta laga qaadijiray markaas lacag baad ah (Jizya) .
Dagaalo badan kadib waxaa dhacday in Imaam Axmed guray lawareegay Harar, dabadeedna wuxuu bilaabay weeraro jihaad ah oo isdaba jooga.Waxa uu galay dagaalo ba,an mudona socday ,mahadhana reebtay ,ilaa hadana laxasuusto lana ilaawi karinin.
Dhulka Tigreegu ka degaan Ethiopia waa inta ka calaamadsan khariidaddan oo ah maapka Ethiopia oo lagu darsaday dhulka Soomaalida ee Somali-galbeed


Taasi waxay keentay in muslimiintii mudada dheer gumaysiga kujirtay ay dhiiranaan iyo farxad gelisay,ciidamadii Imaamkana si xad dhaaf ah loogusoo biiro. Dabadeedna waqti yar kadib waxay ciidamadii muslimiintu bilaabeen inaay cagta mariyaan gobaladii itoobiya sida Amhara ,Laasta, Shawa. Boqorkii itobiyana ucararo Eksuum oo markaas galeen gobolka tigreey. Waxaana lagusoo rogay markan inaay bixiyaan iyagu lacagta (Jizyada) qaniimobadana weey furteen muslimiintu,dad ayuuna imaamku usaaray amuurahaas nadaamiya.

Mulimiintina waxa uu Imaamku usheegay oo Harar kagadhawaaqay qofna inaanu maanta kadib cabsanin, qofwalbina hawlihiisa wato ,waxaana lajoojiyay dulmigii waxa sugaymay cadaaladii ,waxa uuna naxariis umuujiyay dadkii maatada ahaa .Waxa kaloo uu aad uxanaaneeyey dumarkii laga dhintay iyo ogoontiiba ,waxa uuna nin aan xaqa qofna uga hibaysanin. maalintaas waxii kadanbeeyey uu duulaan kuqaaday xabshida kiristaanka ahayd ,maxaa yeelay waxay weligoodba soo weerarijireen muslimiinta ,waqtiyadii Sacaduddiin iyo kuwii kadanbeeyeyba,iyo weliba waqtigii Garaad Abwan,waxayna kulakicijireen muslimiinta waxaan la,arag lagana sheekaynkarinin sida dil,dhac ,qafaal iyo inaay gubaanba.

Waxaa xusid mudan in waqtigii Imaam axmed guray saldanada dalka uu hayay suldaan maxamed Bin Aazar Bin abuubakar Bin Sacaduddiin mudo dhan 30 sano. Suldaankuna jihaad ayuu lagalay gaaladii itoobiya waase lagaga adkaaday muslimiintii weliba dad badan laga laayay. Kadib Suldaankii iyo Imaam Axmed guray weey iskhilaafeen,waase ladhexdhexaadiyay in suldaanku suldadiisa magaceeda haysto Imaam axmed gureyna kuxigeen unoqdo Axmedna waa ogolaady,hasae yeeshee hadana suldaankii iyo Imaam axmed weey iskhaalaafeen hadana dagaal ayaa dhacay ,suldaankiina dagaalkaas ayuu kudhintay taladii dalkana waxaa uharay Axmed guray ,laakiin waxa uu suldaan umagcaabay ninkii dhintay walaalkiis Cumar diin.

Imaamku waxuu kahor kamid aahan jiray ciidamadii Garaad Abwan ee fardoolayda ,waxaana Garaad abwan xukunka kalawareegay Mansur Bin maxamed Bin maxfuudBin maxamed Bin Garad Adish.

Markaas ayaa waxaa duulaan soo qaaday baaderi xabashi ah oo layiraahdo DEJEL JAAN oo ahaa nin macangag ah,waxaanu hogaaminayay baaderiyaal farabadan.Waxa uu usoo dhowaaday muslimiintii dadna waa laayay ,waxna wuu dhacay,dumarna waa qafaashay weliba,dumarka uu qafaashayna waxaa kamid ahaa nin madaxdii muslimiinta hooyadii kamid ahayd oo layiraahdo Amiir abuubakar qudeyn hooyadiis.

Imaamkii ciidan ayuu kaxaystay waxaanu kadabategay baaderigii iyo ciiidankiisii ,waxayna kulakulmeen meel layiraahdo DIIR ,waxaa meeshaas kadhacay dagaal culus waxaana guulaystay muslimiintii,waxayna qabsadeen 500 nin ,waxaana imaamkii kusoo noqday xaruntiisii isagoo faraxsan oo guul xambaarsan, markaas imaamku waxa uu jiraa 21 sanno de,diisu keliya. Waxaa markaas kadanbeeyey dagaalo waxay ahaayeen kuwa isdaba jooga waxaana kamid ahaa goobihii dagaalada ba,ani kadhaceen FADJAAR,QIIJI WANBAARIYAH oo kadhacday Dawaara iyo dagaalkii UFAAT oo sida lasheego haweenaydiisu imaamka lasocotay dagaalka.,waxayna muslimiinta qabsadeen oo furteen waxaan latirinkarin .

Dagaalkaas UFAAT kadhacay waxaa laguqabsaday boqorka xabashida habaryartiis,waxaana Imaamkusiiyay wasiirkiisii CADLI ,kadibna waxuu boqorka xabashidu ku furtay 50 uuqiyo oo dahab guduuudan ah.Kadib waxaa hadana lafurtay oolaqabsaday dagaal magaalada ANDUUNKIYA ,waxa uu galay kanisadii weyneyd magaaladaas iyadoo aay lajirto lana socoto xaaskiisi DOOLINBIRA oo ahayd gabdhii uu dhalay Amiir maxfuud,waxaa kaloo lasocday saraakiilbadan kana mid ahaa Amiir xuseen Al geteri oo xukumay DAWAARO markii lafurtay kadib oo amiir CALI oo xukumay CUNQUUT markii lafurtay kadib.

Waxaa kaloo kamid ahaa rag badan sida GARAAD AXMOOSH, KOOSHIN ABUUBAKAR, iyo sheekhii saahidka ahaa Xaamud binu sheekh waashire

Dabadeed waxaa Imaamkii ukacay magaalada JANDALBA waana magaalo uu xukumay boqorkaxaabshidu ,waxaase deganaa dad muslimiin ah aad ayayna Imaamkii usoo dhaweeyeen waxayna hadiyad usiiyeen 20 uuqiyo dahab ah xaaskii Imaamka DOOLINBIRA ,Waase kadiiday Imaamku ,waxayna u ergoodeen inuu hadiyada ka aqbalo ragii madaxda ahaa ee lasocday waase laga diiday ,wuuna ku adkaystay imaamku inaanu qaadanin hadiyadaas ugaara xaaskiisa waxaa uuna yiri iima banaana inaan qaato waxa uuna kudaray hantidi maalka muslimiinta eenafaqada jihaadka lagu bixinaayay.

Bishii Rajab taariikhda hijriyada 935 ayaa Imaamku kabaxay magaaladii JANDABALAH ,waxuuna ku noqday magaaladii HARAR isagoo guul xamaarsan hadana .

Markuu Imaamku kusoo laabtay Harar Waxa uu qaylo dhaan udiray Beelaha soomaalida ,weyna ajiibeen jihaadkiina xoog ayay kusii yeesheen.Qabiiladii ugu horeysay oo jihaadka ajiibta waxay ahayd HABAR MAGDI waxay yimaadeen iyagoo uu hogaaminaayo odaygoodii Axmed Gurey Bin Xuseen Al-Soomaali waxay Harar layimaadeen aaladoodii iyo fardahoodiiba aad ayuuna Imaamku ugu farxay, waxa buuga ama kitaabka uu qoray carab faqiih kusheegay in Bartire inuu habar magdi yahay inkastoo uu hadana meelo kaleeto kuxusay si toos ah magaca qabiilka Bartire .Bartire waa qabiil soomaaliyeed oo dega Jigjiga iyo dhulka kudhoow waxayna kamid ahaayeen qabaai,lkii soomaaliyeed ee jihaadka Imaamka lafdhabarta u ahaa.

Waxaase suurta gal ah iyana inaay tahay HABAR MAGAADO oo kulmisa afar ilma sheekh isxaaq ah oo kala ah Garxajis, Awal, Arab iyo Ayuub. Carab Faqiih wax badan ayuu kaqoray jihaadka Imaamkana wuu lasocday.

Waxaa ku xigay qabiilka Gari koonbe oo uu hogaaminaayo odaygoodii iyana Mataan Bin Cusmaan Bin Khaalid Al-soomaali waxay soo bandhigeen aaladoodii iyo hubkoodii falaarihiina wey soo xirteen ,fardahana waa fuuleen ,waxaana lasocotay Imaamka walaashiis oo uu qabay odaygoodu.Waxay iyana degaan Jigjiga iyo agagaarkeeda waxayna ahaayeen niman fardooleey ah waxaana oday u ahaa garaad Mataan Imaamkana walaashi qabay ahaana geesi weyn oo soomaalida meelo badan dagaal geliyay.

Kadibna waxaa yimi qabiilka Sarbe oo uu hogaaminaayo odaygoodii suldaan Maxamed oo aay dhashay Imaamka eedadiis ,waxaana uu watay dagaalyahano gaaraya 1060nin. Waxaa dib udhacay qabiilka Mareexaan sababtoo ah ninka umadaxda ahaa oo la oranjiray XIRAABO ayaan nin toosan ahayn ,kadibna Imaamku jagadii ayuu kacasilay ,waxa uuna ku fariisiyay wiilkii uu dhalay walaalkiis ,markaasaa waxaa kayimid 800 nin oo mujaahidiin ah oo isugu jira fardooleey iyo luglayba. Qofka akhriya kitaabka uu qoray carab faqiih waxa uu arkayaa si faahfaahsan kaalinta weyn ee aay kaga jireen jihaadka ,mareexaan waxaay ahaayeen qaansooleey shiishka caan ku ah waxaana xiligaas oday u ahaa Axmed xiraabo ,kadibna bedelay nin uu adeer uyahay oo jihaadka sifiican ugu hogaamiyay reerka.

Waxaa kaloo yimi qabaa,ilada kamidyihiin kuwa dadkii muslimiinta kamid ahaa iyo soomaaliba sida qabiiladan:qabiilka ZAMAN BARAH, qabiilka BARZA, qabiilka YIGLEH, qabiilka GAASAAR ,qabiilka CARABTA KHAAN, qabiilka ILQE, qabiilka YABARRE , qabiilka HARTI, qabiilka GARAAN, qabiilka MASARRE, qabiilka BARSUUB,Iyo qabiilooyinka XARLE, Gurgure.

Qabiilka Barsuub ,waxay umuuqataa inuu yahay qabiilka Barsuug oo dega inta udhaxaysa jigjiga iyo Baabili, kamana mid ahaa qabiilka Arab sheekh Isxaaq ,waxayna kamid ahaayeen qaabiilada soomaaliyeed ee kaalinta weyn kagalay jihaadka Imam axmed gurey.

Qabiilka Gurgure ,waxay ahaayeen qabiilada soomaaliyeed oo iyana dagaalka jihaadka Imaamka wacdaraha kadhigay sida uu qoray carab faqiih kitaabkiisa,waxayna hada degaan Diridhabe iyo agagaarkeeda ,waxaana waagaas oday u ahaa Garaad cabdi waxayna caan ku ahaayeen shiishka iyo fardo fuulka iyo weliba gaashaan kudagaalanka.

Qabiilka Hawiye waxay iyana caan ku ahaayeen shishka iyo fardofuulka iyo weliba gaashaan kudagaalanka qaybo badan oo kamid ahna waxay weli deganyihiin Harar iyo baabili,kaalin muuqatana ayay kulahaayeen jihaadka ,lama sheegin cidii odayga u ahayd xiligaas.

Qabiilka Hartiga waxay waagaas deganaayeen maydh ,iyagana lamasheegin nin oday u ahaa waagaas waxayna ahaayeen niman dagaalka ku ba,an oo seeflay ah kuna qamaama gaalada markaay arkaanba ,dagaalkana muslimiintii kaleeto ayaa qabqabatay kuna yiri suga oo samra inta gaaladu kasoo dhawaanayso.

Markaan waxaa Imaamku bilaabay inuu dagaal weyn isu diyaariyo ,dhulka xabashidana ku dhex tiimbado ,birtuu tuntay, seefuhuu afaystay ,warmuhuu sikhlay, ciidiinkii ayuu ururiyay, khasnaduhuu furay, xataa waxuu iibiyay dahabkii haysteen xaasaskiisa iyo alaabtii gurigiisa.Dabadeedna waa soo dhaqaaqay iyadoo aay lajirto haweentiisii Doolinbira oo weliba markaas uur leh waxayna yimaadeen zefa. Waxaa si fiican usoo dhaweeyey GARAAD DIIN BINU AADAM oo nin wanaagsan ahaa wuuna marti geliyay.

