Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Abwaan Cumar Cali Salaad ”Gabaygii Ismoog” Gabay Ku Socda Beesha Surre ”

from hidah.com

Abwaan Cumar Cali Salaad ”Gabaygii Ismoog” Gabay Ku Socda Beesha Surre ”

1_Mogow hurdaba malado baryaha maliin iyo leyle

…2_Tariiqda la soo mare hadan mirir ka Faaloodo

3-Surre martabadu laha hadan mesha ka Sadeyo

4_Maalinti darood madaxa geed inu koro Daniba moodsiisey

5_Mindiyaha hawiye so gurte rabey inuu Magowshaaye


6_Surraa magan loga dhigay wow miciin Faley

_Musibadi iyo dhibti malinta maskax iyo Caqli

Ku mamulo isega macalin kogi ah

8_Maryoolayda surra dintaba baro Macalinkoodi ah

9_Malinti xaajo murugto ee murunku Dheraado

10_Maya iyo haa misaana leesu mariwayo

11_Nin waliba wuxu mudunyahay iyo Garteed surra marin jirey Oo macaliinkoodi ah

12_Malintii geel lakala meershoOo Weerar iyo dagaal leysku muruq siyo

13_Makta iyo xoolaha surra uu kala MeerijireyOo macaliinkoodi ah

14_Intaas tariikh la so marey muhashadeedi Dheh

15_Niin madluusan oo raba midniimo mirar Kiciisi dheh

…16_Makastiyo niiman I magic aqoon madax Jabkiisi dheh

17_Midbaase xusuus ah

18_Surrow waxa marhoore idin kharibey wa Kalidi meelmeerka

19_Waa waxaa minority ka dhiigey magacna ku diidey

20_Waa waxaa matanaha ka jaare meel cidla Ah ku taagey

21_Mamul lamaga maarme surre madax ha Loo dorto

22_Mar hoore hadanad muuqan manta Mujacududdiina hogan midda intad Yelataan mel u wada jeysta

23_Muruqiyo italkiina mel isugu gaya

24_Malkiyo maskaxdiinaba ka dhiga midaad Mideysaan

25_Maxastiina intaad arurisaan meel isugu Geeya

…26_Muxubada dhaxdiina ka dhiga lagama Marmaan

27_Miyo iyo magaaloyiin inad ledihin marka unka maqashiiya

28_Nabad ba macaan wana mahuraan Hayeeshe

29_Madafic la rido maagis iyo fidno

30_Somali Wa meheredoodii

31_Surrow military iyo xoog kama

32_Maarantide maanka geli taase

33_Maleeshiyooinkaga inta tababartaan

34_Mushar malinwalba siiya

35_Moradada inan la so gillin markaa waba Loo marage

36_Midigta ku qabo qalinka masxafkiyo Kitabkaba

37_Madresado intad dhisatan ubadka Meleeya

38_Mohuranka nolosha waa biyee

39_Mirkaasban cidina mogeeyne4

0_Motorad intad qotomisan ciida kala miira

Monday, April 25, 2011

MAGAC DIR MACNIHIISA IYO MAGACA SUURE DIR

SIDA MAR DHAW INOO CADAAN DOONTA TAARIKHDII DIREED EE HORE

WAA LA ,AASAY, OO BEEN IYO BUHU BAHAA FARA BADAN AYAA LAGU

DAHAARAY, DABOOL ADAG AYAA LAGU DADAY, CULEYS FARA BADAN IYO

MIISAAN AYUU CADOWGU SAARA.

QAAR XITAA DIR AH AYAA LA SIRAY OO LOO DIDAY MAGACOODA.

SOMALIDU SE WEXEY TIRAAHDAA ” SIRAA MA HOODO”.

INSHA ALLAH RUNTA WAA LA SOO QODI DOONA!

SIXIRKA SADRIGA DIREED WAA LAGA SAARI DOONA!

[i]MAGACA DIREED MARKA LA SOO BAARAY WAXA LAGU SIFIYAY DOOR

MACNE

1. DIR WAXAA LA YIRAAHDAA DAD (GENERIC TERM FOR PEOPLE)

2.DIR WAXAA KALE OO MACNEHEEDU NOQONEYSAA “FIR” AMA WAX LAGA

SOO ASKUMAY, DUNJI, AMA ABKII HORE.

SOMAALIDII HORE AYAA WAXA AY DHIHI JIREEN ” NEEFKA XOOLAHA AH

DIRKIISU WUXUU KA SOO JEEDA” IYAGOO U JEEDA WAXAA UU KA SOO

FARCAMAY.

3. DIR WAXAA LA DHIHI KARAA WAA NIN (MAN). WAXAA KALMADAN

XITAA KU DHAWDAHAY KALMADA (DHIIRI) OO AH NIN GEESI AH OON

CABSAN.

MAGACA DIREED WAXA LAGU MAGACAABAY LABA MAGALO OO KALA AH

DIRADHABE IYO BANADIR.

MID WAXAA BAXSHAY BEEL WEYNTA GURGURE-AKISHO (MAXADWEYNE DIR)

OO QARNIGII 1300 MAR AY LA LOOLALTAMAYEEN OROMADA AY GUULO

FARA BADANA KA SOO HOYEEN OONA AY KA QABSADEEN MEEL FAGAARO

AH OO AY U BAXSHEEN ” DIRAA-DHABE” AMA MEESHII UU DIR KA

TAAGAY WARANKIISI.

DHANKA KALE, 1500 XILIGII AY OROMADA XOOGEYSTEEN AYAA WAXAA

DHACDAY IN BEEL DIREED OO GALBEEDKA DAGAN AY SOO RIIXEEN

CIDAMADII XABASHIDA EE GUREY LA DAGAALAMAY IYO GAALADII

XILIGAAS LA SOCDAY EE PURTAQIISKA, BEESHAAN DIREED OO AAN

MANTA U NAQAANO BIIMAAL AYAA KA SOO GUURTAY WAQOOYI GALBEED

OO SOO DAGTAY GOBAL AY WAAGAAS U BAXSADEEN –BANADIR– AMA

BANKII DIREED. BARIGAAS OO AY BEESHAN DIREED EE BIMAAL KA SOO

TAGTAY GALBEEDKA-WAQOOYIGA WAXA KA HARAY LA IYAGA KA MID AH

OO MANTA DALKAAS DAGAN OO ” GAADSAN AAN U NAQAAN HADTAN



MAGAC DIREED WAA SIDA AY SUURE SHEEGEEN WAA MAGAC FIR, DAD, ASAL, AMA SINJI MACNIHIISU YAHAY. WAA MAGAC MACNIHIISU YAHAY RAG, NIN, GEESI SIDA DHIIRIID. WAA MAGAC DAD AMA FARAC LAGU TILMAAMO OO GABAYADA WAXAAD KU MAQAASHAA GABYAAGOO LEH “DIRKII HORE WAXA AY ORAN JIREEN AMA DADKII HORE”. WAA MAGAC ASAL U DHIGMA. SIDAAS WAXAA LAGA HAYAA ODEYAASHII HORE EE SUURE (CABDALLE IYO QUBEYSBA) OO AHAA QAAR MAGACA ABKOOD AAD U JECLAA ILAA HEERNA MAGACOODA DOORTAY IN AY HOOS U DHIGAAN SI KA AABAHOOD DIR LOO MAQLO.

SUURE MARKA MUXUU YAHAY MACNIHIISA

MAGACA QURUXDA BADAN EE LABAAD WAA MAGACA SUURE. SUURE WAXAA LA YIRI WAXAA DHALAY ODEYGII MAHE DIREED ISAGOO DA,DIISU TAHAY XAWAALI 80 SANO JIR AYAA MAXAMMED XINIFTIRE OO MALIN TIMAHA U JARAYA ABHII KU YIRI AABE WAAN GABOOBEY BAAD TIRAAHDAA XOOGA LAAKIN MAAD GABOOBIN ISAGOO KA YAABAY TAMARTA IYO MURUQA QADAADKA MAHE DIR KA MUUQDA. QADADKIISI UU XIIRAYAY INTUU EEGAY AYUU YIRI AABE GABAR AYAAN KUU DOONEYNAA WALEE INAADAN GABOOBINE.

GABAR 26 SANO JIRTA OO TALISO LA ORAN JIRAY AYAA LOO DHISAY ODEYGII MAAHE DIREED OO SIDEETENKII KOR U DHAAFAY. WUXUU DHALAY WIIL UU KU DARDAARMAY IN UU DHAXLI DOON XIKMADIISA WUXUUNA U BAXSHAY SUURE. KAMADA SUURE BARIGII HORE WAXAA LOOGU’ YEERI JIRAY RUUXA MASKAXDA BADAN, MAANKA SAN, AMA FAHMADA IYO XIKMAD BADAN.

KALMADA SUURE WAXAA LOO ISTICMAALAA SIDAAN HORE UGU QEEXAY IN KASTOO AF SOMALIGU ISBAD BADALAY. TUSAALE AHAAN:

SUURTA GAL MAAHA MARKAAD TIRAAHDID WAA WAXAAN AQLIGA GALI KARIN. TAASO KUU CADEYNEYSA KAMADA ASAL AHAN MASKAXDA AYAY KA TIMID

TUSAALE KALE: MARKAAN DHANO HEBEL ” KIBIR IYO SUURE BADANAA” MACNAHEEDU WAA ” QOF KIBIR IYO AQLI BADAN ISKU DARSADA QOFKU. CALAA KULI XAAL SUURE OO AH MASKAX BADAN MACNEHEEDUNA KA SOO JEEDO “SUURTO GAL-AQLI GAL AMA MASKAX- AYAA LOOGU WAN QALAY SUURE. MAHE DIREEDNA WUXUU SHEEGAY IN UU SUURE UU NOQON DOONO XIKMADIISI OO KOOBAN.

QURBA JOOGTA INGIRIISKA JECEL HA KU INDHO KUULATO “SUURE MACNIHIISA ” OO ENGLISH VERSION AH. MAGAC DIREEDNA MA JIREEN SUURE LAAN



Dear Brothers

I would love to thank you first for the wonderful forum. We need someone to promote and rise our awareness about the illustrious Dir clan.

The orgin of the Suure name

Let me add an old story about the orgin of the Suure name. As we all know by now Suure was the youngest son of Mahe Dir and he was the last one born to Mahe Dir shortly before he passed away, may Allah bless his soul.

It was said by the Dir of old, Mahe Dir one day looked at his youngest son and named him “Suure” which means in old Somali the “Wise one” or literally one who was very intelligent. Know unfortunately, this word is extinct and obsolete in modern Somali,but Suure meant “Intelligent”, Wise as in Somali we use today:

“Kibir iyo Suure badanaa”, which literally means one is full of pride and intelligency. Also the name “suure” is used in the Somali phrase:

“Maskax iyo Suure badne”

“Suurto Gal maaha”

“Waa Suuro gal ama waa aqli gal”

Therefore, in the old Somali spoken by the Dir Suure use to mean intelligent one or one who is wise. Now, this is why the Dir elders of Mudug used to say, “Suure” meant the wise one and it is the nick name given to the last born of Mahe Dir.

