Saturday, May 12, 2018

Conflict Between Surre Dir Clans and Xawaadle in Beledweyn- Dudhinle, Had-ogale , Deefow, Kabxanle and Dom-caday villages in Belet Weyn

1. Reports of Conflict in the Area of Beledweyne

Without providing further details about the clans involved, sources report that rival clan militias have clashed in the town of Beledweyne in October 2015 (Hiiraan Online 19 Oct. 2015; VOA 19 Oct. 2015). Shabelle Media Network, a Somali news agency based in Mogadishu (AllAfrica n.d.), reports that "heavy clash has erupted again between two clan militias" in Beledweyne in December 2015 (Shabelle Media Network 13 Dec. 2015). Sources state that the conflict in October was over "tax collection" (VOA 19 Oct. 2015) or "extortion" money (Hiiraan Online 19 Oct. 2015). According to sources, on 22 January 2015, "at least" 23 people were killed in a land dispute between the Dir and Hawadle clans in the towns of Burdhinle and Hada-Ogle in the Hiraan region (US 13 Apr. 2016, 13; AFP 22 Jan. 2015).
A 2015 report by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) states that there has been fighting between Dir and Hawadle clans in and around Deefow village, which is located "40km north east of Belet Weyne" (UN 25 June 2015, 1). The report states that fighting over a land dispute has been ongoing since 2013, leading to the death of "at least 100 people," which has "also resulted in displacement of about 90 percent of people from Deefow, Kabxanle and Dom-Caday villages into Belet Weyne" (ibid.). According to the report, "militia[s] from both sides clashed" on 3 June 2015, and on 22 June 2015, "militias from the Dir clan reportedly burnt down eight houses in Guri Caddo village about 28km northeast of Belet Weyne" (ibid.).
Horseed Media, a news site run by Somali diaspora in the Netherlands and Finland (Horseed Media n.d.), reports that in March 2015, militias from the Hawadle and Surre tribes clashed in Deefow: 12 people died during the fighting, and "dozens" were injured (ibid. 21 Mar. 2015). According to a 2015 UN Security Council report, the Surre is a Dir clan "with two branches, Abadalle and Qebeys, found in Mudug, Hiran, Gedo and the Jubbas" (UN 19 Oct. 2015, 241).

2. Hawiye and Dir Interclan Relations in Mogadishu

Information on clan relations between the Hawiye and Dir clans and sub-clans, including reports of conflict, could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response. According to sources, the Hawiye are a "predominant" (Mail & Guardian Africa 19 May 2015) or "the traditionally dominant" clan in Mogadishu (EU Feb. 2016, 50). In a report based on its 2015 fact-finding mission to Kenya and Somalia, the Danish Immigration Service states that Mogadishu is one of the "most complicated" towns when it comes to clan composition, due to 25 years of conflict, internal displacement and population movement (Denmark Sept. 2015, 41). For further information on the situation in Mogadishu, including diaspora returnees and the security situation, see Response to Information Request SOM105094.
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.


Agence France-Presse (AFP). 22 January 2015. "At Least 23 Killed in Somalia Clan Violence." [Accessed 19 Apr. 2016]
AllAfrica. N.d. "Shabelle Media Network (Mogadishu)." [Accessed 22 Apr. 2016]
Denmark. September 2015. Danish Immigration Service. South Central Somalia: Country of Origin Information for Use in the Asylum Determination Process. [Accessed 22 Apr. 2016]
European Union (EU). February 2016. European Asylum Support Office (EASO). EASO Country of Origin Information Report: Somalia Security Situation. [Accessed 19 Apr. 2016]
Hiiraan Online. 19 October 2015. "8 Killed as Rival Clan Militias Fight in Beled Weyne." [Accessed 19 Apr. 2016]
Horseed Media. 21 March 2015. A. Abdirhaman. "Deadly Clan Violence Leaves over 10 Dead in Somalia." [Accessed 19 Apr. 2016]
Horseed Media. N.d. "About Horseed." [Accessed 19 Apr. 2016]
Mail & Guardian Africa. 19 May 2015. Mikolaj Radlicki. "Who Really Rules Somalia? - The Tale of Three Big Clans and Three Countries." [Accessed 19 Apr. 2016]
Shabelle Media Network. 13 December 2015. "Somalia: Tribal Clash Erupts in Western Beledweyne City." [Accessed 19 Apr. 2016]
United Nations (UN). 19 October 2015. Security Council. Letter Dated 9 October 2015 from the Chair of the Security Council Committee Pursuant to Resolutions 751 (1992) and 1907 (2009) Concerning Somalia and Eritrea Addressed to the President of the Security Council. S/2015/801. [Accessed 26 Apr. 2016]
United Nations (UN). 25 June 2015. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). Inter-Agency Initial Investigation Report - Inter Clan Fighting in Deefow. [Accessed 5 Apr. 2016]
United States (US). 13 April 2016. Department of State. "Somalia." Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2015. [Accessed 15 Apr. 2016]
Voice of America (VOA). 19 October 2015. Harun Maruf. "Somalia Clan Clashes Kill 14." [Accessed 19 Apr. 2016]
Additional Sources Consulted

Oral sources: East and Horn of Africa Human Rights Defenders Project; professor, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London; representative, International Committee of the Red Cross, Somalia; senior research fellow, Clingendael Institute.
Internet sites, including: Africa Confidential; Amnesty International; Ayyaantu News; BBC;; Factiva; Freedom House; Geeska Afrika Online; Human Rights Watch; International Crisis Group; IRIN; Jane's Intelligence Review; The New York Times; UN – Refworld.