Sidoo kaleeto waxaa sameeyey oo marti geliyay GARAAD SHAMCOON iyo GARAAD KAAMIL oo ahaa Imaamka seedigii iyo AMIIR MUJAAHID ,dhamaantoodna siwanaagsan ayay Imaamka uwada martisooreen unasoo dhaweeyeen.

Xaaskii Imaamka waxay kudhashay ZEFA wiil uu ubixiyay Muxammed ,waxayna umul ahaan ugu hartay meeshaas iyadoo lajoogta Imaamka walaashiis MU`NISSA .

Markaas waxa Imaamku kuwajahnaa kuna socday boqorkii xabashida WANAAJ SAJAD oo kusugnaa dhulka BADAQI .Boqorka xabashidna waxaa uu bilaabay abaabul ciidamo ka urursado Tigrey,Aaqo, Goojaam, iyo dadka dega Canquut, Jan, Qadah, iyo kuwo kaloo badan.

Waxaana gilgilatay xabashidii markaay maqleen Imaamka iyo ujeedadiisa.Markaas baadiriyada tigreegu waxay dhamaayeen 24 baaderi oo midkastaaba hogaaminaayay ciidan lixaad leh.Waxaa baaderiyada tigreega lasocday Nin layiraaho Cismaan dharaar Cali oo ahaa nin diinta karidoobay ,ninkaas waxay qafaasheen berigii suldaan maxamed markaasuuna ridoobay ilaa uu ka gaaray inu noqdo baaderi ,waxa uuna dhalay caruur badan oo kiristaan noqotay ,laakiin waagii danbe islaamka ayuu kusoo noqday weliba jihaadkii wuu kaqayb galay ilaa uu ku shahiiday.

Boqorkii xabashidu qaylo dhaan ayuu dirsaday qabaailadii xabashida si looga hortago ciidamada Imaam Axmed gurey waxuuna kusugaayay AMXARA iyadoo ciidamo kaleetona joogaan BAADIQI.Imaamku waxa hadafkiisu ahaa inuu ku furto kaniisada weyn ee Baadiqi ,xabashiduna waxay isku dhaarsadeen inaan Imaamku soo gaarinin kaniisadan ilaa kadhamaanayaan dagaal .Waxaa lasheegay fardaha xabashidu inaay tiradoodu dhamayd 16000 faras ,raga lugta ahna 200 000 sidaas darteed ayaa dagaalada SHABASKUURAH udheeraadeen qoloba mar gusha qaadan jirtay .

Imaamku waxa uu gudagalay inuu ciidankiisa nadaamiyo goobaha dagaalka ,waxa uuna uqaybiyay ciidiinkiisii sidan.

Suldaan Cali oo habaryartii dhashay iyo sheekh Anaz Bin sheekh Shehab Bin cabdulwahaab iyo qabiilka ZAMAN BARAH, qabiilka BARZA, qabiilka YIGLEH, qabiilka GAASAAR ,qabiilka CARABTA KHAAN, qabiilka ILQE, Iyo qabiilooyinka XARLE waxuu dhigay dhinaca midigta.

Qabiilka GARI KOONBE,qabiilka MAREEXAAN, qabilka YABARRE , qabiilka HARTI,qabiilka GARAAN,qabiilka MASARRE, qabiilka BARSUUB iyo qabiilka HAWIYE oo iyagu kuligood soomaali ahaa waxa uu dhigay dhinaca bidixda ,qabiilkasatana waxaa horjoogay odaygooda ama duqooda.

Imaamku waxuu istaagay dhexda isagoo aay lajiraan fardoolaydii muslimiinta ugu fiicnaa sida Amiir xuseen Gatiri ,Amiir saxarboy maxamed ,Farshaxan Cali ,iyo asiirka nuur Ibraahim,Amiir mujaahid, Farshaxam suldaan,Cabdinaazir,sheekh daaweh, Abuubakar qudeyn ,Farshaxam diin,Garaad Axmedoosh ,Sabrudiin, Gaasa Cumar ,Garaad cismaan Jawhar iyo rag lamid ah..

Waxa uu soo soocay Imaamku 50 000 geesiyaal ah oo horay dagaalada uso galay waxa uu ku amray inaay iyagu agtiisa joogaan ,waxa uu kusoo biirshay 300 kamid ahaa ciidankii qabiilka Hartiga iyo 400 qabiilka Yabarre ah oo uu kusoo doortay dagaalyahanimada .Saddexda boqol ee Hartigu waxay ahaayeen seefleeyda ,afarta boqol ee yabarre waxaya ahayeen falaarleey.

Dabadeedna labadii ciidan waa laysu muuqday ,mslimiintu waxay noqdeen sidii bar cad oo dibi dhogor madow kutaala ,yaraantooda marka loo eego ciidanka kasoo horjeeday.Imaamku wuu ukhudbadeeyey muslimiintii isagoo jihaadka ku dhiirigelinaya ,waxaa uuna akhrinaayay aayadka kujira qur,aanka suuratu Tawba.Weiliba ayaadan dhahaysa.

Alle waxuu mu.miniinta kaiibsaday naftooda iyo maalkooda janaduuna siiyay iney dartii udagaalamaan ,waxna dilaan lana dilo ,balan uu Alle ku qaaday kitaabadiisa Tawraada iyo Injiilka iyo qur,aanka .Markaaseey muslimiintii khushuuceen oo yiraahdeen aanu dagaalku kuqaadno oo bilowno ,waxuuna ku yiri Imaamkii sugnaada oo meelihiina taagnaada hana kubilaabina ilaa aay soo dhaqaaqaan iyagu ,warmahana hoga,leebkana qaansada saara ,Gabaadkana xirta ,talaabana haqaadina idiinkoon alle xuseynin.

Akhri Qaybta 3aad iyadoo dagaalkii bilowday foodana lays daray.

Qore : Faisal Salah,
E-mail: fisalsh@hotmail.com
Afeef: Aragtida qoraalkan waxaa leh qoraaga ku saxiixan
Faafin: SomaliTalk.com | Jan 11, 2007

A DISCUSSION ON DIR CLAN BY SOUTHERN DIR AND DIR FROM ETHIOPIA

Ibro aliya the Zahgawa
Recent Writings
Ibro - The Bear and the Student

ibro aliya
The well known Islamic Sufi poet Jamaladin Rumi once said, a thousand years ago, "Do not trust a man who pretends to be religious until you have used your inner eye; becuase some conceal their true nature and have the nature of Satan" What you write tells so much about you. One minute someone cliams to be Akisho and then panicks when another knows his true origin. Another in this forum pretends to be one thing - a Dir woman from among the Oromo called CAASHA ALI - who then swears and thus reveals who she really is. You only bring laughter to us! Another claims brother bashing - and then another says Dir bashing ----- the same words but signed by different names ---- strange. This is a forum for discussing history and culture but some among us are rude and swear and hide who they are - and hide their agenda, Jamaladin Rumi once said that a man saw a bear skin in a flowing river. His teacher, an aged man, did not have a warm coat. The man (the student) jumped into the river and grab hold of the coat. Suddenly he realised that the coat was a live bear. His master called to him saying "leave it be and come back" - but the young student shouted back "I have left it but it will not leave me". Sometimes you have to know what is worth battling for and what is a waste of time. Time is valuable and it has been wasted here. Enjoy the river and the bear.......one day you will realise the value of Time. But by then it would have run out! Ibro Exit
posted to IBRO :Do you just Appreciate Everything "None-senseNULL,"What do you appreciate, even that analysis you say you appreciate is not based on facts. Do you simply enjoy and believe whoever tells you what you want to hear, that somali tribes are none existent and they are a fabrication or the somali tribe structure do not exist. Reality is reality whether you realie it or deny it. The Dir tribe existed for 2000 years and will exist long after you die. So stop the Dir bashing and respect your roots. at Tue Jan 18 15:02:25 EST 2005.
Reply

Ogaysis

ibro aliya
AGoon or Ibro have said things which are believed by a large number of Dir people. Neither of us have ever said anything offensive - debate is natural - history, tribe, culture can be debated in a FREE society. We are not in Ethiopia where every is scared to say anything. It seems that people are offended for imaginary reason. I haven't insulted anyone. We the Gurgura of the north believe we are Somali and that the Ali Madaxwyna, Leheleh, and other ancient tribes founded Awfat. This our history - and it can be proven. It seems that younger tribes are offended if Gurgura or Leheleh claim anything. You cannot take another mans history. Freedom of speak and debate may be foreign to Ethiopia and most of Somalia - but the Internet is about freedom of speak. You critise our behaviour - Why - debate is normal - neither of us have use inappropriate or offensive word. A man must use his intelect to prove what he is saying. If people want to learn about Dir history they have a RIGHT to heard as many views as possible - and then make up their minds. Its called FREEDOM.
posted to Ogaysis: Ibro iyo Agoon Edeb ma lihidiin. at Fri Jan 14 16:47:28 EST 2005.
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Tribal Origins

ibro aliya
I accept your logic. The answer you have constructed is corrected.
posted to On the Tribal orgins of the Isaaq, Gadabuursi and Issaas. at Fri Jan 14 16:34:56 EST 2005.
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Leheleh

ibro aliya
Leheleh can be spelt in many differnt ways - with i or e etc. The Spelling doesn't matter. CAASHA ALI has never heard of Leheleh the brother of Gurgura. Why? Everyone who is Gurgura from Harer to Erer has heard and knows who the Leheleh are. Why don'y you know them. Ask someone from the Beidor Gurgura clan - ask Abdi Wahab or any other Gurgura leader - or haven't you heard of any Gurgura elders or leaders. You are the only person to swear in this forum. Many people debate tribe and history but their is no need to swear. Using the F... word is not acceptable. That suggest you are not Dir. The Dir can debate anything without getting angry or swear. The Dir are not Oromo. We are Somali - and proud of that. The leaders of the Gurgura are Somalis - and the Esa and Gadabursi are our close relative - and brother - we may critize each other - but we will never be Oromo. It is not negative to say we are proud Somalis - the Darod and Hawiya are our brother. However, if you are raised among Oromo - then you are Oromo - Dir are Somali, fact. We are proud to be Somali. And we wish that all Dir territories in Ethiopia could join Somalis. We did not waste our youth in 1997-78 - Somali natinalism is Dir nationalism. You stay with the OLF. Thats your choice. But we the Gurgura will chose Esa, Ishaq, Hawiay, Gadabursi, Marehan, Bimal, and the rest of the Somali nation each time - they are our brother.........The Oromo are strangers......who are not related to us......so why don't you ask a Beidor Gurgura who the Leheleh are ........they will tell you. GLF was Somalis and fought the Oromo .........and now CAASHA ALI wants us to become them.......NO WAY. Long live Greater Somali.............!!!!!!
posted to Issas Iyo Gadabursi - Gashanbur people.. at Fri Jan 14 16:31:15 EST 2005.
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Rendilleh and Gabra doubts?

ibro aliya
What proof do we have that the Rendille are Dir. They are not Muslim; they drink camels milk and blood and have more in common with the Masaai. I haven't seen any evidence for them to be Dir. Just to say they are Dir is not enough. It seems that the problem with the Dir is that anyone can say they are Dir - without any need for clarification. The Rendille and Bayso are non Muslim - Nilotic tribes that speak a language that is part of Macro-Somali languages. There culture is not Somali. I have not come across any Rendille, Gabra, or Bayso that can accurately trace their genealogy to Dir. The study of their language which differs from Somali by at least 35% - indicates that they separated from the Somali people many centuries ago. Some say the Tutsi are Dir. But not one single piece of evidence is offerd. Some say the people of Northern Chad are Gurgura. But again no evidence. A story about a conversation that is said to have taken place in Mogadishu is not evidence. The northern people of Chad are called Tebu and they have lived in Chad for thousands of years - originally refered to by Greek historians as the Garamantians. To suggest they are Gurgura is unlikely. The other tribes of Chad - the Zahgawa, etc. are Nilo-saharan and no evidence for a Somali connection is found. The Gabra are bitter enemies of the Somalis - their cousins are the Oromo Borana again enemies of the Somali Gure and Dagodia and Awlihan tribes - if they were Somali then can anyone explain why they Hate Somalis. They do not claim any affinity with Somalis. Some Somalis claim that the people on the Island of Socotra are Somali. Again this is not correct - they are not Somali and never have been - studies of blood types has shown that the Somalis are not related to the southern Arabian tribes - since sickle cell and other traits found in the southern Arabians is not found among the Somalis. The problem with the Dir is they accept everyone as Dir with proof or evidence - the Tutsi, Rendille, Gabrra, etc., cannot be simply classified as Dir just becuase someone hear a conversation. Evidence needs to be accurate. Otherwise we cannot build up an accurate history of the Dir. The Dir ancient homeland was eastern Somalia (now Puntland) - all the evidence points to this. However, European historians have tried to place the Somali homeland in southern Ethiopia - this is completely wrong. The Oromo and the Somalis do not share the same homeland. The Afar and the Somali are more closely related both historically and culturally. Everytime the Dir see the Gura, Guri, Gureh, Gurgur, gurgureh, etc., they immediately suggest it is Gurgura - but this is not a scientific method. Hussein Habre as a Madaxweyna Dir is not proven - and cannot be accepted without proof. People have to find evidence which support the claim before the cliam can be accepted. I do not believe in accepting every one who claims to be Dir - There are some Dir who when in Dire Dawa say they are Dir and when they return to the Ogaden they claim to be Darod. Surely that is not acceptable. Ones identity cannot be changed. How can you trust people that change their identity - one minute Oromo, next Darod, next Dir, ......etc. I cannot accept Rendille - non Muslim, blood and camle milke drinking, Masaai cultured - as Dir. To be a Dir - you have to first be Muslim, second have a genealogy that proves you are Dir - it must be linked to other Dir genealogies. For example if someone claims to be from Auboba or Aubarre then their genealogy must be the same as other Auboba and Aubarre families. If someone cliamed to be your cousin and couldn't name your father or his father would you accept them as your cousin? NO!
posted to MP list - correction to Dir list. at Fri Jan 14 16:16:40 EST 2005.
Reply