SHORT HISTORY OF THE SOMALI DIR CLAN BY WARSAME

Mansha Allah!

Maansha Allah! Bravo! Bravo!

This is very interesting and your wonderful analysis is mind boggling.

Honestly, I have never asked or even pondered about what the heck “Suure” meant. Isn’t it a bitch, the Suure whether Qubeys or Abdaalle are obsessed with the name Dir, but yet no one ever pondered or told us what Suure meant.

I think the sad thing about the Suure of Mudug region is they forgot their own name, Suure.

Why is it that no one uses the Suure name? Why are we so obsessed with Dir, Dir, Dir and more Dir.

Don’t misunderstand me, I quite frankly love my “Dirness”,but why is it we dont even know out own Suure name and its history?

I think it is a damn shame and disgusting the Suure do not use their wonderful name. Everybody in Somali will tell you they know Qubeys, fiqi muhumad, fiqi walaal, agoon, fiqi yahye, nacadoor, dabac,ahmed farah, Etc. But the name Suure is rarely heard.

I can tell you what Dir means and we all heard that ten thousand times. That freakin Dir means:

1)the ancestor “fir” ama “ab” ama Farac.

2) we heard Dir means “Dhiiri” boldness, Dirir “Worrior”.

3)Dir means “genetically related to” like when somalis said, “neefkan Dirkiisu wuxuu ka soo jeedaa”

4)Dir also means “people”, “race” or as in old poetry Dir meant People or man.

But I have never heard anybody explain Suure and its meaning and I love your wonderful insight.

It is extremely neat, fantastic and brillent periodly.

You are wise my brother and you, yourself must be some type of a Suure”wise one”, Genius, intelligent, and insightful.
================================
Kibir iyo Suure badanaa”, which literally means one is full of pride and intelligency. Also the name “suure” is used in the Somali phrase:

“Maskax iyo Suure badne”

“Suurto Gal maaha”

“Waa Suuro gal ama waa aqli gal”

Therefore, in the old Somali spoken by the Dir Suure use to mean intelligent one or one who is wise. Now, this is why the Dir elders of Mudug used to say, “Suure” meant the wise one and it is the nick name given to the last born of Mahe Dir.

Beesha Gur Gure oo si Rasmiya Galabta Ugu Dhawaaqay Inay Taageeersanyihiin KULMIYE

Beesha Gur Gure oo si Rasmiya Galabta Ugu Dhawaaqay Inay Taageeersanyihiin KULMIYE

June 16th, 2010 in Kulmiye_party, Press | leave a response

Hargeysa (KULMIYE.ORG)- Xisbiga mucaaridka ah ee KULMIYE, ayaa galabta xaflad aad u ballaadhan oo soo dhaweyn ah u sameeyey beesha GURGURE oo ka mid ah beelaha degan Somaliland oo sheegay inay taageeradoodii ku biiriyeen xisbigan.

Xafladan oo ahayd mid si aad u heersaraysa loo soo abaabulay, isla markaana lagu qabtay Hotel Imperial ee magaalada Hargeysa, ayaa waxaa ka soo qaybgalay masuuliyiin sare oo ka tirsan xisbiga KULMIYE, odayaal, dhalinyaro, aqoonyahano iyo haween ka mid ah beesha GURGURE ee iyagu sheegay inay taageeradoodii ku biiriyeen xisbigan si uu ugu guuleysto doorashada madextooyada.

Munaasibadan oo uu ugu horeyn ka hadlay Guddoomiye ku xigeenka labaad ee Xisbiga mucaaridka ah ee KULMIYE Md Cabdiraxmaan Cabdiqaadir, ayaa sheegay in uu aad u soo dhaweynayo beeshan maadaama oo ay taageeradoodii ku biiriyeen xisbiga KULMIYE ka dib markii ay is-barbar dhig ku sameeyeen sadexda xisbi qaran ee u tartamaya kursiga madextooyada ee looga taliyo dalka, isla markaana uu aad ugu faraxsan yahay inay maanta taageeraan xisbigooda. waxaanu tilmaamay in taageeradooda uu xisbiga KULMIYE mar kasta u baahnaa oo uu hore-ba u tabayey maqnaanshahooda.

Sida oo kale waxaa iyaguna halkaas ka hadlay waxgarad, dhalinyaro, dumar iyo aqoon-yahano ka mid ah beeshan, kuwaas oo dhammaantood-ba halkaas ka sheegay in maanta laga bilaabo ay taageero leh hiil iyo hooba la garabtaagan yihiin xisbiga KULMIYE oo ay ku tilmaameen mid ka saari kara xaalada adag ee uu wakhtigan dalku ku jiro. Iyaga oo sheegay inay hogaaminayaan siyaasiyiin rugcadaadiya, isla markaana guud ahaan bulshada reer Somalilad ay wada garanayso waxqabadkii taariikheed ee ay dalka u soo mareen, gaar ahaan xiliyadii lagu jiray dib u xoreynta ee ay jabhadii SNM dagaalka hubaysan kula jirtay taliskii macangaga ahaa ee kaligii taliye Maxamed Siyaad Barre, taas oo ay xuseen inay tahay mid aan la ilaabi karin.

Masuuliyiintii kale madashan ka hadashay waxaa ka mid ahaa Xoghayaha guud ee Xisbiga KULMIYE Md Kayse Xasan Cige iyo masuuliyiin kale kuwaas oo dhammaantood-na sheegay inay ku faraxsan yihiin in beeshani ku soo biirto xisbiga, iyaga hoosta ka xariiqay in taageeradooda uu mar kasta xisbigu u baahan isla markaana ay qalbi furan ku soo dhawaynayaan.

Xafiiska Warbaahinta KULMIYE
Hargeysa

DIR CLAN HISTORY VERSION 2

Dir is a Somali clan whose members live in northern Somalia.
The Somali people are composed of four major tribes. The Dir, Hawiye, Darod, and Rahanweyn make up the majority of Somalis. The Dir are the most ancient Somali clan, and they are the most widespread group. They primarily live in Djibouti as the Issa and Gadabuursi. The northern clans of the self-declared Somaliland, namely the Isaaq, Gadabuursi,and Issa are also all Dir. In Ethiopia, the Dir clans are also the most numerous Somali clan group.
Southern Dir groups claim direct descent from Hiil, Samaale, Aji, Irir, who was the direct father of Dir. One of the brothers of the Dir included the Digaale and the Hawiye.
According to the Dir clan histories, Dir had four sons named Madahweyn, Mandaluug, Madoobe, and Mahe Dir; according to others Dir had a fifth son named Qaldho Dir.
The Dir in Ethiopia are represented by the Issas, Gurgure, Guure, Quranyo Maxamed, Akisho, Gadabuursi, Gadsan, Gariir, Fiqi Muhumand, Qubeys, Layiile, Mandaluulg, Baajimaal, and Wardaai. The majority live in the Dira Dhabe area, Jijiga region, and by the Awash River. The rest of the Ethiopian Dir clans live in southern parts near the Somali border near Dollo Ado and as far as Guure Dhamoole and Negele Boran.
In the Mudug region of central Somalia and all the way to Hiiraan region is another cluster of Dir clans known as the Suure. The Suure have been associated with spreading the Islamic faith in Somalia and the Qadiriya Sufi tariiqa in southren Somalia. The Suure are among the most influential Dir groups in Southern Somalia, and their territories include large areas of the Mudug and Galgaduud regions. Also the Suure have founded major trade cities in the Hiiran area including Alaabay and Kamhanley.
The majority of western scholars (both Italian and British) simply refered to the Surre as the "Dir of central Somalia" without differentiating them, but recent studies in Somalia reveal that the majority of the Dir in Hiiran, Gedo, Jubba and Bakool are divided into two branches, the Qubeyes and Abdalles, both descendents of Suure.
Other branches of the Dir include the ancient Biyamaal Clan who occuppy an area from 50 km south of Mogadishu all the way down to Jilib and Kismaayo, not far from border with Kenya. The Biyomaal of Marka fought against the Italian colonial rulers of Southern Somalia in a twenty-year war known as the Biyamaal Revolt, in which the Dir assassinated several Italian governors.
The Gurgure Dir inhabit the ancient city of Dira Dhawe, which is also inhabited by the Madoobe Dir Issas.[citation needed] The first to arrive were the Gurguras who named the city Dira Dhawe, or "the place that Dir conquered or hit with his spear". Finally, the Issas and other Somali groups followed into the region and the Christian Amharas referred the region to as "Oow-raajaa na Issa na Gurgura" or the region of the Gurguras and the Issas.
Gadsan (or Gaadsan) is one of the largest tribes in Dir, especially the western Dir. They reside mainly in three districts: Liban (Jarrati, Waladaya, Doolow and Guuredhamole), Godey (Iimey and Marole), and Gashamo (Nusdariiq, Marsin, Kabtinuur and Qabridhare). There is also other large population of gaadsan, known as Gaadsan-Qalaawileey in the Shabelle and Jubba regions. In Kenya there is a third division of Gaadsan, known as Gaadsan-Kenya, found in many cities such as Bangal, Garseeni, and Holla.
Political groups associated with the Dir clans include the following groups in Somalia and Ethiopia:
• Issas and Gurgure Liberation Front (IGF) of Ethiopia.
• Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA) of the Gadabursi Dir clan.
• Somali National Movement (SNM) of the Northern Isaaq.
• Southern Somali National Movement (SSNM) of the mostly Mohamed Xiniftire Dir Clans (Bimaal, Mandaluug, and Gadsan) of Jubba, Gedo, Bardheere, and Shabeellaha Hoose region.
• Democratic Liberation Front (DLF) supported Central Somalia Dir groups.
[edit]
Dir subclans
[edit]
Madaxweyn Dir
• Gurgure: The Gurgure are divided into three major groups, Habar Daar, Quwaax and Liiban, who are made of many sub-clans:
o Habar Daar
 Kunduuble
 Cali
 Cabdille
o Quwaah
 Nabidoor
 Gacal Waaq
 Baiido
o Liibaan
 Gufaatiile
 Sanceele
 Sanaye
• Guure
• Akisho
• Wardaai
• Layiile
• Gariire
• Jiido
• Reer Aw Said and Abkeey Haji
o Farah Said
o Abiikar Said
o Sacdi Said
o Nuur Said
o Ali Said
o Cismaan Saciid
o Huseen Said
o Hassan Said
o Cumar Saciid
[edit]
Maha Dir (Maxamed Xiniftire)
• Isaaq (Garhajis, Awal, Arap, and H.Jeclo)
• Biyamaal
o Sa'd
o Ismiin
o Suleyman
o Gaadsan
 Reera-Same
 Adan
 Yoonis
 Cumar Abokor
 Cumarjamc
 Tagaleen
 Fiqicilmi
 Dhaweed
 Odeymarke
 Naleeye
 Fiqinuur
 Cumar-maxamud
 Fiqicigal
 Reer-smail
 Reer-qaasin
 Reer-sacdi
• Dabruube
• Barsuug
• Bajimaal
• Magaadle
• Madiigan
[edit]
Suure (Qubeys and Abdalle)
[edit]
Abdalle (Gutaale)
• Abdi
o Fiqi Muxumed
o Hogar
o Laxmar
• others
[edit]
Nacadoor
• Guuled
• Xaraan
• Ciise
• Qotonsay
• Cirday
• Giir
• Kaahin
[edit]
Goorad