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Inter-Agency Initial Investigation report – Inter Clan Fighting in Deefow
Deefow, Hiraan Region, | 25 June, 2015
1. Background
Deefow village is located about 40km north east of Belet Weyne town along the Shabelle River. The land around Deefow has huge potential for agricultural activities, is irrigable and is a vast grazing area for livestock. Competition for this land between residents of of Deefow and Dom-Caday villages led to inter-clan conflict. The fighting between Dir and Hawadle clans has been ongoing since 2013 and has led to death of atleast 100 people and several injured. This inter clan fighting has also resulted in displacement of about 90 per cent of people from Deefow ,Kabxanle and Dom-Caday villages into Belet Weyne. Those who arrive in Belet Weyne normally settle among their friends and relatives and tracking them is usually not easy. The three villages are now reported to be completely empty after residents sought refuge elsewhere in fear of attacks.
Previous efforts by the local clan leaders and government authorities to reconcile the warring clans have failed. The first fight in the area broke out in end of December 2013 when Kabxanley village was completely burned down but before that, there were a series of skirmishes between the two clans over ownership of the farmland. The latest confrontation began on 3 June, 2015 when militia from both sides clashed, leading to the involvement of Liyu police from Ethiopia. On 22 June, militias from the Dir clan reportedly burnt down eight houses in Guri Caddo village about 28km northeast of Belet Weyne, Hiraan region leading to more displacements.
Since the conflict between Dir and Hawadle clans began almost three years ago, it is reportedly expanding to the surrounding locations and across the Ethiopian border. Reports indicate that the Ethiopian Liyu police of Zone 5 are involved in the conflict by supporting the Dir clan. The Dir clan burnt eight houses in Guri Caddo village (28 km north east of Belet Weyne) following the fighting of 22 June 2015. The affected were from the Hawaadle clan, who had been early displaced from other villages. According to local estimates, about 1500 HHs (7000 – 9000 people) of Hawaadle clan have been displaced to various areas especially from the villages of Guri Caddo, Bacaad, BiyoQurun, Dusmo and Gasle and Burjada. However, these numbers have not been verified as partners have not been able to access the area.. The conflict has also isolated the neighboring minority Bantu villages of Jeerey, Tawakal, Luuqdhere, BuuloRaaxo and Qarsooni which are around Deefow.
On 25 June, humanitarian partners including DRC, CESVI and WARDI undertook an initial investigation following a recommendation from the Regional Inter Cluster Coordination Group meeting in Hiraan The objective was to get a preliminary of the impact of theinter-clan fighting. .
2. Findings
  •   The assessment team estimates that about 1500 HHs (9000 people) are displaced in Deefow and surrounding villages.
  •   Over 90% of the displaced fled to Belet Weyne where the majority are living among friends and relatives especially in the villages near Jawiilwadi, Ilkacaddo, Qoqane and Hiran villages. The people settled in scattered manner.
  •   Some of the displaced are from previous inter clan fights since three years ago.
  •   An estimated 90% of the IDP households are comprised of women, children and elderly people.
  •   Major needs are shelter, water and food and sources of livelihood.
    3. Recommendations
  •   Emergency Shelter and NFIs assistance as all the displaced are in makeshift houses. Free food distributions and food voucher is again good option to help IDPs in meeting HH FS in the adaptation period (4-6) months
  •   Livelihood assistance through unconditional cash transfers.
    Medium to long-term recommendation
  •   Reconciliation and peace building efforts to resolve the inter clan conflict over the agricultural land in Deefow. Conflict resolution support in giving additional support of the ongoing reconciliation meetings
  •   Support to rebuild the houses of those whose houses were razed once peace returns. Providing production assets such as canal rehabilitation, provision of Irrigation pumps, seeds, agriculture tools, fuel for irrigation, fertilizers and Agricultural extension trainings to farmers in the areas affected.
  •   Cash for Work activities for the rehabilitation of community assets such as water catchments, feeder roads and canal rehabilitation once there is peace.
    4. Ongoing response
  •   Humanitarian partners have made effort to assist those affected and reachable. DRC has supported most vulnerable 3600 persons (600 HHs) with shelter materials and NFIs as well as cash relief of US$_80 per household for three months in Belet Weyne.
  •   Save the Children International provided relief food to the affected persons through a food voucher programme. The food consists of rice, wheat flour, sugar, cooking oil, beans, tea and salt and can last the beneficiaries for three months.
  •   WARDI also provided hygiene kits to the affected persons targeting 280 HHs (1680 persons).
Homeless children and women from displaced villages around Deefow
Newly displaced people from Deefow seeking shelter under trees around Jawiil village

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