MP list - correction to Dir list

ibro aliya
The following posted by CODKA BEESHA DIREED needs to be questioned since I cannot agree that all of those listed below are Dir - The List posted was :- QALDHO DIR 1. Noole 2 Warday 3 Jarso 4 Babili 5 Randiile 6 Gabro 7 Digoodi 8 Ajuuran According to my experience - 1. Noole - adopted into Dir through a formal alliance as a result of a war between the Nole and the Itu & Ala Oromo tribes. The Gurgura saved the Nole from the attack of the Itu & Nole and ever since have come under the protection of the Gurgura - thus they pay blood-money with the Gurgura 2 Warday - The Warday as Dir is a new concept. Exactly how are they Dir - is it through adoption or a federation of tribes. Need more evidence for them to be dir - who are they descended from? They appear to be Oromo rather than Somali? 3. Jarso and 4. Babili - both these are mixed Oromo and Somali - for example the Geri Darods are more closely related to the Babili than the Dir - hence the tribal name Geri Babili etc., 5 Randiile - definately not Dir, cannot be classed as Dir - part of the Masaai group / Samburu - they are not Muslim - and have Hawiya blood etc. - so cannot be placed with the Dir. They are a Lost Somali group - who have lost their identity and religion - thus they should not be included in any list of Somali tribes. 6 Gabro - The Gabro or Gabrre are Oromo tribe that are closely related to the Boran. They are on bad terms with the Somalis and the Gabbre despise trading. Only when desperate will they sell anything to the Somalis. The are mainly non Muslims - although small amounts have become muslim. Some minorities among the Gabrra are Somali but do not have any power - the Somali minority show tend to form alliances with the neighbouring Gurre, Garrire, etc. But the relationships depend on the political climate at the time. For example, the Gare in the 1930's formed alliances with Tigrean against the Dagodia. Gabrra are not Somali but Oromo. Minorities within the Gabrra are Somali - but have their identity supressed 7 Digoodi - These are not Dir or Hawiya but descendants of uncle of Dir and Hawiya 8 Ajuuran - Not Dir - they are maternally Hawiya and on the father side descendants of a man found in a tree - his origin can be debated but was not a Dir man. They are more related to Hawiya. Everyone is not Dir. The existence of Qaldho Dir is to be questioned - no eveidence of the existence of this tribe. Itu, Ala, Arussi are absolutely Oromo. The Babile and Jarso are mixed Dir, Darod, and Oromo origin - the exact percentage of each is uncertain. If a tribe see themselves as Oromo - then they cannot be considered as Dir. If the Babile and Jarso form part of the Oromo political groupings then they cannot be considered Somali. Dir origin anf Somali Nationalism are linked. If a tribe stops claiming affinity with Somalis - then history needs to be re-written so that only those who consider themselves Somali are included as Dir, Darod or Hawiya ?
posted to BEESHA DIREED LIST OF MP MEMBERS OF PARLIMENT. at Thu Jan 13 16:39:12 EST 2005.
Reply

Issas Iyo Gadabursi - Gashanbur people.

ibro aliya
Issas Iyo Gadabuursi iyo Jarso In response to article, I would like to clarify some points – 1. You say it is unfair to say that the Gadabursi are mixed. I would like to stress that I stated that every Somali clan is mixed – be they Dir, Darod, Hawiya, etc. Anyone who has studied and travelled across the Horn of Africa and spoken to various, different, tribal groups – same story is heard over and over again of the heterogeneous origin of our people. I do not know why you say that the it is unfair – if you study the genealogy of various tribe the frequencies of Ba Gurgura, Ba Harla, Ba – X Y Z – clearly shows that Somalis are comprised of groups who have re-invented their identity continuously. 2. The Isaq are mixed – and are probably the most mixed of all the Somali tribal groups – I don’t want to go into detail because I do not want to focus on the detail of genealogies – but let me say that anyone who knows the history of the Ishaq will know, for example, that the large Habr Gerhajis division – are in fact said to be Darod – the child was swapped by relatives during a visit to the Haud. Thus the distressed mother on finding that her baby was swapped for another – she was told to “hold the baby tightly to her shoulder” – thus the name Gerhajis is derived. In today’s political climate, Somalis seem to be offended by their own tribal folklore – but we cannot suppress or eradicate our folklore. The name Magador Dir the mother of the Isaq tribes or half of the Isaq - is almost forgotten in Hargeisa and other northern towns. (Magadoor Dir gave rise to the HAbr Awal, Habr Yunis etc. While Habr Jelle are descendants of an Ethiopian wife of Isaq ......etc. 3. The Ishaq do not have whole branches named after Gurgura clans. Only some very minor sub-branches of sub-clans have names such as Ba-Gurgura, etc. A typical example is found among the Saad Musa (i.e. Jibril Abokr) branches of the Habr Awal Ishaq. Using the word accuse suggest that a crime has been committed. Somalis are extremely mixed – this is fact – not an accusation. I can prove it by writing down the entire Somali Genealogy – but I think that those who do not accept that they a mixed will never accept any evidence. It is good to recognise that we are mixed. Thus the Somali civil war (both North and South) would not have happened if people believed in Islam rather than Tribe! 4. The Wardiq are not and have never been Gurgura. As a Gurgura I have never heard any Esa or Gurgura even suggest this. The Wardiq are never Gurgura. The Esa have 3 adopted groups, not two – but that doesn’t matter. The adopted Esa sections are so well know that I can’t see why it would cause offense. The Esa even to this day practise the adoption of people into their clan – but that is another story. In the 1600 the Esa did not even live in the Dire Dawa region. We the Gurgura who live with the Esa today know the true history of the Dire Dawa region. Awarja Gurgura is the official name of the Dire Dawa region - until it was changed and the Esa tried to cliam the city - even though they are a tiny minority that live in HAfad Esa - an area of Dire DAwa given where the Esa were allowed to settle by Ugas Buh. Before Ugas Buh - no Esa had settled in Dire Dawa. The Garads were all Gurgura - eg. Ganda GArada area of Dire Dawa etc. were all held by Gurgura elders or Garad..........etc. The Esa never lived in the region until quite recently. Shinle north of Dire Dawa, Harawa Valley, Biyo Gurgura all north east of Dire Dawa were occupied by the Gurgura until recent history. All our neighbours both - in particular the Esa and Gadabursi complain that all the lands previously inhabited by the Gurgura are all barren land – this is true – Shinle (barren) – Biyo Gurgura (near Abdel Qadir town is barren), Zeilac (barren), etc. The Gurgura left barren lands and conquered the most fertile regions in Ethiopia. Our advanced agricultural techniques and settled way of life – left behind a legacy of ancient towns in Somalia such as Amud, Au Bare, etc. – stone constructed towns similar to Harer but older – abandoned so that we could live in more fertile lands. In the early 1990's the Esa told the Meles Government that the Gurgura were a tiny minority and the town was populated by Esa. On hearing this a Gurgura member of parliamment spoke up for his people - the Gurgura and told the Meles Govt that it was a Gurgura town - on inspection the entire Gurgura population of Dire Dawa filled the streets and showed the Meles Govt that we are the silent majority. The city came to a stand still. 5. The Gurgura know as the Awaleen or the first ones, occupied the areas north of Borama – along the Zeila road. The occupied Berbera but called it Sahil. The town of Biyo Gurgura is on the Zeila road, and was occupied by the Gurgura until the climatic chances and the increasing dryness made them move further west – this was at a very early period and the Esa were not even born then. The Esa are not mentioned in Futih Al Habash at all. They now cliam to be related to the Ishaq - see the Djibouti web sites! 6. The Gurgura never captured Dire Dawa - We built if during the reign of Haile Selaasie. But the older towns Jaldesa, Hobat, etc. were built by the Gurgura. Harar was also built by the Gurgura – but many towns to the west are older. Harar came to significance much later than other Gurgura towns. The Adari and Argobba tribes were converted to Islam by the Gurgura in the regin of Amda Seyon – you can check this! 7. The Esa lived near the Somali coast. Only during the past century or so have they come near the Gurgura city of Dire Dawa. The Gurgura use to defend the Esa from being persecuted by the neighbouring clans. But the dominance of the Gurgura was toppled by Cornel Mengistu (1970’s) who favoured the Esa after the 1977 -1978 war. The Esa and Gurgura a bitter rivals. During the 1977 – 78 war whenthe Gurgura annilated the Ethiopian army at Hurso. And liberated vast areas. The intervention of the Russians and Cubans led to the Gurgura defeat and persectution – Gurgura refugees were refused entrance to Djibouti and the Esa used this opportunity to join Mengistu and blame the Gurgura for the 1977-78 rebellion. Gurgura from Hurso that did not manage to escape to Somalia were captured and forced to live 100’s of miles away at Sodere. On a visit to Sodere, I was informed that some familes had only rcently returned back to their homeland. Even today the farms of the Gurgura are held by the Ethiopians. Many Gurgura are still refugees in their own land – all because the fought and cause so many casulties to the Ethiopian army – that they (the Ethiopians) have said that they (Gurgura) will never have their farms back. The Gurgura ability to unite and defeat their enemies in battle is well know and feared. Just as in the ancient description by the Ethiopian kings such as Amda Seyon – “They ties thems selves together and swear to fight top the death” – a clear description of the Gurgura heroic attitude to battle. 8. The Esa foolishly tried to take on the Oromo Liberation front in the early 1990’s without the Gurgura – as a result the Esa were defeated. The Gurgura, a peace loving people, asked the Oromo Liberation Front to leave Gurgura town of Melka Jebtu – and stop trying to force their idnetity on the Gurgura. The Gurgura patiencly waited for 3 days and gave the Oromos OLF a chance to leave – our leaders do not rush into conflict. The Tigreans were nervous, and thought the OLF was powerful. But on day 3 the brave Gurgura warriors were brought together – with there ancient battle oath – translated as “we are unbreackable” – the Gurgura drove the OLF to the hills and followed them capturing all their possession and impressing the Tigreans who did not think the quite Gurgura were so fierce in battle. This is a true account – the Esa and Gurgura Liberation Front IGLF fell apart because the Esa were contiunually being tribalistic and undermining the Gurgura. The Gurgura left the IGLF and formed the GLF – many of the Gurgura who refused to form an alliance with the Esa – then came and joined the GLF – which dominated from Harar to the Awash. 9. The Gurgura are know as the one that drove the Afar into the barren desert they now occupy – in the ancient days. The Esa have always lost in their battles with their neighbours – the Afar, the Gadabursi and Gurgura have all defeated the Esa in recent history. The Esa have never dominated the NW Somalia/Ethiopian region. 10. The Lahele and Gurgura have a close history – I will not re-tell it hear but the detailed history which I have collected from the Lehele and Gurgura indicate that a series of complicated events took place which resulting in the Lehele having to migrate to various areas – e.g. Ogaden and areas south of Dire Dawa – while many became absorbed among the Gurgura Beidor subclan. Exact history is too complicarted to re-tell hear. But my detailed interviews of elders of Lehele and Gurgura (plus interviews with other Dir such as Madigan, etc. ) indicates a complicated historuy where people had developed a highly sophisticated society – based on Islam. 11. The name Gadabursi is not mentioned in Futuh Al Habash – Iman Saed is mentioned - who is said to be the founding father of the Samarone Gadabursi – is said to be an army general. If you follow the logic that in 1540 Iman Saed – the Gadabursi founding father – is said to have lived – this clearly proves that the Gadabursi are not of antiquity. Since Auboba – a Gurgura Sheikh – also mention in Futuh al Habash – gave rise to the small sub-section of the sub-clan of the Nabidur Gurgura. The Nabidur or other Gurgura sub-clans do not claim to be descnednats of a man that lived in the 1500’s AD. But small families such as my own can traces back to Auboba abd Aubare – i.e. rer X Y Z. Thus a Rer or family unit in the genealogical tree would make sense if the genealogies werer accurate. But for a whole tribe such as the Samarone to be descendants of one man who lived in 1540 AD indiactes that the genealogy is not accurate and that inorder to explain the large numbers of the Samarone Gadabursi – the numbers were increase by adoption of other. This is accepted by the Gadabursi and I have collected info direct from the GAdabursi who are our neighbiours. The information has not been collected from Isaq since they have no concept of who the various Dir are. On the other hand the Gurgura and Lehele have a wider knowledge and are able to give a detailed history of who is who. This is not an insult – just do your maths – if we say that 30yrs is given (approximate) for each generation. Count how many people who be alive if a man lived in 1540 – i.e. say 3 generation per 100 yrs (approximate only). You will see that it is impossible for the Gadabursi to be all descendnsta of one Man that live in 1500’s – THE SAME CAN BE SAID OF THE ISHAQ – HOW CAN THEY ALL BE DESCENDED FROM ONE MAN THAT LIVED AROUND 1400’S AD ? Scientifoically you will ses that it is not possible. 12. As for the southern Dir – the Gare occupied the Bajun Islands many centuries before the Bimal arrived. They were one of the earliest Somalis to live in the region - the Madinle, Silcis etc. were after them. Even to this day remnenants of the Gare are found as far west as Lake Stephanie and lake Rudolph and even further west. The Bimal were not the first Dir to settle in southern Somalia. History is not that simple. When on studies the tribal genealogies – one can see who the early inhabitants were. This is a useful exercise and I recommend that anyone intersted in finding out who we really are should carefully study the names in your own genealogies. We are all mixed - and apotion of other tribes both somali and non somali has been practiced from the beginning of time. To deny this is to deny history. Ibro
posted to Issas Iyo Gadabuursi iyo Jarso. at Fri Jan 07 12:00:23 EST 2005.
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Dir and the Camel - Xiddhiga Kow - Kamel Gurgura