[edit]
Sulayman Abdalle
• Agoon
o Guuled Agoon
o Warsame Agoon
o Cigaal Agoon
o Jalaf Agoon
• Dabac
• Fiqi Khayre
• Cumar
• Haarun
• Siyaad
• Bayr
• Cabas
• Food Cade
[edit]
Qubeys (Lafagaab)
• Tolweyne Qubeys
• Reytoonle
o Faqi Cumar
 Yabarcade Faqi Cumar
 Fiqi Walaal (Aw-caalin, Xaaji Cabdalle)
 Samafale,Maxamud weyne, Aw-Cisman, Maxamud Yare
 Xassan Faqi Cumar
 Rooble Cismaan (Faarax, Weheliye, Maxamed)
 Aw-Macalin (Macalin Muxumed, Macalin Yusuf, Sheekh Cali, Macalin Macow)
 Heeraar
 Fiqi Yaxye
o Caalin Mooge
o Maxamed Abtiudug
• Axadoobe Qubeys
o Cismaan Diidshe (Cismaan Iyiinta)
o Cabdalle Diidshe (Cabaas Iyiinta)
• Yabadhaale Qubeys
o Wayaagle
 Yabarow, Xasan, Cumar, Xeefoow
 Faarax
 Maxamuud
 Dhaayoow
o Miidkasse
 Axmed faarax
 Afrax faarax
[edit]
Mandaluug Dir
(Many Dir believe the Mandaluug are actually Mahe Dir)
• Gadabuursi
[edit]
Madoobe Dir
• Issas of Djibouti and Ethiopia
[edit]
Qaldho Dir
• Nooleh
• others

fiiq dagaalo Ogaadeen ku Madhay: sheekaal

Dagaalo gobolka Fiiq ee ka tirsan dhulka Soomaali Galbeed ayaa waxaa lagu soo waramayaa in ay ku dhinteen dagaalo ka dhacayay degmooyinka Bari Iimay iyo lga hida , waxaana dagaaladii maalmahan socday lagu soo waramayaa in ay ku dhinteen dad gaaraya 90 ruux in kale oo badana ay ku dhaawacmeen.Beelaha Sheekhaal iyo Ogaadeen oo kamid ah Beelaha wada daga Dhulka Soomaali Galbeed (Raaso magaalo)

Ceel Barde ee gobolka Bakool, kuwaasi oo dhexmaraya beelaha Hadamo iyo Ogaadeen 19 ku dhintay.

Garasley; Iimay Bari; Fiiq; Xamaro

reer qudub iyo Mp ay leyihiin Maqaabulku kulamo gaara lahaayeen mudoo yinkaan danbe.
)

Danjire Cawil wexeey saxaafada ka sheegtay ?????

SUNDAY JUNE 12, 2005


Maxamed Axmed Cawil Danjiraha Soomaaliya ee Shiinaha Waa nin ceynkee ah.?


Waxaa 9/6/2005 shir ay golaha wasiirada dowladda faderaalka kmg ah yeesheen uuna shir gudoominayey ra`iisulwasaare Cali Max’ed Geedi lagu magacaabey xubno ay ka mid ahaayeen safiirada Soomaaliya u fadhin doona Shiinaha iyo Qaramada midoobey.

hadaba waxa is waydiin mudan waa nin noocee ah Maxemed Axmed Cawil oo ah ninkan loo magacaabey safiirka soomaaliya u fadhin doona dalka shiinaha, dad badani waa garan karaan shaqsigaas, maahan dublumaasi hore, maahan nin magac weyn ku dhex leh bulshada soomaaliyeed, maahan nin hadaad sifaacan u baratid aad hawl qaran oo noocaas ah aad ku aamin laheyd.

Waa nin dhalin yaro ah waxaa uu shirka soomaalida ku soo biiray xiligii shirku ka socdey magaalada Eldoret ee dalka kenya, waxaa uu ka yimid dal ka mid ah dalalka Yurub waa dalka Sweden wuxuuna sheegaa inuu haysto dhalashada dalka sweden.

Waa nin dhalin yaro ah oo firfircoon aadna u indha adag meel walba si fudud ku gala waxaa uu hadba dabaysha u racaa dhankay u socoto si uusan meelna wax ugu gafin, waxaa uu ka mid ahaa koox soomaali aheyd oo intii uu shirku ka socdey Eldoret ku doodey in ay masiixiyiinta laga tirada badan yahay ee soomaaliya wakiil ka yihiin waxanya dalbadeen in loo qoondeeyo ergo u gaar ah arrintaas waxaa aad uga horyimid ergadii soomaaliyeed ee shirka ka qeybgalaysay.

Waa nin dadka sifiican u yaqaanaa ay ku tilmaamaan nin ku aqdaamta beenta iyo wax isdaba marinta wararka la xaqiijiyey ayaa sheegaya inuu dhawr safaaradood ka qaatoo xooga mushaaro ah oo uu uga badasho xog siin ama jaajuusnimo.

Ninkaan hadda loo magaacabey safiirka soomaaliya u fadhiya dalka shiinaha waxaa uu dad badan u sheegay xiligaas inuu yahay masiixi laakiin dadkaasi waxaa ay ahaayeeen dad uu ku kalsoonaa balse warku waa baxay wuuna dareemay in ergooyinkii shirku xanteen marka laga reebo dad kooban oo ogaa qoraaladii uu ugubiyey ergaygii dowlada kenya ee shirka Elijah Mwangale qoraaladaas oo uu ku saxiixii jiray wakiilka (Somali Christian minority)

Inankaani waxaa uu u noqdey mudadii shirku socdey adeege qorsoon dhawr safaaradood oo shisheeye ah si ay wax uga ogaadaan gunta hoose ee soomaalida sababtoo ah inanku waxaa uu ku hadlaa dhawr luuqadood mararka qaarkood waxaa uu sheegen jiray inuu la shaqeeyo safaaradda Sweden, waxayna dadka sida fiican u yaqaanan ku sifeeyaan inuu yahay nin aan xuduud laheyn oo aan ka shaqeyn karin dan qaran oo gaarsiisan heer safiir.


Dad badan markii ay maqleen in safaaradii Soomaalida ee dalka Shiinaha loo magacaabey Maxamed Axmed Cawil (Jiis) waxaa ay ku noqotay anfariir iyo amakaag sababtoo ah aqoon durugsan ayey u leeyihiin wiilkan, waxayna siyaasiyiin badani garaysteen inaysan Cabdullaahi Yuusuf iyo Cali Geedi dowladnimo iyo in ummadda Soomaaliyeed wax loo qabto dooneyn sababtoo ah waxaa isku qaban waydey maqaamka safaarada Soomaaliyeed ee Shiinaha iyo shaqsiga loo magacaabey oo aan marnaba aheyn shaqsigii hawshaas u qaban lahaa ummadda Soomaaliyeed.

Xogta dhabta ah waxaa ay tilmaamaysaa in magacaabida inankaani ay tahay mid ka timid qoyska reer Cabdullaahi Yuuusf gaar ahaan haweenayda iyo caruurta ay dhashay oo uu inankaani xiriiri fiican la yeeshay ilaa uu gaaray inuu u soo dukaameeyo maalmaha qaarkood markii ay waqti ku filan waayaan.

Wiilkaani ilaa iyo markii la dareemay inuu Cabdulllaahi Yuusuf siyaasad ahaan shirka ku xoogeysanayey una muuqdey inuu guulaysan karo ayuu wiilkani xooga saaray inuu xirirri qaraabanimo la yeesho odaygo wuxuuna in badan ku cel celiyaa markii uu odayga la joogo abti iyo erayo la mid ah sababtoo ah waxaa uu wiilku kasoo jeedaa beesha ay ka soo jeedo Cabdullaahi Yuusuf hooyadiis.

Waxaa uu inta la hubo mar booqdey dhulka maamul goboleedka puntland asagoo la socdo Cabdulaahi Yuusuf intii uusan noqon madaxweynaha Jamhuuriyada soomaaliya xiligaas oo ay in badan oo ka tirsan ergooyinkii shirka shaxaad u tagi jireen maamul goboleedka puntland iyo inay muujiyaan tageeradii ay u hayeen musharaxnimadii Cabdulaahi Yuusuf.

Ayadoo qof kasta oo muwaadin soomaaliyeed ah haddii uu buuxiyo shuruudaha laga doonayo aw xaq u leeyahay inaw xil u qabto dalkiisa haddana waxaa dad badan la yaab!!! ku noqotay sida ay geedi iyo cabdulaahi yuusuf ugu bareereen inay xil noocaan ah u magacabaan qof sheegatay inuu wakiil u yahay urur masiixi ah oo soomaali ah, iyo sidoo kale qof lagu xantay inuu yahay adeege dowlado shisheye amaba si cad ugu adeegay dowladdo shisheeye in lagu aamino safaarad ka mid ah kuwa ugu muhiimsan safaaradaha ay leedahay jamhuuriyada soomaliya taas oo muujinaysa inaysan geedi iyo cabdullaahi yuusuf wax dan qaran ah ka shaqeyney oo aysan fahansaneyn in maantay loo baahan yahay dadka u adeegayaa qaranka inay noqdaan dad daacad u noqon kara danaha dalkooda .




Axmd Cali Faarax
Muqdisho Soomaaliya.
axmednaa59@ hotmail.com

Qoraal cabasho ah oo ay soo saareen waxgaradka iyo odayaasha Beesha Qubeys (Maxay cabashadaasi ku saabsan tahay…?) Posted to the Web Aug 01, 15:24

Beesha Qubeys


Qoraal cabasho ah oo ay soo saareen waxgaradka iyo odayaasha Beesha Qubeys (Maxay cabashadaasi ku saabsan tahay…?)
Posted to the Web Aug 01, 15:24

Muqdisho:-Waxgarad ka tirsan Beesha Qubeys ayaa soo saaray qoraal ay kaga cabanayaa haweenka Bulshada rayidka ah, waxayna qoraalkoodaas ku sheegeen inay aad uga xun yihiin war laga sii daayay Idaacadaha ka howlgala Muqdisho kaasoo lagu sheegay in haweenka bulshada rayidka ah ay faragelin qaawan ku hayaan arrimaha hoose ee beesha Qubeys. “Haweenka bulshada rayidka ah waxaan u soo jeediynaynaa in ay gartaan shaqada ay u hayaan ummadda Soomaaliyeed fahana kala baxaan arrimaha hoose ee beesha Qubeys” ayaa lagu sheegay qoraalka ay soo saareen waxgaradka beesha Qubeys. Sidoo kale qoraalkaas waxaa lagu sheegay in dowladda Federaalka KMG-ka ah ee Soomaaliyeed ay la aragto waxgaradka beesha faragelinta qaawan ee ay haweenka bulshada rayidka ah ku hayaan arrimaha beesha Qubeys, waxayna ka xuseen qoraalkooda haweenka ku bahoobay magaca (SSWC). Waxaa kaloo qoraalkaas lagu sheegay in haweenkaas xaqa ka maqan ay u doontaan beelihii ay u dhasheen, iyaodoo waxgaradkaasina ay sheegeen in beeshu ay leedahay Ugaas lagala soo xiriiri karo arrimaha qoyska, isaga ayaana goyn kara arrinta beesha, ciddii uu u soo xulana ay beeshu taageerayso kuna kalsoon tahay. Qoraalkaan oo uu soo gaarat Puntlandpost.com ayaa waxaa ku saxiixnaa odyaasha beesha Qubeys oo ay ka mid yihiin: Maxamuud Geedi Cilmi, Buule Cabdi Barre, C/llaahi Xuseen Yuusuf iyo afhayeenka beesha Qubeys Axmed Max’ed Daahi. Maxamed Xuseen Jimcaale (Jantiile) Puntlandpost,Muqdisho,Soomaaliya