ibro aliya
The info posted by Agoon Historian is interesting since I have come across the same story of the Rendille being started by lost Somalis who havd to give up their religion and became adopted into the Masaai people (Samburu etc.) The Camel story in Somali folklore is interesting - a brief summary is as follows. In the Ancient days, the Gurgura lived along the northern Somali coast, along the Zeila and Berbera region. The Gurgura belived that all the camels in the world belonged to them. Having captured all the camels in the land. The Gurgura held a tribal meeting to discuss the one camel that had escaped them. The elders were informed that the Camel in the Sky (the Southern cross star - which is referred to as the camel in the sky) - had escaped them. The Gurgura climb the mountain called Elmas just a few miles west of Berbera - each Gurgura man climbed on the shoulders of another. The formed a human chain - each on one anothers shoulders until the reached the sky and the camel in the sky. As the boy on top of the human pyramid grab the camels tail - the human pyramid collasped - all the Gurgura fell to earth. All that was left was the camel in the sky - (southern cross constellation) - which today is remembered by all Somali as Xidhiga Kow - Kamel Gurgura. Thus all Somalis when conting the stars include the name Gurgura. This story indiactes that the first astronomical definitions in Somali Culture are associated with tye Gurgura - since the stars are named after them. The story is very imaginatie. The real history behind the introduction of the naming of stars in Somali culture probably has a lot to do with the connection between the Dir and the ancient people of mesopotamia (southern Iraq) - the Dir have many ancient stories which indicate that they once dominated southern Iraq and western Iran - the Somali clebration of Dabshid is also linked to the ancient Elamites of Iraq - a black skinned people associated with the 2nd millenium BC. In the UAE they were known as the barbar people - an ancient name usually associated with the Dir and Hawiya in ancient texts. The connection between Irag/western Iran and the ancient Somalis is also suggested by place names across the country. In Yemen the barbara - (ancient Somalis) are remembered as having driven out the Romans just after the invasion of the AlQumr or Indonesians of Madagascar. The Dir have colonised many parts of the World - the MAldives, Yemen, Oman, Chad, Iarq and Iran and probably more. The history of the Dir is fascinating and should be celebrated. Without understanding Dir History - one cannot understand Somali history. Ibro Aliya
posted to Biyamaal Dir Myth "the first camel was mine. at Thu Jan 06 11:03:20 EST 2005.
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Gadabursi origin

ibro aliya
The Gadabursi are mixed - the genealogy suggests that the main section are direct decendants of Madalug Dir while some other sections are soraac or aopted. The origin of the adopted sections are said to be Darod and Isaq, but this is unclear. The same can be said for the Esa - 3 sons are direct from the union of Esa and a Madigaan Dir women - while the other 3 are soracc - or adopted - the adopted sections are said to be Afar, Habr Jeelee (Isahq), etc. - the exact origin can be debated and is unclear. The same can be said of sections of the Afar who are infact Gurgura but have become lost among them during an ancient war. Again in the Hawakil Island of Eritrea - Darod Somalis have become Afar. The same can be said for Ishaq - some Akisho have become Saad Musa during the colonial period of the British - the list is endless. There is no need to be offended. The Somalis are not pure Tribe X Y or Z - we are mixed. That is why tribalism is crazy. We have to educate each other on the complete history of our people. We must not invent history. We must all know how we are related to each other. Somali society has become destroyed becuase of people following fictional genealogies which are not accurate. The Gurgura dominated Nothern Somalia before the Esa and befor the Gadabursi. This is fact. The Ali Madaxweyna, and Lehele were also part of the development of the Awfat and Awdal. The antiquity of Gurgura, ALi, and Lehle is clear. The exact orgin of the Jarso and other eastern tribes needs to be documented. Since the movement of the Itu, Ala, Arussi tribes was during the last days of the Muslim sultanates. Where are the Jarso from - what is the history of the 5th son of Dir. Could more info on this be placed in this forum, please. As a historian, I feel it is important to debate history so that everyones veiws are acknowledged. Ibro Aliya
posted to Gurgure are not strangers to us they are our Sons. at Tue Jan 04 16:57:52 EST 2005.
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Gurgura and the Camel

ibro aliya
Did you know that the Gurgura intrdouced the Camel to Somalia. According to Somali legends the Gurgura introduced the camel and are as a result, the most ancient of all Somalis. There is a long tales about this. The Gurgura are belived in Somali Folktales to have reached to the skys to claim the Camel in the Sky.
posted to Gurgure Dir. at Thu Dec 02 16:17:55 EST 2004.
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History of Gurgura - Who are the Nole

ibro aliya
The Gurgura have a special relationship with the Nole tribe. The Nole are not Somali, but Oromo. You may ask - What is the link between the Gurgura and the Nole. Let me clear this up for you. According to the elders of the Gurgura tribe in Ethiopia, the Gurgura were masters of the Somali coast. At the time when they inhabited Biyo Gurgura, a war was being fought between the Oromo. The Oromo tribes were fighting each other. The Itu and Ala had made an alliance against what are today the Nole. The Nole were being destroyed by the new arrivals (Itu and Ala). The Gurgura warriors consulted the religious leaders and asked about what they should do. The were told to fight the Itu and Ala for only three days. Their mystical leaders said that during thoses three days they would be undefeated, and that their enemy would be broken. They were also told that they must not continue any war beyond those days. The Gurgura swept down from Biyo Gurgura and completely defeated the Itu and Ala Oromo; they saved the Nole from destruction and ever since the Nole Oromo have been bound to be allied to the Gurgura. That Gurgura along with their brothrs Alele have a complicated history. The eastern Oromo speakers the Jarso, etc. are not really Oromo but mainly Somalis who have adopted the Oromo languange. They consist of both Dir and Darod elements. The Gadabursi are not of any antiquity. Anyone who has read Richard Burtons First Steps in East Africa wiil recall that Burton says "the Gadabursi cannot throw any light on the history of the ancient ruins around Aubarre and Amud; they say that these places were occupied by an ancient people at the time when the Gadabursi lived far to the east. This indicates that the Gadabursi are not the ancient inhabitants of Audal or Awfat. Also the Gadabursi are a mixture of Dir and Darod tribes who have come together to form a new tribe. The Esa are not mentioned in Futuh Al Habash, the the Gadabursi are not mentioned - Aubarre and Auboba are Gurgura - of the NAbidur branch. The Gurgra still inhabit the north west Somaliland region (Ijara, Gebile, etyc.) - The Eastern Oromom do not exist in any real numbers; most of the Oromo speakers in Harerghe province are Somalis who have adopted the languange. The Jarso, and other Oromo speakers around Harer have to adopt Somali nationality if they wish to be considered Dir. Since the Dir are the first born of SOMAL - anyone who doesn't accept Somali identity cannot be considered Dir. The Dir are Somali Languange is not identity. So if Gurgura in England speak English - that doesn't make them English Like wise - is Dir person speaks French, English, Oromo, Amharic or Afar - as long as they recognise that they are Somali - then languange is not important. From the Awash to to Bale is Somali - be it Gure, Gura, Gurgura, Degodia, Awlihan, Malingur, Aksiho, Karanleh, ect. Thus to summarise the Gurgura fought many wars in alliance with neighbours. They defended the Nole and saved them from existinction. That is why the Nole say they are Nole Gurgura. They are stories of Gurguras among the Afar people and among other parts of Ethiopia. They have not lost their identity but are waiting for the time when the Gurgura rule again, just as in the days of Ahmen Gure.
posted to ibro aliya's Channel. at Thu Nov 25 17:07:41 EST 2004.
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Gurgura Culture is Sufism

ibro aliya
The Gurgura are the oldest of all the Somali tribes. That is not in dispute. But what makes us more interesting is that we have a different culture to some of the other Somalis. As more and more Gurgura marry outside of their tribe; we see them change and adopt allegiances to tribes that would see the Gurgura disappear. The first Gurgura to reach Galbed did not battle with humans ( that was the second battle ) - the first battle was with the many jinns that inhabit the mountains west of Dire Dawa. Even today the people of Hurso remember when any foreign traveller would not be able to spend a night in that town - The jinns would shout "there is a foreigner in our midst" Gurgura country is the land of the Awliya - the foundation of Harer and the ruined towns of Aubarre, Amud, etc. were by a quiet, inteligent people, who lived in peace with each other. The unqiue culture of the gurgura has to be preserved from those who seek to change it. We do not practice tribalism among ourselves like other Somalis - this makes the Gurgura a target for other tribes who try to influence us by marraiage to non Madaxweyna Tribes. The name Gurgura is missing from every UN report on Galbed. Why? It was once said (yr 2000 Balawa Shir) "Some say we are like the Harla, a forgotten people that once existed" Are we going to be confined to the pages of History or are we going to be a living culture that support each other? The Gurgura are at their lowest time, war, poverty, hunger..........the list goes on. The Gurgura do not have anyone outside in Europe or USA or Canada............they will have to survive alone and depend on each other. Those outside of Africa only talk......and talk is cheap....... Why? Gurgura in the UK for example some do not even talk to each other and yet they say they are going to help Dire Dawa, or Hurso etc. Building castles in the Sky. Even brothers do not talk to each other in the UK.........so go back to the beginning of what I was saying..........The Gurgura first did battle with the Jinns..........That still applies to everyone. If some of the Gurgura I know were taken to Dire Dawa, they would be tied to a tree by the elders........... Don't lose your culture.......... Rumi, "the mystical poet said do not trust a preacher until you have seen inside him with your inner eye" Ibro Aliya (Ibrahim Ali Noor Haji Mohamed) Official Historian of the Gurgura UK new book title due out 2005 to follow previous out of print edition
posted to Gurgura. at Wed Nov 24 17:19:56 EST 2004.
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CITY OF HARAAR A PAPER

THE CITY - STATE OF HARAR
1800-1850




1. Introduction
2. Political Conditions
3. Economic Activity
4. External Relation





Introduction
This paper deals with the state of Harar in the first half of the 19th century. At this time for reasons explained in the first chapter Harar was no longer a strong sultanate it has been in its heyday of the 16th century. War with the Christian highland coupled with the Oromo raids has adversely affected the peaceful pursuit of the economic life, which factor was instrumental on the ultimate degeneration of the state power.
Nonetheless throughout these centuries and notably between the years 1800-50 the city - state passed into significant process of transformation. By this time the Oromo became used to sedentary life and established symbiotic relations with the Amirate of Harar. Harar managed to retain its distinction as the center of an urban culture based on trade, agriculture and industry.
It was in a position, as such, to disseminate its way of life to the sedentary and to a lesser extent to the nomadic Oromo and Somali tribes through peaceful propaganda based on the Islamic religion. This was made possible by the geographically strategic position of the city itself supported by political, economic and military institutions which were relatively far advanced in their content.
Throughout this time when northern Christian highland was in the "Era of warlords" Harar Established relations with the Kingdom of Shoa. Though at times hampered by Oromo raids Harar merchants used the trade routes that connected their city with Ogaden, Gurage, Shoa and the coast: Zaila and Barbra. In this way they came into contact different civilizations which have influenced their way of development.
It is hoped that the following few pages will have to tell on this general outline about the city states history in the first half of the 19th century.
Political Conditions
The great Harar Kingdom of the 16th century past into process of disintegration in a matter of generation after Gragn's death. But it has continued to be "the seat for an Amirate which, although small in size, was noted as a center of trade and Islamic learning in the horn of Africa."(1)
1. Structure
The internal political strife combined with the Galla invasion constitutes the main reason why the Amirate steadily degenerated during the ensuing centuries until finally lost its independence by the Egyptian conquest of 1875. The first half of the 19th century is characterized by the relative isolation of the state and increasing intensity of religious fanaticism.
Richard Burton who managed to enter Harar in 1855 gave one of the most indispensable accounts of the situation at the time, which could partially be refereed to for the historical research of the period in question which was distinguished by the internal political strife among the claimants for the throne. "These petty princes have a habit of killing and imprisoning all those who are suspected of aspiring to the throne. Ahmed's grandfather died in jail....." (2)
Ahmed Ibn Mohamed (1794-1821) was the first Amir of the century who was known for his successful expeditions against the Oromo. Political stability was adversely affected after his death due to the rising tide of power struggle amongst brother claimants of the Amirate. Of special interest is the one between abd al-Rahman and abd al-Karim who contended each with his own faction of population behind him.
Abd al-Rahman titled the balance power by rallying around him the support of the babile Oromo thereby defeating abd al-Karim and imprisoning him. However, three years latter the faction behind Abd al-Karim managed to lead a successful civil war in which he also had to fight the "Arab mercenaries at the cost who .... intervened abortively in Harar politics".(3) Amir Abd al-Karim had the support of the masses especially as his brother became unpopular for his dealing the Gallas.
In his reign the city-state had kept the necessary balance between force and diplomacy in her dealings with the Oromo until it was upset after his death in 1834. Amir Abubaker (1834-52) became the next ruler. In his reign the Oromo began to have the upper hand, even though until 1841 he "was reputed among the Harari merchants in Shewa to be a' brave prince leading the soray in person and taking the front in the battle field'".(4)
Harar traditions identify of the geographical divisions of the city-state based on the difference in their economics significance. These regions could be visualized as three concentric circles whose inner most one is represented by the city (Gey), followed by the adjacent gardens and grain fields (Geey fagaay) and lastly the whole region outside which was left fallow (Gaffa) before the sedentary Gallas occupied it.
Harar was as such surrounded by the constantly irrigated belt of gardens beyond which cereals were grown. "Beyond this, as far as the borders of Shoa on one side and the limits of Harar plateau in the direction of the sea on the other, the land belonged nominally to the Amir but was in fact in the hand of the Galla and Somali tribes".(5)
The state of Harar had centralized administrative apparatus by which means it exercised considerable political influence in these regions. The Amir appointed bureaucratic administrators whose main purpose it was to collect taxes and execute cases among people. The title dogin was given for the first person after the Amir in the hierarchy who was in charge of the whole of the outer districts, under whom comes the damine, the chief of the tribe. The GARAD and malaqs represented the Amir on village and town quarters' level.
Only this kind of political organization of a city culture can provide an explanation for the survival of a city-state amidst changing and extemely hostile external conditions. The Oromo had the courage, the number and the strategy necessary to destroy the city, and they "might have captured the place but they preserved for their own continence".(6) The fact was the city provided them with the market which made their relation with it quite symbiotic.

2. Influence
Harari traditions tell us that the Oromo, who were nomads and pasturalists originally, learned farming methods from their ancestors. As they became increasingly used to sedentary life they lacked their former organization and were subject to political and military(7) domination of the city state. This section of the Oromo (the Qottu) as opposed to pasturalists (prontuma) together with their Somali counterparts lived in the vicinity of Harar.
They paid taxes for the permanence of their holdings which they acquired through conquest or gift by the Amir. The Amirs married into the Galla and Somali tribes to strengthen their authority and stop or minimize their political influence of the state. But they were not as such successful in their endeavor as the Oromos usually interfered in the affairs of the city state thereby bringing into power their own choice of Amirs or at least affecting their policy to adopt their own policy.
Thus when diplomacy failed to work to work both parties used force. The internal political strife gave the Oromo a good opportunity to invade the agricultural land adjacent to the town, held by the Hararis. The Amirs, forced to preserve their authority and prestige, attacked the Oromos by their small army mainly to keep the gardens in the Harari holding and the caravan routs open. This proved to be increasingly impossible after 1825 that military escort was needed to safeguard failed workers and caravan from Galla attack.
Payment of 'presents' to the Oromo chiefs was part of the Amirs' diplomatic measures to check their advance for domination. The Amirs used to give titles or donate lands for the purpose of saving the city states economy from total collapse. It appears that it was not until 1841 that "the lands subject to Hararis were overrun by warlike Oromo who extorted payments from the townsmen attacking them even in the nearby gardens during the day. The city itself was spared only on payment of tribute".
However, on the whole, the city maintained some authority over the Oromo that they came to regard its Amir as part of their own social structure. Accordingly, the Oromo and Somali chiefs
sought investiture and title from him. Harar was also necessary to the Galla economy since by the nineteenth century Galla agriculturalists and pasturalists had surplus of coffee, saffron, hides and cattle as well as some ivory and occasionally slaves.(8)
Many of the Oromos, by the second quarter of the 19th century, were semi nomadic or settled. The city state retained its political influence, among others, by launching propaganda campaign through Islamic religion which was, if only nominally, accepted. The vast mass of the nomadic Oromo, however, retained its characteristic pagan institutions and were uninfluenced. By the same token the political influence of Harar on the Arusi-Borena group was less pronounced.
Harar remained to be a Comerica and religious city state but of little political importance compared to its past glorious years. "It no longer attempted to spread Islam by extending political power, but through peaceful propaganda was to be the chief agency for its dissemination throughout southern Ethiopia......"(9)

Economic Activity
The people of the city were occupied in their economic activity with agriculture industry and trade which formed the basis of their urban culture that have extended throughout their history.
1. Agriculture
Farming plots around the city were (and are) organized according to their location from the city's five gates which are then sub-divided into districts by their location from rivers and other geographical relief. On the other hand the gardens were divided into irrigated (masnu) and non-irrigated (bukhra) fields. Irrigation, widely spread by the 19th century, was done by building dams (kuri) in which river water or flood is reserved to be driven through the ditches which run along privately owned gardens.
"The construction of kuri /is/ done cooperatively by all the farmers of a certain area".(1) This was unlike the practice in digging the ditches which were done by individual effort of the plot holders. The local farmers elected a chief called miy malaq to administer the distribution of water among them according to a given schedule. Apart from the usual number of time a person is entitled to get the water supply depending on the magnitude of the reservoir etc., the benefitted by an additional turn which he may use or sell to other farmers.
Land ownership, and the ownership of the houses for that matter, "was recognized officially by the government. The owner was given a document which recognized his ownership".(2) As these documents are dated they are indispensable as source materials to the study in the historical development of irrigation etc. The same could be said in relation to industrial developments and architect.
2. Industry
Masonry, wood work, metallurgy and weaving were among the important industries. The technical development stage in carpentry and metallurgy is observable - to date - in the context of architectural works, notably the installed cupboards, the door and boxes. Different crafts had been long associated with district social groups of the Hararis whose descendants are known to this day by their family names.
Among industries the most popular in terms of labor intensity and magnitude of income was the cotton cottage industry(3) which appears to have reached in the 19th century its zenith. The tobe, equivalent to the Amharic shema still used by the older generation of male Hararis, and "shashes of Harar are considered equal to the celebrated clothes of Shoa: Hand woven, they as far surpass, in beauty and durability, the vapid produce of European manufacturers, as the perfect hand of man excels the finest machinery".(4)
3. Trade
Mahallaq has been the local currency issued at this time. It was made locally out of brass and has engraved on it the year 1248 A.H. which approximates 1825 A.D. It was preceded by saq which simply mean minted and as such was used in general sense for Mahallaq (from the Harari word Mahelaq: to count). The city made use of other currencies like the Shoan "Meneni Qarshi" (21 Saqs) and south Arabia "A'na" (0.5 Saq).(5)
This money economy undoubtedly was instrumental in the proliferation of commerce which was very important though it occupied smaller proportion of the population. The city used the foreign currency in a very limited manner mainly to combat inflation(6), that "The Amir pitilessly punished all those who pass in the city any other coin".(7)

External Relations
1. Harar Region
At the opening of the 19th century "the Galla were kept at the bay and the caravan routs into the interior were opened to trade [and travelers]".(8) The towns relation with the sedentary Oromo and Somali was quite symbolic as the latter frequented the city market with their surplus agricultural products. They depend on the city for their clothes, salt and a few other goods. For the Hararis the Oromo trade was important stimulus for the improvement of the security situations in the long distance trade routs.
Relations with Shoa was quite friendly. Shoa was largely dependent on Harar for its external trade and communication as Zaila-Harar route "was the only one used extensively between southern Ethiopia, Showa and the coast".(9) Thus, the route connecting Showa with Harar was significant in the proliferation of the city states long distance trade activities.
This condition, however, began to change after 1825, when Amir Abdulkarim established smooth relations with the Oromo following the three year of hostility that preceded his ascendancy to the throne. However, the early part of his reign was distinguished by the rise in state income through the rise in the revenue that came from trade and agriculture. As such his reign is "viewed as a golden age ....."(10) of the city state. Further, he was in such a good term with the Oromo warlords that through them he got redress for all injuries done to the townsmen and that the Gottus all paid their taxes.
At a later time, the Oromo-Somali raid became worse than ever especially on the rout that connected Harar with Shoa that it had to be abandoned and replaced by an independent Shoa-Tajura route. Harar's external relation with the hinterland also included the Sodo and Gurage region south of Shoa. The route was equally , if not more, unsafe than that which connected the city with Shoa.
2. Shoa and Others
The increasing importance of Tajura (beginning from 1810) and the Shoan expansion in 1830s opened for Shoa an area of economic prosperity which made her independent from Harar. On the contrary, the latter was forced to open trading center at Aliyu Amba to maintain its relation with the southern highlands through Shoa.
Frequent messages were exchanged, and the head of the Harari community in Aliyu Amba was appointed by the Amir of Harar and recognized by the ruler of Shoa as a 'consul' representing his master and having jurisdiction over Harari subjects.(11)
This was a turning point in the decline of the Harari economy since the Shoan position in the highlands and coastal areas undermined its traditional supremacy in the region. Zaila enviably declined and if it were not for another factor, the emergence of Barbera as the main port used by Harari merchants and their clients, the historical destiny of the state would have been dubious.
The reason for this shift in the coastal trading ports is provided by the general revival of trade in Ethiopian highlands and the red sea coast with the arrival of western, notably American merchants. Added to this is the fact that Barbera was, beginning with, free from customs duty and as it was more safe from raiders it was preferred to Zaila by the Indian, Arabian and Egyptian merchants who had long standing relation with the Harari commerce.
From the preceding paragraphs it is safe to conclude that Harar was by no means in a state of economic depression when its relation of interdependence with Shoa was reversed by shifts in trade routes. It is plausible that it entered the second quarter of the 19th century with great expectations by reason of the fact that the contemporary Amir established smooth relations with the Oromo and his time regarded as the golden age etc.
Later developments, however, resulted in sharp economic decline of the state which fact entailed corresponding deterioration in cultural and political fields. This became clear especially after 1840 when Oromo began to occupy Harari operated gardens around the city, which formed the basis for its industry and trade, hence its state power. The close of the decade herald the decay of the city-state, and it was only two and a half decades before it finally lost its independence to the Egyptian Conquest.
By ABDURAHMAN Y. GARAD
National Library & Archives dept.
Ministry of Culture & Sports
Addis Ababa, 1978
________________________________________
1. M. Abir, Ethiopia: Era of Princes, Langmans, Green and Co. Ltd. London and Harlow, 1968, P. 9
2. R. Burton, First Footsteps in East Africa, Earnest Rhys ed., J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd., London (no date) p. 222
3. R.A. Caulk, Harar Town in the nineteenth century and Its Neighbors, (a mimeographed paper of 19 pages). Addis Ababa, 1973, P. 6.
4. Ibid., P.5
5. Abir, Loc. Cit.
6. Burton, op.cit., p.221
7. The army comprised of conventionally armed slaves, a canon and " 50 match lockman of Arab origin, long settled in the place.... " Ibid., p.225. Abir & others emphasize the role of Artilleries and the townsmen.
8. Abir, op.cit., p. 12
9. J.S. Irmingham, Islam in Ethiopia, Frank Cass & Co. Ltd., sec. ed., 1965, p. 97.
1. Yusuf Ahmed, An Enquiry into some Aspects of the Economy of Harar 1825-75, Addis Ababa, 1960, p. 20.
2. Ibid,. , p. 21
3. Khadya Shekh, interviewed, Addis Ababa, Jan. 8, 1978.
4. Burton, op.cit., p. 228
5. Abdulwahab Waber, interviewed, Addis Ababa, Jan. 10, 1978
6. Ibid.
7. Burton, op. cit., p. 224
8. Abir, op. cit., p.11 citing H. salt, A Voyage to Abyssinia etc., London, 1814, appendix V
9. Abir, op. cit., p.16
10. Caulk, op.cit., p.16
11. Abir, op. cit., p. 14

ZAR OF SOMALIA AND OTHER BELIEFS

Geomancy (from Greek geōmanteia< geo, "earth" + manteia, "divination"), from the eponymous ilm al-raml ("the science of sand"), is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground, or how handfuls of soil, dirt or sand land when someone tosses them. The Arabic tradition consists of sketching sixteen random lines of dots in sand.
In Africa one traditional form of geomancy consists of throwing handfuls of dirt in the air and observing how the dirt falls. It can also involve a mouse as the agent of the earth spirit. Ifá, one of the oldest forms of geomancy, originated in West Africa. In China, the diviner may enter a trance and make markings on the ground that are interpreted by an associate (often a young boy).