SAXAFADAHA SOMALI LAND IYO AKISHO MADAXWEYNE DIR WEXEY KA QOREEN

SAXAAFADA SOMALILAND IYO beesha Akishe WEXEY KA QOREEN


Ololaha ururada siyaasadda oo jaho-wareer ku riday reer Gebilay
G
ebilay (Haatuf): dad-weynaha ku dhaqan degmada Gebilay ayaa ololaha xaamiga ah iyo hirdanka ururada siyaasadda kala kulmay jiho-wareer siyaasadeed, taas oo ay dhakofaar ka qaadeen ololaha iyo wax kala jiidashada ururada siyaasadda, waxayna taasi ka dambaysay gulufyo aan nasasho lahayn oo ay ururada siyaasaddu labadii bilood ee la soo dhaafay si is-dabajoog ah ugu galaabixiyeen degaamada Gebilay iyo weliba Allaybaday oo hore uga tirsanaan jirtey degmada Gebilay, laakiin hadda ah degmo cusub, doorashadase hoos imanaysa Gebilay.
Weriyaha Haatuf ee degmada Gebilay Maxamed xasan ayaa war-bixin nooga soo diray sida ay dhaqdhaqaaqyada iyo ololaayasha siyaasadeed ee ururada siyaasaddu u saameeyeen dareenka iyo xaaladaha dadka reer Gebilay iyo weliba dhacdooyinkii u dambeeyey ee dhinaca siyaasadda, waana tan war-bixintii.
“Laga soo bilaabo bishii hore ee Ogost ilaa bisha Sabtembar waxa degaamada Gebilay si isdaba joog ah ugu soo qul-qulayey wufuud ka kala socday ururada siyaasadda iyo xukuumadda, kuwaas oo isu daba marayey degmada Gebilay, waxaana ururada sida weyn ugu hirdamay ka mid ah UDUB< KULMIYE iyo UCID, iyadoo uu ururka HORMOOD oo isna degaankaa xafiisyo ku lihi sheegay inuu hadda qaadayo olole weyn oo siyaasadeed.
Wufuudda ururada siyaasadda iyo dawladdaba waxa inta badan horkacaya xubno u dhalasho ahaan ka soo jeeda degaamada Gebilay, waxayna qolo waliba kulamo guud iyo gaar gaar ahba la yeelanaysay odayaasha iyo hogaamiyayaasha kala duwan ee bulshada reer Gebilay.
Ururka UDUB ayaa 21-kii Oktoobar degaamadaa ka bilaabay hawl-gal uu ku xulayo xubnaha musharaxiinta golaha degaanka uga tartami doona degaamadaa, taas oo uu musharax kastaa keenayo ilaa 60 qof oo taageerayaal ah, dadkaasna magacyadooda la gelinayey diiwaan yaal xafiiska UDUB ee Gebilay, wuxuuna qof kasta oo musharax ahi bixinayey 320,000 Sh.Sl. Laakiin bilowgii xulista xubnaha musharaxiinta UDUB waxa uu abuuray loollan xoog leh oo ay isku riixayaan xubnaha UDUB ee sharaxani, taas oo uu xataa ficiltanku hoos u gaadhayey mararka qaarkood xintan qabiil. Laakiin musharaxiinta qaar baa soo gud-biyey ilaa magacyo ay tiradoodu gaadhayso ilaa 8 kun oo qof, waxayna ragga is sharaxay makarafoono ku xidheen baabuur, kuwaas oo ay ku wareegayey magaalooyinka iyo degsiimooyinka kaleba, isla markaana waxa meelo badan laga tumayey ciyaaro hidde iyo dhaqan ah.
Laga soo bilaabo tan iyo maalintii uu siyaasiga Cumar Carte Qaalib fagaaraha khayriyadda Hargeysa kaga dhawaaqay inuu ku biiray, iskana sharaxayo ururka BIRSOL waxa degmada Gebilay laga dareemayey inay taasi ku yeelatay saamayn ka duwan intii uu hore ugu lahaa ururka BIRSOL, taas oo ay dad badani hadal hayaan Cumar Carte.
Xafiiska BIRSOL ee Gebilay mar booqday waxa ku xoonsanaa dad badan . “Waa siyaasi ruug cadaa ah oo buuxin kara kaalintii Ina Cigaal, waa ninkii yidhi ciidamad faqashtu ha isu dhiibeen SNM” iyo ereyo kale ayey ku hadaaqayeen dadkii aan kula kulmay xafiiska BIRSOL ee Gebilay. Sidoo kale ninka madaxda ka ah xafiiska HORMOOD ee Gebilay, Ibraahin Axmed Xasan (Sangal) ayaa ii sheegay inay isaga iyo taageerayaashiisuba ku biireen ururka BIRSOL. Hase yeeshee ururka KULMIYE ayaa isna ka mid ah ururada saamaynta ku leh ama taageerada ka haysta degaamada Gebilay iyo Allaybaday.
Ololaha isdaba jooga ah ee ay ururada siyaasaddu ku galaabixiyeen degmada Gebilay waxay keentay inay dadku iswaydiiyaan su’aalo ay ka mid yihiin “UDUB imisa ayey ina siinayaan, KULMIYE imisa ayuu ina siinayaa, UCID imisa ayey ina siinayaan IWM”. Sidoo kale waxa uu ololaha siyaasadeed ee ururadu keenay inuu jilib waliba gooni isu tiriyo oo uu iswaydiiyo sedka uu meesha ku yeelanayo iyo in la suuradiyo inta iyo kuwa ay yihiin beelaha degaanka Gebilay ku abtirsadaa
Ardaayada ku abtirsada degaamada Gebilay inkasta oo ay tiro ahaan kala badan yihiin, hadana inta ay doonto tiradiisu ha ahaatee Ardaa waliba sedkiisa ayuu doonayaa. “Beesha Cabdalla Abokor UDUB waxa laga siiyey saddex xubnood, wayna diiday”sidaa waxa yidhi niman odayaal ah oo ka mid ah oo ka mid ah odayaasha degaamadaa. “Beesha Ugaadhyahan iyo beesha Gabooyaha UDUB lagama qayb gelin musharaxiinta UDUB”ayey odayaashu intaa ku dareen. Dhinaca kalena maalintii shalay waxa magaalada Gebilay ka dhacay mudaharaad lagaga cabanayo ururka UDUB, mudaharaadkaa oo ay soo abaabuleen hogaamiyayaasha mid ka mid ah Ardaayada ku dhaqan degaamada Gebilay. “Hadii aanu nahay beesha Akishe waxaanu si weyn uga soo horjeednaa go’aankii uu ururka UDUB ku aasayey xuquuqda beesha Akishe, waxaanuna taageersanahay BIRSOL”, weedhahaas iyo kuwa kaleba waxay ku qornaayeen boodhadh ay siteen dadka mudaharaadayey, iyaga oo socod ku maray wadooyinka magaalada Gebilay, waxayna ugu dambayn socodkooda ku tageen xafiiska ururka BIRSOL. “500 oo beerood ayaanu ku leenahay degaanka Gebilay, markaasaa hadana nala yidhi kuma jirtaan degaanka”sidaa waxa tidhi Kawsar Sh. Maxamed oo ka mid ahayd dadkii mudaharaadayey. Sidoo kale Rashiid Aw-Muxumed oo ka mid ahaa mudaharaadayaasha isna yidhi “1960-kii beesha Akishe waxa laga doortay C/raxmaan Sh. Cumar, 1964-kiina waxa degmada laga doortay Cali Mawliid, markaa miyaa la odhan karaa degaan ma tihidin”. Laakiin xafiil-tanku meel walb wuu gaadhay oo xataa waxa muran ka taagan yahay ninka madaxda ka noqonaya xafiiska BIRSOL ee Gebilay, iyadoo ay laba qolo isku haystaan hebel ka dhig iyo hebel ka dhig.
Sida ay sheegeen ilo xog-ogaala ahi marka la isu wada geeyo xubnaha ay dawladaha hoose u soo sharaxayaan 8 urur-siyaasadeed waxay tiradoodu gaadhaysaa ilaa 168 xubnood oo safka hore ah iyo 168 xubnood oo sugayaal ah, taas oo marka la isu geeyo noqonaysa 236 xubnood, iyadoo ay tirada kuraasta lagu tartamayaa tahay 21keliya, taas oo macneheedu yahay in tirada 236-ka ah looga baahan yahay 21 qof oo keliya, sidaa darteed 215-ka kale daadka ayaa qaadi doona.
Dhinaca kalena xafiiska guddiga doorashooyinka degmada Gebilay ayaa markii u horaysay doraad laga furay magaalada Gebilay, iyadoo gelinkii dambe shalay la filayey inay ururada siyaasaddu liiskooda musharaxiinta u gud-biyaa xafiiska guddiga doorashada, laakiin maamulka dawladda hoose ee Gebilay ayaa iyaguna dhinacooda soo saaray qoraal ay ku dal-banayaan inaanu xafiiska guddiga doorashadu ismicin qof kasta oo ka mid ah musharaxiinta ururada siyaasadda ee aan iska bixin lacagta cashuurta ah ee laga qaadayo qof kasta oo isu soo sharaxay golaha degaanka, iyadoo qof walba laga qaadayo 320,000 Sh.Sl. Arintaasna waxa durba ka cawdeen qaar ka mid ah ururada siyaasaddu.
Arimuhu sida ay doonaan ha ahaadeen, laakiin ilaa hadda si sugan looma qiimayn karo cidda ay guusha kama dambaysta ahi raaci doonto iyo sida ay xaaladdu ku dambayn doonto”.