 Boolimoog mountains in Bari "which is said that
Wadaaddo originate.

 Care with ritual dances. " six types of treatment
asking sacrifices and ritual dances. Two of these
Families will be studied in detail: Mingis and Boorane (see
annex).
 The genres Mingis and Boorane meet throughout
Somalia
 genres Xayaad, Luumbi and Beebe are more
Specific to regions of rivers (Shabeelle and Juba)

 The Luumbi are spiritss that we soothes with a
musician playing the zither (Shareero) and a drum-singer.

The leader of the band holds a whip with which he
knocks the legs of (the) possédéïe), whenever he (she)
passes in front of the group after describing a circle dancing.
Sometimes, dancing, the person possessed captures embers
red and keeps them in his hands without feeling pain because
it is in a trance. It also flows from the ashes on his head.
The assistance, which consists of former patients have
by Luumbi, stands around the circle, sing, dance,
forcing joyously.
After the songs and dances, an animal is sacrificed and eaten.
The lyrics of songs Luumbi are difficult to understand: they
seem an amalgam of swahili, somali and Arabic. The
Bantus are practically the only ones to sing them. Until
1972-74, these rhythms were played in the district Anzaloti
of Mogadishu; today, you can hear them in Afgooye,
. Iannaale, Jamaame, Jilib, Jowhar and Belet Weyn.

 The Shixir is especially danced by women in
Arab circles or Arabists. Again, the patient enters into
trances. This technique would exorcist from the city of
Shihir Arabia to the south.

The Mingis: This name could come from min (house) and geyn
(bring), it then mean "bring home"
Bari and Boolimoog are two areas in the region of Bari (east end of Horn).


21. Cismaan Bogor was the last king of the region of Bari, it ruled, said, with the assistance of spirits. When deprived rut, these spirits, being more satisfied, spread it across Somalia. At its me, it is it also became a spirit.


"Another hypothesis that would be derived from Mingis
"Mingiste": state government in Amharic.

The spirits Mingis are numerous and are classified into three categories:
Yoose
Maame
Wadaagsiin.
Each category is divided in bidde (slaves) and Nasab (noble)


Some spirits Mingis could not be placed in one of these three categories:

1. Jeeraar, Karoohooye, Miraaf, Daanjiko, Ashkir, Baahilow,
Gaal Waaliye, Sargaatiye, etc..
The analysis of their names shows that some of these spirits
tOloliye are Somali, Salaliye, Saloolweyne, warkaasiiye,
Geesi, Mareer, ... ),

2. Other Cushitic (Awaaqoow -- Waaq beings), or sémito-Cushitic (Alwaaq just Alla waaq: the god Waaq) ...

3. Finally, some of these names appear Foreigners in the region, as Yoose, Loome, Akhuunbush, Ashkuuni, Akhaalom, Yoose Yahaal Mataa, Yoole, appear especially in the branches hidde. Should we bring Yoole of the Greek god Aeolus, or yoo-"which has a goal," language Somalia?

4. A etymological study and linguistic Akhaalom, Akhuunbush,
Yabaal Mataa, Loome, and so on. perhaps help to determine their meaning and their place of origin.
By legends and especially the songs, you can reach
known, some of them, the region where they are
from some Ming is ïOgaadeen claim, and more
particularly regions Di) and Doollo:







Many have spread from the end north-east of the Somali Peninsula:


"Rukooy, reera hayagii
Rag iyo Geel BAA ufadhiyay
Rabaableyka cabbayeen 00
Rucle iyo orod lagumagaaro "


The Maame lie further north:
"Waxaan ahayMaamayaal
Waxaan ahay Yooseyaal
Amiir Maamiyo Marecrs
Waxaan ahayaarlibaax
Waxaan ahaykaanla'arag
Maamuhuwaa muunanyahay
Tan iyo raasilii Casayr
fiinki fiiqley fadhiyey. "

We sommesdes Maame,
We are Yoose,
Moi, Marcer, I'm the king of Maame
I am a fierce lion,
I am invisible
The Maame are all-powerful
Since those of Raas Casayr
Jusqu'auxJiin of Jiiqlcy "
Thus, Maame have a vast area stretching Casayr from Cape (Cape Gardafui) until Jiiqley, southern city, close to Be / and Weyn.


Some bidde just Boollmoog like spiritss
Wadaaddo:

"Bareeda iyo Boolimoog
Biyahabeerbaan Ka imid
Bidoodkii Boolimoog iyo
Aniga Roomaa idhalay "
"I viensde the sourcede Beer


"
The spirits Jeeraar, Miraaf and Daannaba, they are
of the sea, whether they live there, either because they cross:


"Jeeraar BAA la'idhahaa
Baddaasaan jiirayaa
NinkaanJeeniga the hclo
Intaan jabiyaanjilaa



22. The Ruko are part of Mingis that we could not classify. Rabaabley
is a well of the Nugaal region earlier.

SWQð
áMiraof00 maanyojooga
Habaas baa hooyadiis ah. "
Or:
"Waxaan ahayDaannabay 00
Waxaan ahay duulkii Saar
Dalkana doonyaan Ku nimid
Waxaan ahayduulilaah "
50


Daannaba is both a spirit of the sky and the sea But
as he used a boat to arrive in Somalia, without a doubt
Is it originating in another region of the world. This is the case for
Jumburo and Cilmi, originating in the Arabian Peninsula: Jumburo
was established in the Shaam, ie a vast region
corresponding to Syria, Lebanon and Palestine today.


"Yaa Jumburo Ila yaqaan
Golaha Shaam yaafadhiyey
00 burshaan biyo loogu shubay? "
"



"Waa saarcarabeed Cilmiile
Cadan hu ka yimid Ci / miile
Xamaruu wataa Cilmiile
Yaanala Xarbiya Ci / miile
Duud iyo duryaal Cilmiiie. "
"This is a saar Arabic, Ci / mi
He has just Aden, Ci / mi
He has a red horse, Cilmi
Who we sought quarrel, Cilmi
Father and children together, Ci / mi. "


The poems above show that the spirits who Mingis
sometimes take possession of certain individuals are not
necessarily from the Somali Peninsula: some are
from regions located overseas, as Jumburo and Ci / mid and
travel.

By cons, the spirits of the indigenous peninsula
somalia are for the most part from the extreme east of the
Horn, mountains and highlands of this region.
Some explain the multitude of spirits originating Mingis
of Bari (north-east of the peninsula) by the following legend:
23. Some spiritss may have parents: It is abaas's mother
Miraaf, Roomaaest's father quelquesbidde.
51








"The kings of Bari, like all other kings, could not
govern alone: they were assisted by spirits. In
exchange for their services, their kings offered
sacrifices regularly. A king bequeathed the spirits which he
was the master to his successor, whether it be his son or
not, at the same time he bequeathed his powers. Both
that depended spiritss of kings and that they
continued to honour them, they left people
quiet. But the last king of Bari, Boqor Cismaan,
was disqualified at the beginning of this century and left without a successor. The spirits are no longer obliged to respect, abandoned
invaded their region and throughout the country. Today, they are
people take whenever they want to be
celebrated. "


Thus, a spirit seizes the soul of a person who,
Hence, abnormal behavior and feels disorders
physical and / or mental characteristics caused by this spirit

Tab. 8 - Diseases characteristics spiritss Mingis.

Mingis spirit impugned part of the body - sickness

Maame head: migraines

Ololiye burning sensation all over his body

Salaliye neurosis - sensasion being assaulted constantly --
fear uncontrolled

Jeeraar courbatures
Miraaf slimming and groans uninterrupted

Galwaaliye madness

Sargaatiye asthma
1. calaqad To treat the sick and thus ease of spirits
honor, we need someone who can communicate with
him: Depending on symptoms,

several hypotheses on the identity of
devil; identity which ensures a preliminary ceremony,
then exorcise the patient.
2. The exorcism requires several steps,
spaced a few days or a few months, or even a few
years. Each of them spread over several days, including
number varies depending on individual circumstances.

3. The offerings made during the various ceremonies
consistent both in food (grain, meat) and drink
(tea, coffee, ...) in cattle or tissues.

4. When the patient was treated until the final stage (muul)
which is not always the case, especially if it is not rich,
organizes a final ceremony, the olkhis, where everyone's spiritss,
except one who has owned, are invited.
5. The calaqad applies a
coin money on all parts of the body
the former patient. I saw this play. This was more than a piece
the effigy of Marie-Therese of Austria, l870! (Fig. 7).

The Boorane: this family spirit is also called ayaan
or rooxaan.
It is very likely that Boorane come from Boorana,
significant fraction Oromo living in the regions of Sidamo,
Bali and northern Kenya. Ayaan is a name meaning somali
happiness. Finally, rooxaan is the plural of ruux, spirit. Of the three appellations, Boorane is the best known.
Boorane
6. The spirits are very numerous and fall into
eight groups (Tab, 9). In contrast to all spiritss Mingis
Men (lab, cf), Y, among Bo orane, spirits
female (dhaddig,

7. These spirits speak specific languages: Caarabiya
all employ Arabic (A on the table 9), while not Odaa
expressed that Oromo (0) and Goohiyow in soomaali (S).
The analysis of their names revealed their origin: some
are amhariques (family Amaaranya), as Tigreenya, Tigree
Hababe, Maamire Kabadhe, Abaalwarqi, Warki, etc.. Some
are ethnic Oromo: Gaalla, Tafaale Babuule, Guraa, Xayle,
Guuwaa Gutaa, Meerto, Abaalmanye, Ahaalmayte, Abaal Berri.


8. Others have an Arabic origin, like all Xaaji, which is said
they recite the Koran; some are soomaali: Caadow,
Taagane, Raamoole, Fadhicaarre ... Still others have names


9. Oromo mixed-soomaali: Magaalo Fardi, Magaalo Guraa ... So
we can see, the majority of spiritss Boorane deal
Oromo names, but there is a significant number of names
Amhara.
The spirits Boorane all claim to be committed to Sheekh
Huseen Baaliyaale. From his real name Sheekh Huseen Malkaawi
bin Ibraahim, Sheekh Huseen arrived in the Come to Africa
Having traveled through Egypt and Sudan. It broadcast
Islam in the peninsula, visiting Uganda, Kenya,
Ethiopia and Somalia in the early twelfth century 24. But in
region Boorana-Aruusi, the holy man ran up against the
population hostile to the new religion. Then soixantedix -
September spiritss decided to help.

10. They sent him a Sheekh Huseen
delegation consisting of four persons, namely Xaaji Shariif,
Xaaji Cabdalla, Aadan Mawd and Magaalo Fardi, which discussed
with him how such aid. The spirits asked,
cons-party assistance, the right to land on people
to demand their due (a sacrifice) and therefore possess them.
After that agreement, Sheekh Xuseen finally managed to spread
speech and the right to establish Koranic schools in this
region. He probably also due to take political power
quite important at the end of his life. He was buried at Baali, located at
heart of the same region Boorana-Aruusi.
Like Mingis, spiritss Boorane meddle
in a person, either by love or inheritance or by chance,
or is still, by revenge.



11. And as Mingis, Boorane
have characteristics that make it possible to recognize them: by
example, Xaaji Sharüfrend talkative, it could even talk
a silent or a newborn; Xaaji Cabdalla is bleeding from the nose and
the mouth; Aadan Mawd one he has led the
gates of death; Fadhicaarre may cause any
physical disability. Some spiritss are sexist: Qaalati
Women attack the intestines and cause a hernia in
men. When we think have recognized the symptoms
corresponding to the possession by a 8oorane, it takes the
suffering from a Abaa Seere, who called on him all spiritss
Boorane so that they can recognize one who is responsible for
the illness of his client. The person identified, it practice exorcism.
At the ceremony, singing, dancing and we do
sacrifices. In table 10 are gathered offerings
thereto. These are very diverse: food, drinks
(including Coca-Cola and Fanta!), plants, jewellery, etc..
Some of these spirits have particular tastes: this does
bear no incense, no perfume, another wants
exorcism takes place at night. .
After passing through different stages
exorcism, the sick, healed, get up and greet the assembly.