BIMAAL DIR AND THEIR STRUGGLE AGAINST AYR OCCUPIERS

Biimaal of Merka and the Habr Gedr (with the Biimaal eventually losing). Strugggle over Bimaal territory

Particularly dangerous and unresolved conflicts currently obtain in the following areas:
-- Lower Shabelle: Conflicts over control of lucrative plantation land, the export of bananas, and the port of Merka already spilled over into armed conflict between the Habr Gedr and the Hawadle in 1994 (with the Hawadle losing) and the local Biimaal of Merka and the Habr Gedr (with the Biimaal eventually losing). In the past several months, competition involving two rival banana exporting companies (the old Italo-Somali Somalfruit Company, and the new competitor Dole) has led to serious divisions within the Habr Gedr clan, and to armed conflicts between the militias of the two companies. While the prospect of Habr-Gedr clans realigning on the basis of competing multinational corporations (reer-Dole vs. reer-Somalfruit?) and starting a banana war has been a source of humor for some observers, the underlying competition to control valuable agricultural production in a militarily occupied zone will remain explosive. -- Hiran: The Hawadle clan was swept out of their home town of Beled Weyn by a Habr Gedr militia in the summer of 1994. Until control of Beled Weyn is resolved, it is unlikely that this region will remain stable. -- Lower Jubba: The Jilib area has been heavily contested by numerous clans, and has produced dozens of small-scale armed incidents. It remains an uneasy fault line between the Ogadeni, the Habr Gedr militia, and numerous other smaller militias, including the Biimaal, Hawadle, Gaaljaal, and Sheekal. -- Kismayo: The city remains divided between Marehan and Mijerteen, who co-exist uneasily but whose relations are affected by the Marehan's fluid relationship with the Ogadeni clan, which was driven out of the city in February 1994. It is unlikely that the Ogadeni will attack the city in the near future -- they are too dispersed and disorganized, despite the efforts of "Imam" Siyaad Hussein to try to rally the Ogadeni to reestablish their stake to Kismayo -- but eventually the Kismayo residents will have to reach an arrangement with them. Increased commercial or donor activity at the port will almost certainly be a flashpoint of conflict between Mijerteen, Marehan, and Dolbahante interests trying to control profitable activities. On the other hand, Gen. Morgan has been able to defuse chronic tensions in the past; for example, after a dispute between the Marehan and Mijerteen militias in Kismayo, Morgan appointed a Marehan to head the airport committee. Another longer- term source of tension will be the growing numbers of Somali refugees now being forced out of camps by the Kenyan government; most of the refugees are urban Darod, and will be unable to return to Mogadishu. Kismayo is the alternative choice for these urbanites. But their migration into the city and region alters clan demographics, and easily arouses communal tensions, as housing, water, and economic opportunities there are quite limited. Gen. Morgan has tried with some success to control the flow of returnees, welcoming only Mijerteen Somalis into town. Ogadeni returnees are swelling the population centers in the lower Jubba valley. Unless the Mogadishu problem is solved and that city opened up again, urban Darod pressure on Kismayo will grow and could easily spill over into open fighting. -- Mogadishu -- Control over the seaport and airport will be the most contentious issues in the coming months. Recent efforts by businessmen and "moderates" in the "Peace Committee" (described below) to establish joint control over the port and airport are welcome signs that conflicts over these resources may be contained, and an indicator that the merchant class may be calculating that its interests are better served by open and reliable trade routes than by a mafia-like economy of plunder and extortion. It remains to be seen whether this coalition has the strength to prevent militia leaders from pursuing disruptive tactics designed to polarize communities.
None of these flashpoints for armed conflict appear to pose a danger of widespread, sustained fighting.
http://www.netnomad.com/menkhaus.html




mic 22 - 03 - 2006 - Wararkii ugu dambeeyay ee arrimaha Soomaaliya
Bayaan cad oo Birem ka soo saarat magalada Muqdisho

Dhaqdhaqaaqa wax iska caabinta Biimaal(BIREM) wuxuu caddeynayaa in weerarkii lagu qaaday
- Qarax ka dhacay magalada Marka
- Bayaan halgalka ururka Burem

saldhigga booliska ee marka habeenimadii talaadada soo geleysay ee ku beegneyd 20kii maarso,saacadu markii ay aheyd 7;30 daqiiqo ee fiidnimo,( saacadda marka),uu ahaa mid ay fuliyeen ciidamada BIREM ee Aagga 3aad,wuxuuna ka mid ahaa howl-galada qorsheysan ee looga xoreynayo deegaanka, burcadka Indhacadde iyo xulufadiisa, loona soo celinayo sharaftii iyo karaamadii umadda,si ay uga tashadaan aayahooda.
Dilka,silcinta,kufsiga,dhaca iyo cagajugleynta ee ay ciidamada Indhacade kula kacaan dadka deegaanka,marna ma hakineyso halgganka BIREM ay ugu jiraan xoreynta deegaankooda,weliba waxay sare u qaadeysaa siina adkeyneysaa niyadda halgamayaasha.
Indhacadde inuusan laheyn damiir banii'aadanimo,waxaa idiin caddeynaya sidii uu u dilay ninka lagu magacaabo Xasan Abow oo u dhashay beesha biimaal.
Xasan Abow oo bishaan 12dii laga soo qabtay tuulada Sagaaroole ayaan la geynin xabsi ku sheegyada Indhacadde,waxaana lagu hayay meel qarsoon oo ka tirsan magaalada Shalambood,waxaana meydkiisa lagu soo tuuray 18kii bishaan inta u dhexeysa Buufow iyo Ceel-wareegow,isagoo gacmaha iyo lugaha ka xir xiran afkana ay sharooto kaga dheggantahay.
Waxaana jirkiisa ka muuqanayay dhaawacyo gugubid iyo raadad garaacid ah oo ay u badantahay 6dii casho ee ay hayeen la jir-dilaayay,kadibna uu u naf baxay sidii loo garaacaayay.
Sidoo kale,Indhacade in uusan u naxyn qaraabo iyo xigaalo waxaa idiin caddeynaya dilkii ay ciidamdiisu u geysteen 19kii bishaan maarso nin ganacsade ah oo la oran jiray Warsame Gaab ayna isku heyb yihiin,kaasoo isagoo ku sugan tuulada Mustaqbal ee K/waareey ay ciidamadiisu weydiiyeen canshuur in uu ka bixiyo dibiyo uu horey usoo gatay,ka dibna markii uu dood ka keenay ay baas ku fureen sida uu Indhacadde ku amaray.
Maraxuumkaas ayaa dadkii yaqaanay waxay sheegeen in uu ahaa nin ganacsade xalaal quute ah isla mar ahaantaasna necbaa xadgudubyada ay ku kacaan ciidamada Indhacadde.
BIREM waxay cambaareyneysaa falalka xadgudubyada ah ee ka dhanka ah banii'aadinimada ee uu caadeystay Indhacadde una geystaan dadka gobolka,waxaana u soo jeedineynaa in uu faraha kala baxo howlaha amar ku taagleynta ah ee uu halkaas ka wado.
Ugu dambeyntii waxaan cid walba u cadeyneynaa in BIREM si isdabajoog ah ay howlgalo uga fulineyso gobolka Sh/hoose illaa ay ka gaarto ujeeddooyinooda.
Halaggan - Adkeysi - Guu.

Afhayeenka BIREM ee Muqdisho
Xaaji Ibraahim Cali (Garuun )
Midnimo Information Center wararka@midnimo.com




mic 18 - 03 - 2006 - Wararkii ugu dambeeyay ee arrimaha Soomaaliya
BAYAAN UU SOO SAARAY AFHAYEENKA BIREM EE LONDON
London 17/03/2006
Bayaan lagu caddeynayo in howlgalada ay waddaan Dhaqdhaqaaqa wax iska caabinta beesha Biimaal ee marka lasoo gaabsho loo yaqaano BIREM ayaa saakay laga soo saaray magaalada London ee cariga Engriiska,Bayaankaas oo uu ku saxiixnaa Afhayeenka BIREM ee UK. Maxamed Cusmaan Yaraas ayaa wuxuu u qornaa sidaan:-

Bayaan - Xafiiska BIREM ee U.K.London

Ka: Dhaqdhaqaaqa Iska Caabinta Beesha Biimaal xafiiska Af-hayeenka U.K.London
Ku: Ummadda Soomaaliyeed meel kastay ku suganyihiin
Ku: Madaxweyne C/llaahi Yuusuf Axmed rugtiisa
Ku: Ra'iisul wasaare cali Maxamed Geeddii rugtiisa
Ku: Guddoomiyaha Barlamanka Shariif Xasan rugtiisa
Ku: Xubnaha Dowladda iyo xildhibaannada rugtooda
Dhaqdhaqaaqa Iska Caabinta waxuu caddeynayaa inuu yahay dhaqdhaqaaq jira, soona jirey ilaa muddadii ay dhibaatada ka jirtey dalka . Waxuu ilaa muddadii uusoo jirey kasoo hor jeedey in la daadiyo dhiig Soomaaliyeed, isla markaana ku han weynaa inaysan dhibaatada guud ahaan Ka dhamaato dalka dhinacyadiisa kala duwan. Waxuu ku hanweynaa inay dib usoo noqoto nidaam iyo kala dambeen, iyo dowlad wax kala hagto, taa oo marna aan rajada laga goynin.
Caddeyn:
- Dhaqdhaqaaqa BIREM waa dhaqdhaqaaq kasoo horjeedo maamul ku sheegga xaaraanta ah ee xoogga ku haysto gobolka sh/hoose - Kuwa idaacadaha wararka siiyey ee isku sheegey inay soo qabandoonaan , cirib tiri doonaan dhaqdhaqaaqa waxaan caddeyneynaa
1- Inay yihiin kuwa usha u sida tuugada xoogga ku haaysto gobolka, aysanna matilin beesha ay ku abtirsadaan.
2- Waxii maanta ka dambeyana waxuu dhaqdhaqaaqa ula dhaqmayaa inay nagala mid yihiin kuwa ka soo carraabey galgaduud.
3- Waxaan halkaan ka caddeyneynaa in dhaqdhaqaaqa iska caabinta uu ka weyn yahay wax la cirib tiri karo, kana jiro dalka gudahiisa iyo debeddisaba.
4- kuwa u shaqeeyo maamulka waxay ka tirsan yihiin calooshood u shaqeystayaal, gumeysiga u adeego, waxaana intaa loogu dul qaadanaayey inay ka waantoobaan, hase yeeshee waxaan u caddeyneynaa, inuu dhaqdhaqaaqa tiradooda iyo inta ay ka kooban yihiin uu la socdo, kuwaa oo waayahaan dambe isku deyaayey inay si gaar ah oogu adeegaan gumeysiga madow ee gobolka ku amar taagleeyo,soona siyaadiyey cbburinta dadka lagu haayo, taa oo ka dhaqlatey diidmada iyo kasoo horjeedka laga soo horjeystey.
- Waxaan madaxa kusoo duubanney karfanteenna , waxaan dib usoo celineynaa dhaxalkii awoowyaasheenna, kuwa aan taa aqooninna, waxaan leennahay waa la idin barayaa, dersigeedana waa la idin dhigayaa.
Codsi:
DFKM waxaan u caddeyneynaa , inuu gobolka sh/hoose uu ku jiro gumeysi madow, in ka badan 15 sannadood, saa darteed waxaan codsaneynaa taageero, hiil iyo ho, taa oo ah xaq uu gobolka ku leeyahay dowladda,isla markaana laga soo saaro canbaareyn cad, arrinta ay ku dhaqaaqayaan kuwa meesha ku amar teegleeya.
Af-hayeenka BIREM ee U.K. London
Maxamed Cismaan Yaraas
Xafiiska Midnimo ee Lodnon UK
Midnimo Information Center wararka@midnimo

GADSAN IYO QUBEYS SUBCLANS

• Gadsan
o Reera-Same
 Adan
 Yoonis
 Cumar Abokor
 Cumarjamc
o Tagaleen
 Fiqicilmi
 Dhaweed
 Odeymarke
 Naleeye
 Fiqinuur
 Cumar-maxamud
 Fiqicigal
 Reer-smail
 Reer-qaasin
 Reer-sacdi
Qubeys (Lafagaab)
• Tolweyne Qubeys
• Reytoonle
o Faqi Cumar
 Yabarcade Faqi Cumar
 Fiqi Walaal (Aw-caalin, Xaaji Cabdalle)
 Samafale,Maxamud weyne, Aw-Cisman, Maxamud Yare
 Xassan Faqi Cumar
 Rooble Cismaan (Faarax, Weheliye, Maxamed)
 Aw-Macalin (Macalin Muxumed, Macalin Yusuf, Sheekh Cali, Macalin Macow)
 Heeraar
 Fiqi Yaxye
o Caalin Mooge
o Maxamed Abtiudug
• Axadoobe Qubeys
o Cismaan Diidshe (Cismaan Iyiinta)
o Cabdalle Diidshe (Cabaas Iyiinta)
• Yabadhaale Qubeys
o Wayaagle
 Yabarow, Xasan, Cumar, Xeefoow
 Faarax
 Maxamuud
 Dhaayoow
o Miidkasse
 Axmed faarax
 Afrax faarax

Beesha SUURE Direed oo Maxkamad lagu Magacaabo Al-Nasri ka furatay Muqdisho Maantay.

Beesha SUURE Direed oo Maxkamad lagu Magacaabo Al-Nasri ka furatay Muqdisho Maantay.

Munaasabad balaaran oo maanta loo sameeyey ku dhawaaqista maxkamad islaami ah oo ay leedahay beesha Dir ayaa ka dhacday xarun ku taala nawaaxiga Warshadii Hore ee kokakoLa ee xaafada Hodon ayadoo munaasabadan ay ka soo qeyb galeen inta badan mas’uuliyiinta sar sare ee golaha maxkamadaha islaamiga Soomaaliyeed.



Munaasabadan ayaa waxaa ka soo qeyb galay xubno ay ka mid ahaayeen guddoomiyaha golaha fulinta maxkamadaha Sheekh Shariif Sheekh Axmed, kuxigeenka dhinaca amniga ee golaha Sheekh Muqtaar Roobow Abuu-mansuur, xoghayaha golaha fulinta maxkamadaha Sheekh Maxamuud Sheekh Ibraahim Suuley, guddoomiye kuxigeenka golaha fulinta Sheekh C/qaadir Cali Cumar, guddoomiyaha iyo guddoomiye kuxigeenka daladda Culimada Sheekh Axmed Yaasiin iyo Sheekh Nuur Baaruud Gurxan, guddoomiye kuxigeenka golaha shuurada maxkamadaha Dr. Cumar Iimaan, Ugaaska beeshaasi Sheekh Axmed Bile, Abwaano uu ku jiro Abshir Bacadle iyo xubno kale iyadoo khudbooyin faro badana halkaasi laga soo jeediyay kuwaasoo dhiirigelinayay in dhamaamba beelaha iyo dhalinyarada ka soo jeeda beesha Dir ay ku mideysmaan maxkamada maanta halkaasi looga dhawaaqay ee loogu magac daray maxkamada Al Nasri.



Guddoomiyaha golaha fulinta maxkamadaha Sheekh Shariif oo halkaasi ka hadlay ayaa u mahad celiyay beesha Dir oo uu sheegay inay xil weyn iska saareen sidii ay uga mid noqon lahaayeen maxkamadaha islaamiga Soomaaliyeed isagoo xusay in beesha Dir ay ka mid tahay beelaha ugu badan ee taageerada siiya golaha maxkamadaha safka horena uga jiray halgankii lagu raacdeeyey isbaheysigii la dagaalanka argagixisada.



“Maxkamadan waxaa la ii sheegay inay dhamaan beelaha Direed wada leeyihiin runtiina waa arrin aad u qiimo badan, waxaana lala socdaa inay ka mid tahay beelaha aadka ugu waaweyn meelo badana dega, oo xuduuda Soomaaliya dhaafsan, macnaheeduna wuxuu yahay beesha Dir oo dhan inay ka shaqeyneyso diinta islaamka, meel walba oo ay joogaana waa inay ku talo galaan inay ka tirsan yihiin maxkamada Al Nasri ayna hoos tagayaan” ayuu yiri guddoomiyaha golaha fulinta maxkamadaha Sheekh Shariif.



Sidoo kale, guddoomiyaha maxkamada Al Nasri oo loo magacaabay Sheekh Maxamuud Sheekh Ibraahim Suuley ahna xoghayaha guud ee golaha shuurada maxkamadaha islaamiga, wuxuuna sheegay in beesha Direed ee maanta maxkamada ku dhawaaqday looga baahan yahay meel kasta oo ay joogto inay taageerto maxkamadan isagoo sidoo kalena tilmaamay in maxkamada Al Nasri howsha ugu badan ay ka qaban doonto gobolada ay beeshu degto meel kasta oo ay joogaan



“Waxaan isku balan sanahay ILLAAHEY-na marqaati nooga yahay Dir oo islaamka ku dhex jirta inaan noqono ee aanaan noqon Dir oo islaamka ka sareysa, waxaan kaloo carabka ku adkeynayaa in dadkan ay diyaar u yihiin inay dalkan ka difaacaan Gaal iyo wixii soo raaca, waxayna isla qireen in nin walba oo ka mid ah beesha Dir oo Diinta ka Ridooba ee Gaal noqda uu weyn doono xubinimada beesha Dire aana Dili doono” ayuu yiri guddoomiyaha oo beelaha kale ugu baaqay inay ka hortagaan ninkii ka horyimaada Diinta islaamka balse aysan oran Gaalkeena maxay ka rabaan Gaalkoodaba ma sheegnee.




Januune Geedi
Muqdisho, Somalia
Januune46@hotmail.com

KU NOQO BEYJKA WARARKA
Cowslafil.com

WAR SAXAAFADEED BEESHA SALEEBAN CABDALLE SOO SARTAY XILIGII MAXAKIIMTA

SOO BAXAY XILIGII MAXAKIIMTA


Warsaxaafadeed: Beesha S/Cabdalle (Surre-Dir) oo qaadacday maamulka GalMudug Bismillaah, Alxamdulilaah, Allahumma sali calaa sayidinaa Muxammad.

KU: Dawladda Federalka ah
KU:Maxkamadaha Islaamiga ah
KU:Galmudug

Ujeeddo:
Caddayn inaysan Beesha Saleebaan Cabdalle qayb ka ahayn nidaamka cusub ee laga hirgaliyay degaano ka tirsan gobolka Mudug, islamarkaana aan lagu casumin dhismihiisa kaasoo dhisiddiisu muddo bilo ah ay ka socotay halkaa.

Beesha iyo Degaankeeda:
Beeshu waxay ka deggentahay Mudug deegaanada iyo magaalooyin ay ka midyihiin
* Towfiiq,
* Galhagoog,
* Ceeldhanaane,
* Dhinowda,
* Garacad,
* Jarriiban,
* Balli-busle iyo, Seemade iyo tuulooyin badan aanaan soo koobi Karin.

Sida la wada ogsoonyahay waxaa dhawaan looga dhawaaaqay qaar ka mid ah deegaannada Mudug maamul loogu magac daray Galmudug oo xaruntiisu tahay magaalada Gaalkacyo gaar ahaan Baraxley. Maamulkaas waxaa soo dhisay beesha Sacad ee wax ka degta koonfurta Mudug.

Hadaanahay odayaasha, aqoonyahanka iyo indheergaradka Saleebaan Cabdalle, marka hore waan soo dhaweyneynaa jiritaanka maamulka Galmudug iyo cid kasta oo soomaali ah oo rabta inay ka gudubto fowdada jirta si loo yareeyo dhiigga macnadarrada
ah ee daadanaya.

Waxaan talo iyo walaaltinimo ugu soo jeedinaynaa maamulka cusub ee Galmudug inay dhowraan deris wanaagga iyo islaanimada oo aysan oggolaan duullaamada xaqdarrada ah ee degaanadooda ka askuma ee ku wajahan beelaha deriska sida Beesha S/Cabdalle iyo kuwa kaleba. Waxaa Degaanka ka jira maamul kale sida Puntland kaasna S/Cabdalle qayb kama aha waxaana wadaagnaa xeerar deriseed iyo islaanimo wanaagsan, sidaas ayaana idinka rajeynaynaa inaad u dhaqmi doontiin inshaa Allah.

Waxaan kaloo u soo jeedinaynaa in beeshu ku darto tallaabooyinka ay qaadeen, horumarinta degaanka, xaqdhowrka dhirta iyo daaqa iyo weliba duurjoogta.

Odayaasha:

1. Dr. Mohamed Aden Ali
2. Dr Khaliif Mohamed Nur
3. Sh. Mahad Mohamed Ali
4. Inj Aden Noor dhegegood
5. Nabadoon Mohamud Nuryare Mohamed (Gaani)
6. Nabadoon Siciid Mohamud Hussein (Indhoole)
7. Inj Abshir Jamac Hussein
8. Suldan Abdulahi Mohamed Ali
9. Inj Abdi Khaliif Warsame
10. Saed Jama Guuled dhegajuun
11. Nabadoon Ahmed Sadiq Farah
12. Mohamed Hersi Juun
13. Nabadoon Ahmed Mohamed Aliseed
14. A/Karim Hussein Ali
15. Inj Sayidcumar aden Guled
16. Ganacsade Haji Baarre
17. Sharaf Mohamed Ali




around the villages of Towfiq and Awle, some 200 km east of Galkayo

. It was sparked off by revenge killings for the deaths of eight fishermen near Afbarwaqo,

BEELAHA MADAXWEYNE DIR EE LAYIILE IYO REER AW SACIID

Qoomiyada Caws-Lafil ( Dir ) waxaa lagu tiriyaa inay ka mid tahay kuwooga ugu taariiqda fog. deegaanka geeska afrika. haday noqon lahayd xaga hogaanka, siyaasada, xadaarada, waxaana ka soo jeeda runtii hogaamiyaashii diimeed ku wooga ugu caansan gayiga soomaaliyeed mana aha mid qoraal lagu soo koobi karayo muhiimada ay inoo leeyihiin geesiyaashaasi oo ahaa hormuudka saldanadihii aanu cadceedu ka dhici jidhin;
waxaanu qaybtaan maanta ku soo qaadanaynaa qabiilka ” Layiile,,

Layiile Sidaan Lawada Socono Waxay ka Tirsan Yihiin Umadda Direed ee Faraha Badan. Waana Beel dagan konfurta Soomaliya oo ay qaybo fara badan kaga kala dadsan yihiin Kismayo Ilaa Beledweyne. Mida kale, Reer Awa Saciid iyo Layiile anaga xagayaga waa ka mid oo waa isla Cali Madaxweyn. 2-1995-kii anigu waxaan isku dayay in aan uruuriyo Tariikhda Dadka Direed meelkasta oo ay joogaan Geesta Afrika anigoo isku dayay in aan Baaro waxa ay Reer Galbeedku ka qoreen dadka Direed. Isla Markaana Baari tankeygi waxaan ku Tagay Dalka Djabouti, Dire- dhabe, NFD, iyo Waqooyiga Soomalia. Marka ugu Horeeysa qoraaga I.M Lewis ee Ingiriiska ah oo Waqooyiga ka qoray Bugaagta ay ka mid yihiin “Nomadic Democracy”oo ku saleyn jiray Buugaagtiisa Baritaano hore oo Qoraaga Talyaaniga ee la yiraahdo Cerruilli ayaa aad uga hadlay Tariikhda Layiile Ali Madaxweyne.