The spirits who have just landed on the shoulders of people
-- Hence their name saar - to possess and torment, are
very many It does not much power to some
among them: we do honors more than a song or
dances, without sacrifice, or prayer or offering (Baarcadde, Batar,
Saarka Koonfur). However, it is still common in
dances - which, like all spirits, bearing the name of the
they live or soothe - young men in a trance,
mutilate arm to drink their own blood.


The Kuukuun, a game for children, is a listing of
names - Kumbulshe, Kuunbullaale, ... -- Which they say they are
those of ancient kings who govern with the assistance
spirits.
. Some of these spiritss are fully dedicated to
men against payment: they are spirits in the service
a teacher who "ready" to treat a sick or help the
completion of a project; these spirits are Rooxaan.

The Abhay Siti are the spiritss that relies on for
assist a woman will give birth.
Finally, there are demons who apply to both
sacrifices and ritual dances to leave the body of the
person they have, they are classified into six major
Families, which correspond to six types of poetry and sung
danced, and sacrifices of different natures.


59
These spirits show their presence by causing a
disease: headaches, aches, hernias, neuroses ... The
healing the sick involves three major steps:
recognizing the spirit (or spirits) who is in him,
Conciliation (request for time to organize the third stage)
and the final ceremony which involves sacrifices, offerings
and ritual dances. The ceremony is the longest
(three to nine days) and its duration depends on the circumstances during
which has gripped the spirit of the person (by inheritance,
coincidence or revenge).
These spirits speak different languages: Oromo, Arabic,
soomaali and some are not originating in the peninsula
East African: Shixir bear the name of the city of Arabia
South from which they come (Shihir). Jumburo comes from Shaam
(Syria, Palestine, Lebanon current); Ci / mi from the city of Aden
(Yemen). Others are Oromo: Gaalla, Tafaale Babuule, Guraa,
Meerto, Abaalmanye, ...
How to explain this complex amalgam of spiritss
from so many different regions? It is likely that
number of them were local gods or spirits,
associated with the power of kings or spiritual guides of the same
regions (such as Mingis associated with Boqor Cismaan of Bari and
Boorane Attached to the Sheekh Xuseen Baaliyaale in the region
the Baali).
As their extension, the populations
governed by these kings integrated with their own deities those
Population defeated: this was without doubt one reason
where there are spirits of Oromo name, but according to
case, these spirits were regarded as equal to the spiritss and
indigenous deities such as Maame Nasab (Mingis) or
Tigreenya, Amaaranya (Boorane), or on the contrary, considered
spiritss as slaves (Maame bidde, Mingis). It is
also possible that the Bantu peoples forcibly imported
have retained their own idols, which were gradually
amalgamated the spiritss already honoured but by lowering a
lower level (hence bidde).
Other such spiritss have undoubtedly been made on the
Somali coast and then in the land by sailors and merchants
from there to trade, this highest since antiquity:
This would explain, perhaps, why Batar, a Persian god,
is celebrated by dancing, and why spiritss, from
60
Shaam or Yemen, are honoured. It is also possible for 5lue
Greek gods (as Yoose (Zeus?) or Yoole (Eole?))
Hindu or have followed the same path, but in these
last two assumptions, we must however keep
some reservations because, if there is evidence that the Somali coastline have been
relations with these regions, there is no evidence that the spirits which
the names seem foreign languages sémito-Cushitic
are actually coming from these regions.
C. Other rites beneficial
The white magic, often practised by men
Piles (unlike black magic), is not confined solely to
désenvoûtements and exorcisms.
Indeed, one can consult one of these enchanting for
make someone love. 11 then prepares a love philtre
(madiido), which "must" irreversibly attract the victim, a man
or woman, to the applicant.
I placed this paragraph here because, even if it goes against
the bewitched, this practice is not intended to harm him.
Finally, it also uses the mage to "close the mouth"
its opponents (afxidh), whether they are wild animals or
men:
For example, when a significant portion of the herd has been
lost, appealed to the mage to protect the beasts
wild animals in their "closing the mouth": the lions will not hungry
n'attaqueront and therefore not livestock.
It also says that a man should meet
people who were hostile to him and convince them to make a
project with him. 11 took advice of a sorcerer who gave him a small
twig to keep tight between the teeth for all the time
maintenance. The effect was such that, throughout the duration of its
explanations, his interlocutors stood head down, without
oppose a single word in its proposals and it was successful.
In this first part were exposed aspects
beneficial and evil magic practised in the territory
somali, especially in agricultural areas or semiagricoles
south. These regions are mostly inhabited
by Somali Bantus sedentary or grouped into smaller
often minority communities and defenceless. The
61
use magic to protect them is a phenomenon
common. It is also among those minorities that are wizards
recruit. They willingly maintain an aura of mystery
around their personality: she wants to distance the aggressors
possible because they fear reprisals against occult
which their weapons or their number could do nothing.
The evidence reported here may provide a smile for
a rational spirits but in a hostile environment, from the point of view
climate and human, they have great value. Let us not forget
nor those who believe in magic are far more
receptive to these events that sceptics.





EXAMPLES OF EXORCISMES
(Mingis and Boorane)
Will be presented in this annex, two examples
of exorcisms, practiced on the spiritss of families and Mingis
Boorane.
But, as a first step, let's see how a spirit
can capture the soul of a person:
A - Taking possession of the soul
Somalis believe that the possession by a spirit east
"communicable disease": for example, parents often
relatives, who were formerly owned, can transmit to
their children's spiritss that they went so that teachers
they help (after being honoured by an exorcism). Those
case of inheritance (dhaxal) or bequest to love are the most
frequent.
Some spiritss are free, without master, and may arise
on anyone, at random (daadufou bankarraac). Finally, in
competing with a master spirits (a former possessed), it can be
see send one (or several) spirits (s) by vengeance, but
why these former patients are feared and respected.
Since it is owned, the patient presents
characteristic symptoms (ab. 8 page 51) that allow
to identify how about some spirit in which it is the
victim.
B - Exorcism Mingis
To ascertain the identity of the demon, the healer 1
(calaqad) scent the patient and makes it breathe, in a large
1. It is said that the first of them was a man who was sick
kidnapped by spirits as he had serious. These soignèrent on him
learned their signs then renvoyèrent among men to serve
intermédiaireentre of both worlds.
134
sheet, the smoke of incense and spices (xeerkàfooxinta). He
mass shoulders and spoke to spirits:
"Haddaad tahay Mingis, cudur kaada waa '
Arkay ee caafimaadkaaga ha la'arka "
"Now that your symptoms have been recognized,
If you are a Mingls, tell us your name. "
This preliminary stage lasts three days. After this period, if
the patient feels better, the healer he fixed an appointment:
in general, it is a day where a ceremony is important 2
under Gole, a place where exorcisms are performed.
Indeed, during these ceremonies, all spiritss
Mi ng are present and is the head of the spiritss (ie the
healer) may then come into contact with the spirit that
possessed the person he asked to leave the quiet,
time for it to prepare and organize a festival in his
honor. At that first ceremony, known as conciliation
(samrad), the patient brings fish, rice, sugar
(xalwad), dates, tea, perfume (rihidoor),
attend the closing ceremony of exorcism another
ill.
When the time allotted to organize the festival finale is
elapsed, the ceremony takes place. It will be more or less
for a long time, depending on how the Mingis seized
Commission: if the Mingis is a daaduf ', ie a spirit
free, without master, or refuses to give his name, it will last
nine days and will take place in three stages: the shuruud (three
first after which we sacrifice a ram), gamuumo (
lasts three days; sacrifice a goat) and gondolo (three
days killing another ram). These nine days are
sometimes divided into I1lIS Mingis (which corresponds to the rituals of the six
first day) and muul (three days).
If the Mingis in question has already been treated completely
(until muuîï, then the ceremony will last only six days on
kill a goat after the first three days (or gamuumo
Nus Mingis) and a ram in the evening of the sixth day (Muul, or
Gondola). If the Mingis is that of a calaqad (leader of gole),
2. The ceremony is, for example, the last stage of a peace
spirit (muulï.
135
ceremony does that muul (on a sacrifice then
Sacrifice).
All those participating will have a circle. Has
the place is the calaqad, the spiritual leader and
exorcist, and his three musicians with tam-tam, who place
both sides of calaqad; singer goes to his right. The
other persons constituting the circle are those who live in
the gole and former patients exorcised. They are called
jaamajoog: they punctuate the songs of their feet and resume
the chorus.
The opening song (Legally) is used to call the spirits;
For example:
"Soo deegeey, soo deegeey
Saarki duleedow
Soo deegeey! "
or "Karooyee Karooyee
Hashkir marooriye
Karooyee r
or "Saloolweyne, Saloolweyne l"
(repeated a dozen times).
"Come, come,
Spirits of heaven
Ask yourself on us! "
"0, Karooyee, Karooyee
You who we breeze
Karooyee has (just)! "
"Pop Corn, Pop Corn!"
At the same time, a person of same sex as the
the patient brought into the circle and leads a dance. He
shouted repeatedly called the spirit that possesses.
But sometimes the devil did not want to
naming ceremony, preliminary, it is intimate:
lswari! "Ad-toi!" Or, if it fails, we assourdit
hitting the highest tam-tams, pushing and youyous
singing to kill head:
"Shack Saar calaqadeedow
Haddaad saar tahay siyaax! "
"0 you, saar chiefs, the strongest
If you are a saar screams your name! "
It also speeds up the dance rhythms so that the demon
wear and eventually fail. Her identity known, we improvised a
song in his honour, with dances appropriate and on
prepares offerings he prefers. Meanwhile, the patient
136
continues to dance and is entering a new phase: one sings
for all other spirits separately, and each time,
people who have been possessed by the spirit evoked in the song
fall within the circle to accompany the patient, they jump,
is rampant and put in a trance.
The ceremony continues alternating dances, songs and
offerings. It reaches the final phase of the ceremony:
muul. The spirit was peaceful, then we give the patient a ring
with a stone (kaatun) or a bracelet elbow (birmad;
Only for a woman), singing:
"Kunlow kaatun miyaadoonta
Maqawaaha xudeydow
Kunlow kaatun miyaadoonta
Ku siiyana miyaadoonta "
"You who possess miles
Do you want the ring Mue / a Xudeyda el 3
Toi who possess miles
It gives you, do you want '! "
During the ceremony, the patient has offered all kinds
Fabric: Ten men loincloths, ten sails white prayer
cotton (cummamad), ten head scarves (malqabad), ten scarves
Cotton for Women (garhasaar), ten silk scarves, five
rumaan five sheydar five subeeciyad 4. During the muul,
Heads exorcists the exhibit, while one sings around
of them:
"Wa duuban yahay ee dacabiyow"
"Now Dacabiye read es dressed."
This dance is the birmad iyo libaysa: "bracelet and
clothing. "It is an expression hybrid birmad is a word
somaali, while llbaysa is an Arabic word.
After all these ceremonies, considering that the patient
is healed and that the spirit has freed his soul.
3. Muga ct Xudeyda are two cities in North Yemen.
4. Rumaan, Sheydaar ct Subccciyad are pieces of tissue, which have
each of colors, patterns ct weaving patterns.
137
C • Boorane Exorcism:
Like a patient possessed by a spirit Mingis, a
person by a spirit Boorane this unrest
characteristics. The Abaa Seere, healer spiritss Boorane,
appealed to all spiritss to recognize the one who had seized
the patient. It therefore covers a sheet, makes him the inhaler
smoke of incense and it raises questions (gardening), for three
days. After these three days, if the person feels better,
preparing a large cafetière of coffee (qaxwe) and a dish of popcorn.
It was frying 77 (seventy-seven) full of coffee beans
(grain and cortex) in butter. The patient sits on him and
seven grandchildren drinking glasses qaxwe 5. In the first glass is being
a spoonful of butter which was used to fry coffee, seven grains
September coffee and cooked grains popcorn.
He pointed again inhale the incense and we are asking
the spirit of the accord possessed a period to meet
money and equipment necessary to organize a festival in
the honor of the spirit.
If the patient can not meet any timely,
again the previous ceremony to wait spirits
and ask him a new deadline (muddo dhaafid), the same
gestures are made but we fry 114 (one hundred and fourteen) grains
coffee instead of 77.
The person may be possessed by several spirits to the
When they have a hierarchy and some are incompatible: a
example, two Carabiya can not coexist in the same
person.
The spirit that occupies the first place is designated by the
madag term, for the second is godeynyo. Fadhicarre not
may be madag. If a qaalati precedes in the body of a
Women Fédhicarre particular demand the sacrifice of three roosters
which should not be black. But if it precedes a qaalati (
is in third position), he will have seven roosters. The Jaan
Odaa and can neither be madag nor godeynyo, spirits
Juveniles are soothed at the same time that the major spiritss.
The spirits Boorane often than others
spiritss.; ie people have been owned by them
5. These glasses are made of porcelain: qaxwe is prepared with the cortex and pounded
cooked coffee beans.
138
but who are now masters - are present as
witnesses (musakari) in offerings and sacrifices, their
number varies depending on the circumstances and their identity; Qaalati Nuur
and Carabiya need seven spirits witnesses;
Amaaranya can not have another witness that Faanow. The
Odaa did not need, but if required, it will be a Jaan.
When the spirit as a result of which the person was a careful
been pacified, it makes a final sacrifice for everyone's spiritss
who participated in the ceremony: it turns the animal seven times
around the patient, then asks him seven times on his stomach, seven
on both shoulders and seven times on the face. Afterwards, Abaa
Seere 6 pronounce words and mysterious animal
vanishes, we égorge: the patient drink his blood, or on him
painted hands, feet and she washes her face with the rest of
blood.
It is again inhale the incense the patient
asking the spirit to go. The exorcism ends there.
6. It Ya seven grades of healing: Pupils (qaaduni are the servants
camp; grade Supreme cst that of Abaa Seere

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Abaa Seere: Healer (exorcist) diseases
Boorane spiritss.
Afagaal: star above Spica in the constellation of
Virgin.
Afxidh: practice of witchcraft which must "close the mouth"
the opponent.
Agaali: Bellatrix (in the constellation Orion).
Baal name of a god; Canaanite god of thunder and rain,
often mentioned in the Bible and the Koran.
hankarraac: chance; term used when a spirit takes
possession of a person by accident.
Bari: towards the east, north-east Somalia which
the chief town east Qardho.
Batar: God of Malveillance.
Baxaari Webi: sorcerer who claims to be able to use
crocodiles (see Diraaï.
Bayaxow: zodiacal sign of the Balance; constellation of
Balance (see Mlisaanï.
Beehe name of a family of spiritss owners; ceremony
of exorcism performed for this particular family
spirits and dance that is performed during this
ceremony.
Beer abuur: Feast of sowing, announcing the new year
(see Dabshid, Dabtuur, lstunï.
bidde: slave; spirits (owner) slave.
birmad: bracelet elbow reserved for women.
Boolimoog: mountain located in the region of Bari.
Boon: tribe belonging to the caste marginal living in the
southern Somalia and northern Kenya, whose
members are virtually all hunters.
142
Boorane name of a family of spiritss owners, but
includes several sub-families (Caarabiya, Odaa,
Jaan, Goohiyow, Faanow, Fadhicaarre, Amaaranya).
bukuti: specific disease of cattle and making them swell;
it is treated by applying the animal reached an iron
shaped red Star of David.
Butaaco weyne: combination of the constellation Virgo
(Dirir) with the Full Moon (Dayax iyo tobnaadi afar.
Cadceed: Sun (see Mille, Qorrax).
Calaqad: Healer (exorcist) diseases due to the spirits
Mingis.
candhuufqaad: practice of black magic which is to use the
saliva from the one you want to bewitch.
Cirjeex: Jupiter.
cummamad: veil of white cotton prayer, whose men
cover their heads.
Cuudin: ceremony three days through which the trainer
determines whether the patient is a victim of a spirit
possessor.
daaduf: chance; term used when a spirit takes possession
of a person by chance; free spirit, without a master.
daariile: belief is that if you bury a person
died on a Tuesday, while three others of his
family die. The body is, in this case, filed on
a tree.
Dabshid: Day fire, which marks the beginning of the new year
(see Beer abbur, Dabtuur, lstuni.
Dabtuur: Day fire which marks the beginning of the new year
(see Beer abbur, Dabshid, Istun).
Dayax: Moon.
Dayax afar iyo tobnaad: Full Moon (Moon at the fourteenth day
his cycle).
143
dhaxal: inheritance; spirit that possessed a parent, which was
exorcised (treated) and who then took possession of
children to the death of a parent.
Dhiigmaris: term black magic; means a preparation
basis of blood (dhiig) that is poured on the walls of
stables (or houses), during a ceremony
of bewitchment, to perish livestock that is kept
(or people who live there).
Dibi: zodiacal sign of Taurus; constellation Taurus.
Dibqallooc: zodiacal sign of the Scorpion; constellation
Scorpion.
dibyaal: geomancy term designating a fourth min
mother-matrix (see min).
Diraa: sorcerer who claims to be able to use crocodiles (see
Baxaari Webi).
Dirir: the constellation Virgo.
Dirir Sagaaro: combination of the constellation of the Virgin with
the Moon, the thirteenth day of its cycle (bad
omen).
Ducaycad: star opposite Spica in the constellation of
Virgin (Dirir).
dumaal: custom that a wife a widow of his brother
deceased husband or another male relative expanded
the latter. This custom is reminiscent of the Jewish custom of
Lévirat. It has a complement: xigsiisan.
Dusaa: Mercury.
Eyl: perhaps the name of a god; town on the coast.
faal: astrology, divination.
Fal: magic.
Faraare: March.
furdaamin: exorcism.
144
gabagabo: conclusion, in geomancy, a term which refers to the min
final, obtained after reducing min and hooyooyin
min gabdho in min gabanno and ganuuno (see min).
gabanno: granddaughters, in geomancy, a term which means
min obtained by reducing min and hooyooyin
gabdho (see min).
gabdho: girls, in geomancy, min obtained by transposition
min of hooyooyin they are also the number of
four (see min).
Galdiid: combination of the constellation Virgo (Dirir)
the Moon, the fifteenth day of its cycle.
gallaydh: milan, bird-happiness.
gambo: head scarf worn by Somali women married.
ganuunno: great-granddaughters; in geomancy, a term which
means min obtained by reducing min gabanno
(see min).
garab daar: person accompanied by one or more spiritss;
these spirits may have been loaned by their master in
exchange for a fee. A person who can predict the future
thanks to the spirit that accompanies it.
garbasaar: large cotton scarf, very colorful, that
women wear on the shoulders; part of
offerings made by some spirits in ceremonies
of exorcism.
geedjinni: TB shrub to small tleurs bright red;
According to legend, tree behind which was concealed
the one who killed the Chamelle Allah Udin Ba'saï.
gole: location, camp, which practice exorcism.
Hirimaadey: God of the Sea
hooyo: Wednesday, in geomancy, matrix-mother.
hooy oyi o n: mothers, in geomancy, four minutes
up the matrix-mother.
145
Iidobexay: family spirits owners.
lsaawe: sorcerer who practice black magic, very powerful.
isdhaafin: practice of magic which is to release a person
possessed by a spirit by sending this spirit on a
else: practice on an exchange.
Istun: battle; feast which celebrates the new year, during
that men are fighting with big poles
Wood (see Dabshid, Dabtuur, Beer abuur).
jaamajoog: meeting people who circle around
exorcist and the patient's (owned); their role is to
rhythm songs hitting the ground at their feet and
resume refrains.
Jiiddu: tribe Somalia.
. loorre: region of low-J ura (southern Somalia).
kaatun: ring with a precious stone or feel valuable.
Kalluun: zodiacal sign of Pisces; constellation
Pisces.
kow faal: geomancy, the first minutes of a matrix-mother (see
min).
kow mooro: geomancy, the second min of a matrix-mother
(see min).
Kuraysi: ceremony organized by women in a camp
when one of them is in its ninth month
pregnancy; it invokes "Abbay Siti" for it
protects the mother and child during childbirth (see
Madax shub, Sagaalaysii.
kuunkuun: children Thursday during which they list any
a list of names which, they say, are those of former kings.
Kuxdin: Zavijaba, the constellation of the Virgin.
laab: chest, geomancy, the third line of a min (see
min).
146
labaad mooro: geomancy, the third min of a matrix-mother
(see min).
Libaax: zodiacal sign of the Lion, the constellation Leo.
luqun: neck, geomancy, the second line of a min (see min).
Luumbi name of a family of spiritss owners; ceremony
of exorcism performed for this particular family
spirits and dance that is performed during this
ceremony.
madax: head, in geomancy, the first line of a min (see min).
Madax shub: ceremony organized by women in a
camp when one of them is at its
ninth month of pregnancy, it invokes "Abbay
Siti "to protect the mother and child during
delivery (see Kuraysi, Sagaalaysîï.
madheedh: tree the tasty red fruit.
madiido: philtre love.
Makaraan: amulet that a sorcerer Yibir offers a newborn
in exchange for a donation of parents (Samaanyo).
malqabad: head scarf for women, is part of
offerings made during an exorcism.
masar: head scarf worn by Somali women married
(Gamba).
Mataano: zodiacal sign of Gemini; constellation
Gemini.
Mawliid: month of birth of the Prophet Muhammad.
Miisaan: zodiacal sign of the Balance; constellation of
Balance (see Bayaxow).
Milic: Sun (see Cadceed, Qorraxi.
Low: home, in geomancy, the nin is a column
with four lines, each of them with a
147
Symbol: • or • •. Each of these lines have an
Name:
1st row: madax
2nd row: luqun
3rd row: laab
4th row: minjo.
Low hooyooyin: matrix mother with four four-min
lines each. Each min has a name:
1cr MM: kow Fall
2nd MM: kow mooro
3rd min: labaad mooro
4èmc MM: dibyaal.
A mother-matrix (min hooyooyini perhaps transposed into a
daughter-matrix (min gadhoi, according to the sc


Mingis name of a family of spiritss owners, it regroups
several sub-families spiritss owners (Yoose,
Maame. wadaagsiin, etc.)
Low guuris: geomancy, is practiced in interpreting min.
minjo: feet of a min: its fourth line (see min).
mooro: geomancy, the four central figures of a matricemère
(min hooyoovini; mooro are interpreted by
the géornancien.
muul: ceremony of a final exorcism: it shows that the
patient (owned) was recovered. During this
ceremony, it exposes all the offerings (
food, livestock, fabrics ... ) Made in spirits that
149
had taken possession of the patient. The ceremony did
concerns that the spirits Mingis.
musakari: witness.
nasab: noble; qualifier given, as opposed to persons
outside the caste marginal.
okhole: wooden bucket. "
olkhis: coin, silver, the effigy of Marie-Therese
Austria, dating back to 1870. It is used during
some exorcisms to dispel people's spiritss.
Org i: zodiacal sign of Capricorn; constellation
Capricorn.
Qaanso: zodiacal sign of Sagittarius; constellation
Sagi ttaire.
Qorrax: Sun (see Cadceed, Milic).
Raad qaad: practice of black magic which is to use the
footprints feet (naked) from the one you want
bewitch.
Raage: Saturn.
ribidoor: perfume made in offerings during ceremonies
of exorcism.
Rooxaan: family spirits owners.
saar: arise, lay above; dance; spiritss.
Sag aalaysi: ceremony organized by women in a
camp when one of them is at its
ninth month of pregnancy, it invokes "Abbay
Siti "to protect the mother and child during
delivery (see Kuraysi, Madax shub).
Samaanyo: offering made the first sorcerer who Yiblr
This after the birth of a child, in exchange,
Yibir gives an amulet (makaraan), which protects the
newborn. If parents refuse to do this
ISO
offering, we say that the child will be the Yibir:
or it will die, or it will become invalid.
samrad: ceremony to reconcile a spirit.
Sardaan: zodiacal sign of Cancer; constellation Cancer.
Shaam: term designating the region including Syria,
Palestine and Lebanon.
shaash: head scarf worn by Somali women married
(see gambo, masari.
Shareero: musical instrument resembling a guitar;
family owners spiritss that it heals by
dances.
sheekh: male Muslim cleric.
Shixir: family spirits owners from Arabia
iHadramouiï south.
sixir: black magic.
Sumbula: zodiacal sign of the Virgin; constellation of the Virgin
(see Dirir).
tafaaful: exorcism.
Tubaal: marginal caste grouping blacksmiths.
tukasho: pray.
tuke: Raven.
Urur: the Pleiades, the seven stars of the constellation
Taurus.
Ururdhac: period of the year corresponding to the disappearance of the
constellation Taurus.
Waaq: a term meaning God or heaven, supreme God.
wadaad: priest.
Wadaan: zodiacal sign of Aquarius: constellation of Aquarius.
Wajiira: zodiacal sign of the Scorpion; constellation Scorpius.
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Wan: zodiacal sign of Aries; constellation of Aries.
Waxaraxir: Venus.
xalwad: sweets that one brings offerings during the
exorcism ceremonies.
Xanfalay wind which carries the Yibir applicant to become
sorcerers when they are not deemed fit to hold this
feature.
Xayaad: family spirits owners.
xigsiisan: custom that a widower marries a sister,
still single, his wife deceased. This custom
is particularly respected when the couple have
children. It has a complement: dumaal.
Yabaro: pacification ceremony of a spirit possessor.
Yibir: marginal caste tribe, the Yibir are considered
as sorcerers, when a child is born,
must make a donation to the first Yibir who comes forward to
it protects the newborn giving an amulet
(makaraan); him if this gift is refused, the Yibir may
curse the child.

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