In uu layiile Ali Madaxweyn ahyeen nimanka ugu awooda weyn Madaxeeyn Direed ilaa 300 sano. ka Horna ay Jabiyeen Labo Beelood oo kala ah Isaaq iyo Ogaadeen iyo Ajuurankii ka talin Jiray Dhanka Qalaafe. I.M Lewis “The Layiile Ali Madaxweyn Dir Became Highly Dispersed and Lost Their Tribal Integrity” 2) I.M Lewis waxaa uu qoray oo uu sheegay in Dadkan Direed ee Layiilaha ah ay kala Daadasho, iyo Firir weyn ku Dhacay oo ay ku Dhex Milmeen Ummado kale oo Dir iyo Shisheeyaba Leh. Waa sidii ku Dhacday Beelah Baajimaal iyo Dabruube oo Labaduba ku Dhamaaday Dagaladii ay Ajuuraanka Qalaafo kula galeen qarnigii 1700. Sanadkii 2000-2001 anigoo isku Taxluujinaya inaan ka Salgaaro oon Wax Ka Ogaado Dadkaan Direed iyo Tariikhdooda ayaan Waxaan Tagay Dalka Ethiopia oo aan Safar Dhulka ku kala Maray ilaa Dira Dhabe—Jijiga–Hargeysa—Sheeikh— Burco—Boorame-Arabsiya iyo meelo kale oo fara badan waxaanan soo ogaaday Taarikho bada:

Magaalada Diraa Dhabe iyo Jigjiga intaa u Dhexeysa Waxaan kula kulmay Dadka Indheer Garadka iyo kuwa Tariikhaha Uruuriya oo u kala Dhashay Dadka Direed Sida Barsuuga, Gurgurah, Akishoda, O Layiile, Gadabuursi iyo Ciisaba. Waxaa la ii sheegay in Layiilah Badankiisu ay Dhex Dagaan Gurguraha oo ay Dad isugu xigaan. Waxa kale oo la ii sheegay in ay Degaan Layiilah Carro Ogaadeen oo xitaa Qaar kamid Ahi ay Xukumaan Ogadeenka Qaybo Dhan. Waxaa la ii sheegay in Gabyaaga weyn ee Dhoodaan uu Asal ahaan ka soo Jeedo Beesha Layiile oo waxaa La’yidhi Ninkii Layiile ee Dhalay ayaa Nin Layiilaha Dilay Una Cararay Deegaanka Ogadeenka Isagoo Wata Canugiisi iyo xaaskiisii. Odeyaashii aan La kulmay ee Layiile ee Gurgurah la Dagaanaa waxa ay ii Sheegeen in Kala Daadasho Xoogan ay ku dhacday Beesha Layiile oo ay Badh Dhankaas Nageele– ilaa Guure Dhaamoole ay Gurrah Wada Dagaan, Badhna ay Waqooyi Galbeed Hargeeysa xageeda jiraan, laakin xooga Beesha uu u Badan yahay Dhankaan Howdaka. Magaalooyinka Harta sheeikh iyo Qabri bayax Layiile fara badan ayaan Kula kulmay. Bartamihii 2000, Waxaan Soo Gaadhay Magaalada Hargeysa oo aan ku soo Dagay Xaafada la Yiraahdo Xero Awr. Malin maalimaha ka mida, ayaa Dagaal xoog Badan ka Dhacay xaafad Xero Awr oo ilaa 400 oo Nin ay isku Soo Baxeen oo ay Suuqa ilaa Xafadah Dhexdeedi la is Eryadaay:

Maalintii Ayaanu Ku Barjaynaynay Aqal waxaanan La fadhiyay niman Isaaq oo Habar Awal ah waxaa la igu Yidhi Waxaa Dagalamay Beel Habar Awal ah iyo Layiile. Anigii yaab ayay igu Noqotay Arrintii, Gadaal ayaa waxaa la iiga sheegay in Layiilaha ay ku Badan Yihiin Magaalada Hargeeysa oo ay Si Wayn Isu Dhalaan Reer Gadiid oo ka mid ah Habar Awal, Waxaa ay Iisheegeen Ragaas inkastoo ay Layiilah aheyn Isaaq Hadana Reer Gadiika ayaay isla Dhiig Baxaan Layiilah. Maalintii uu Dagaalka Dhacay Ka Dib Ayaa Waxaanu Israacnay Labo Nin oo Midna Gurgure yahay midna Surre laakin ku Dhashay waqooyiga, waxaanu Fariisanay Guri uu leeyahay nin Layiile ah oo odey u ah Layiilah Xafada Dagan Waxaana Lagu Yidhi nin Direed oo Konfurta ka Yimid ayaa Doonaya inuu kula kulmo. Ragii meesha iigu Yimid waxa ka mid ahaa Cabdisamad X. Cabduulahi iyo Xasan Cabdi. Ragaan ayaa ii Sheegay in ay Dadkooda ay Dagaan Ethiopia Dhanka Hawd oo ay Qaarkalena ay Mandaluug Uwada Guureen Kismayo iyo Hiiraan oo ay la Dagaan Dirka Dalkaas. Waxa kale oo ay ii sheegeen Layiilaha in ay Rag iyaga ka mid ah Ay Soo Dageen Waqooyiga Hargeeysa 200 sano ka hor, Markii ay soo Dageen la Ximiyay oo ay Dagaalo Fara Badan Galeen Oo Markaa Mag ( Diyo ) Farabadan loo Qabsaday oo ay Sidaa Darteed Diyada ku Darsadeen Beesha Hargeysa Dagta ee loo Yaqaan Reer Gadiid inkastoo Aysan Iska Heyb Aheeyn:

Ragaas waxa ay ii Sheegeen in ay isku Dad Yihiin Guurah iyo Gurgurah Waxa aynaa ii Xisaabsheen Xildhibaanada Barlamaanka iyo Dowlad kilinka Shanaad ku Jira ee Gurgure iyo Guureba Sidii ay Yihiin Rag Layiila ah. Qabiilka Direed ee Reer Dood Maalin Niman Isaaqa Ayaan Qaad la Cunay Markaas Ayaa Ruux u soo Galay oo uu ku Yidhi Ninkan Idiinla Fadhiyaa Yuu Yahay waxaa ay ku Yirahdeen Waa Nin Direed. Markaas ayuu Ragii ku xanaaqay oo uu Yidhi, War Soo Idinkoo Dhan Dir MaTihiin, Isaaqow Maxaad ka Wadaan. Ninkii Markaanu Sheekeysanay in aan nin Direed oo Reer Mahe Dir ah u Sheegtay oo Ladhashay Maxamed Xiniftire ayaa (Lilmo Indhihiisa ku soo Joogsatay) Waxaa uu ii sheegay in uu 70 sano jiro Walina Uusan Horey u arkin Qof Dir Sidaan u kala sheeg sheegi kara, Odeygii ayaa i Weydiiyay Miyaad Maqashay Reer Dood, Hadii Aad Tahay Wiil Direed oo Maxamed Xiniftire dhalay ? Waxaan ugu Jawaabay Maya ee ii Sheeg, Tolkeey aan Bartee? Odeygii Waxaa uu igu Yiri Waxaan Ahay Reer Dood, Reer Doodna waa Dad Direed oo La daga Habar Jeclo, kana Mida Habar Jeclo Laakin ka soo Jeeda Maxamed Xiniftire. Waxaa u ii Sheegay Odeygaan in Fananda Weyn ee Guduudo Carwo Ay Ka Soo Jeedo Reer Dood, Waxaana uu i Siiyay Walakeed oo Jigjiga Dagan oo uu Igu Yiri Raadi:

Qabiilka Maxbuubta Aad sheegeyso waxan kula kulmay Nin Darawal ah oo Dagan Magaalada Abaarso Habeen aan ka Doodnay Dirnimada iyo Shirkii Carta ayaa Rag waxaa i Weeraray Habar Awal ah oo Yidhi Wax Dir la Yidhaada Majiraan, Geelaa Carta ku sameeyay. Ragii Isaaq ahaa ayaa waxaa iiga soo dhex Baxay Nin Difaacaya Dirnimada oo Markii Danbe Si Cad u Yiri Anigu Waxaan Ahay Nin Direed oo ma Diidayo Dirnimo. War Yaad Dir ka Tahay ayaan ku Idhi Darawalkii Waxaa uu iigu Jawaabay Anigu waxaan Ahay Nin Direed oo Maxbuubta ka Mida oo La Dhiig Baxa Reer Shirdoon (Habar Awal). Markii aan sii War Wareystay ninkii waxaa soo Baxday in Ninkaan uu Yahay Gaaljecel– Maxbuub oo Waligood la Dagaanaa Rerkan Habar Awal Lana Dhiig Baxaan Reer Shirdoon. Ninkaan adinku Hawiye u arka ama iska Daaya Isagu Waxaa uu ii Sheegtay in uu Yahay Maxbuub Dirna Yahay Dalkaa Waqooyigana uusan ka Xigin Nina. oo uu Yahay Dal Direed. Magaaloyinka Arabsiyo-Awbare-Gibiley-Ijaara -Taysa-Darbiga Waxaan La kulmay Rag fara Badan oo ay ka Mid Yihiin Mandaluug reer galbeeda iyo Gurgure( Reer awbare) iyo Madiigaan iyo Beel weynta Gadabuursi oo Si Wacan iiga Waramay Tariikhaha Dadka Direed:

Lasoco Qaybaha Xiga,,,,,,,,,

Beesha Layiile Waxa ay ukala Baxdaa Sidan,

1 Abkeey Xaaji oo Aderkii Ah

2 Faarax Saciid

3- Abiikar Saciid

4- Sacdi Saciid

5- Nuur Saciid

6- Cali Saciid

7- Cismaan Saciid

8- Xuseen Saciid

9- Xasan Saciid

10- Cumar Saciid

Sunday, April 24, 2011

BAH DIR ROOBLE BEESHU GABOOSE KA SOO JEEDO

Ninkii kugu yiraahda Isaaq Dir maha waxad tustaa Afar Masalo: 1)Gabeygii Guba oo Habar Yoonis Ugaskoodi leeyahay Idoor waa dire hadey Duulan soo kicis dhageysii. 2) Arabka Isaaq usheeg inuu dhalay Saciid Dhulbahante oo Saladiintoodu Bah Dir ku noqdaan Muse Carre. 3) Majeerteenka markuu Bah Dir sheegto in uu Isaaqnimo un kuso Gali Damal Muuse ( Bah Dir Rooble Traditional polities library of Congress BAH DIR Muqdisho/Maqdishu bf.1331 Muqdisho/Maqdishu sultanate established (in 20th century often referred to by the Italian version Mogadiscio) Sultans - Abgaal lineage - ... - ... Cumar/`Umar ... - ... Axmed I/Ahmad I ... - ... Maxamad I/Muhammad I ... - ... Axmed II/Ahmad II ... - ... Maxamuud/Mahmud ... - ... Cali/`Ali ... - ... Cismaan/`Uthman ... - ... Maxamad II/Muhammad II *1860* Axmed III/Ahmad III --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Majerteen c.1600 Majerteen or Harti sultanate founded 1927 incorporated into Italian colony Sultans - Keenadiid clan, Bah Dir lineage - ... - 1815 Maxamuud IV/Mahmud IV 1815 - 1842 Cismaan II/`Uthman II 1842 - 1844 Yuusuf IV/Yusuf IV 1844 - 1860 Maxamuud V Yuusuf/Mahmud V ibn Yusuf 1860 - 1927 Cismaan III Maxamuud/`Uthman III ibn Mahmud --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Hobyo 1878 Hobyo sultanate split off from Majerteen Oct 1925 incorporated into Italian colony (known as Obbia) Sultans - Keenadiid clan, Bah Dir lineage - 1878 - 28 Sep 1911 Yuusuf Cali/Yusuf ibn `Ali 1911 - Oct 1925 Cali Yuusuf/`Ali ibn Yusuf


Bah dir Rooble Majeerteen iyo Boqor Cismaan ayuu Sayidku gabaygan u tiriyey isagoo difaacayey Daraawiishta iyo halgankoodii oo Boqor Cismaan laf-dhuungashay ku noqday:


BAH DIR ROOBLE WAA BEESHA GABOOSE EE U BADASHAY WAAGII DANBE MAGACOODA DAMAL MUUSE, LAGANA TAKOORAY AMA ERYAY KONFURTA



Bahdir inay majnuun wada tahaan marag u haystaaye Waa niman masakhan oon ahayn midhaha Daaroode Waa niman siddii Moolaadhabe miciya dheerdheere Waa niman maddada oo cir weyn oo masiiba ahe Waa niman lafaha mudhuxsadoon muruqna reebayne Waa niman haddad min u furtoo malab durduursiiso Ama aad maqaarreyda geel xero u meegaarto Waa niman inay mahad naqaan laga malaynayne Cir milshiyey dhulkoo malaf ka baxay maalka oo dararay Waa niman martidu eeyan tegin madal ay joogaane Waa niman madaal inay baxshaan loogu muhanayne Waa niman haddaad gabadh markab ah maqaasiinka u geyso Wuxuu fiidka horre mayracoo marakabeeyaaba Waa niman masaladood jabtoo hooyadood mira e Waa niman misciliisha ugu jira sina u meerkeede waa niman candhada laga maraa milil ka dhiiqaaye Waa niman maruubada lafoo minidu dhaaftaaye Waa niman siddiii mowle bahal laga mareertaaye Waa niman mareeg lagu dabraa sida maliid awre Waa niman madhuushoodu tahay mooye qaab darane Waa niman margigu siiban yahay iyo mataanuhuye Waa niman macaankii jannada meel aan ku lahayne Waa niman futadu maastahoo duud maloogna ahe Waa niman miskaha lagala dhacay qaare madax weyne Waa niman minjuhu ay yihiin miiqan taag darane Gabaygaa ha laguu maadsadee mariya oo geeya Markab nagaga sii qaada oo meel walba u dhoofsha Nimankii makhaayadaha fadhiyey naga mihiibsiiya

Cabdullaahi Sheekh Ismaaciil) BIYOMAAL DIPLOMAT AND DEPUTY PRIMEMINISER OF SOMALIA

Abdullahi Sheikh Ismail (Somali: Cabdullaahi Sheekh Ismaaciil) was the deputy prime minister and foreign minister in the transitional government of Somalia. He was appointed to that position on December 1, 2004 as part of a partial government formed by Prime Minister Ali Muhammad Ghedi. He lost these positions in August 2006 when Ghedi formed a new government. Unlike many other members of the government, Ismail was not a member of one of the factions which has fought for control of the country since the early 1990s. He was previously the foreign minister of Somalia during the mid 1990s.
Abdullahi Sheikh Ismail was the ex-Somali Ambassador to Russia under the Siad Barre government. Ismail is from the powerful Dir clan, and from the Bimal of the Marka region. He lived in Addis Ababa in the past ten years, and has close connections with the Ethiopians.

THE BIYOMAAL MAXAMED XINIFTIRE DIR CLAN

The Biyomaal (Somali: Biimaal) is a Somali clan that forms part of the Dir and live along the coastline of the southern part of Somalia.
The Biyomaal of Merca fought against the Italian colonial rulers of Italian Somaliland in a twenty-year war known as the Biyamaal Revolt, in which the Dir assassinated several Italian governors. During the Biyamaal Revolt several prominent leaders were killed and their memorial monuments can still be found in Merca in the Shabeellaha Hoose region.
The Biyomaal were one of the self-governing clans of 17th century and they had a Sultanate that governed the coastal area of the Shabeellaha Hoose region.
During the last decades of Somali Civil War (1988 - current), Biyomaal were one of the unarmed clans in Southern Somalia but have retained their influence in the policy of the failed state.

Major sub clans
Kalafow,
Ismiin
Saleebaan
Abeena Guray
Sacad

XEER DIR CUSTOMERY LAW

Anno Revenge killing by one clan or sub-clan against another in the
absence of diya payment.

Barax Broadly translated into English as ‘mixing’, it is a practice not
accepted by Somali shari’a courts as the distortion of Islamic law
through mixing with other sources of law.

Dhig Aspects of xeer guud which apply to penal matters, including
murder (qudh), aggression (qoon), and thievery (tuugo).

Dhaqasho Aspects of xeer guud which apply to civil matters, including issues
of family (xilo), private property (xoolo), territory (deegan), and
hospitality (maamuus).

Diya A main principle of xeer, this is the ‘blood compensation’ paid by
one diya group to another, usually in the form of livestock.

Diya group Small social units that take collective responsibility for their own
security, as well as undertaking an obligation to compensate
other groups for any harm committed by one of its members.

Dumal The practice of forcing marriage between a widow and a male
relative of her deceased husband.

Gar dawe A xeer proceeding that strictly applies customary law in an
adversarial manner to determine guilt and innocence.

Godobtir The practice of forcing marriage between a young girl and an
aggrieved clan as part of a diya payment.

Higsian The practice of forcing marriage between the sister of a deceased
wife and the widower.


Madani Neighbourhood-based ‘vigilant groups’ which arm themselves to
provide for local security.

Masalaxo A xeer proceeding that focuses on mediation to identify a
solution that is acceptable to all parties.

Mooryaan A social category for bandits and uncontrolled militia.
Shahad Solicitation of financial and material support by Somali
traditional elders.


Suluh Broadly translated into English as ‘resolution’, it is a practice
applied by Somali shari’a courts to integrate Islamic, traditional
and statutory laws into a single workable decision for a case.
Xeer Somali customary law.

Xeer begti Respected and qualified elders who are entrusted to maintain
knowledge of applying xeer.
5
Xeer gaar Specific aspects of xeer that regulate localised economic
production relations for clans and sub-clans specifically
involved in pastoralism, fishing, frankincense harvesting, etc.

Xeer guud Generally applicable aspects of xeer which are generally
applicable across all Somali clans, and regulate day-to-day
social life, civil and penal matters, and dispute settlement.

Xissi The most fundamental stipulations of xeer for which
unquestioned historical
adkaaday precedent exists.
6

NAME DIR

Waa Maxay Macnaha Uu Leeyhay Magaca (Dir) Oo Ay Ku Abtirsadaan Qoomiyada Ugu Badan Somalia ?

SIDA MAR DHAW INOO CADAAN DOONTA TAARIKHDII DIREED EE HORE

WAA LA ,AASAY, OO BEEN IYO BUHU BAHAA FARA BADAN AYAA LAGU

DAHAARAY, DABOOL ADAG AYAA LAGU DADAY, CULEYS FARA BADAN IYO

MIISAAN AYUU CADOWGU SAARA.

QAAR XITAA DIR AH AYAA LA SIRAY OO LOO DIDAY MAGACOODA.

SOMALIDU SE WEXEY TIRAAHDAA ” SIRAA MA HOODO”.

INSHA ALLAH RUNTA WAA LA SOO QODI DOONA!

SIXIRKA SADRIGA DIREED WAA LAGA SAARI DOONA!

[i]MAGACA DIREED MARKA LA SOO BAARAY WAXA LAGU SIFIYAY DOOR

MACNE

1. DIR WAXAA LA YIRAAHDAA DAD (GENERIC TERM FOR PEOPLE)

2.DIR WAXAA KALE OO MACNEHEEDU NOQONEYSAA “FIR” AMA WAX LAGA

SOO ASKUMAY, DUNJI, AMA ABKII HORE.

SOMAALIDII HORE AYAA WAXA AY DHIHI JIREEN ” NEEFKA XOOLAHA AH

DIRKIISU WUXUU KA SOO JEEDA” IYAGOO U JEEDA WAXAA UU KA SOO

FARCAMAY.

3. DIR WAXAA LA DHIHI KARAA WAA NIN (MAN). WAXAA KALMADAN

XITAA KU DHAWDAHAY KALMADA (DHIIRI) OO AH NIN GEESI AH OON

CABSAN.

MAGACA DIREED WAXA LAGU MAGACAABAY LABA MAGALO OO KALA AH

DIRADHABE IYO BANADIR.

MID WAXAA BAXSHAY BEEL WEYNTA GURGURE-AKISHO (MAXADWEYNE DIR)

OO QARNIGII 1300 MAR AY LA LOOLALTAMAYEEN OROMADA AY GUULO

FARA BADANA KA SOO HOYEEN OONA AY KA QABSADEEN MEEL FAGAARO

AH OO AY U BAXSHEEN ” DIRAA-DHABE” AMA MEESHII UU DIR KA

TAAGAY WARANKIISI.

DHANKA KALE, 1500 XILIGII AY OROMADA XOOGEYSTEEN AYAA WAXAA

DHACDAY IN BEEL DIREED OO GALBEEDKA DAGAN AY SOO RIIXEEN

CIDAMADII XABASHIDA EE GUREY LA DAGAALAMAY IYO GAALADII

XILIGAAS LA SOCDAY EE PURTAQIISKA, BEESHAAN DIREED OO AAN

MANTA U NAQAANO BIIMAAL AYAA KA SOO GUURTAY WAQOOYI GALBEED

OO SOO DAGTAY GOBAL AY WAAGAAS U BAXSADEEN –BANADIR– AMA

BANKII DIREED. BARIGAAS OO AY BEESHAN DIREED EE BIMAAL KA SOO

TAGTAY GALBEEDKA-WAQOOYIGA WAXA KA HARAY LA IYAGA KA MID AH

OO MANTA DALKAAS DAGAN OO ” GAADSAN AAN U NAQAAN HADTAN

[DIR+CLAN+CHART.gif]
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1 Response for “Waa Maxay Macnaha Uu Leeyhay Magaca (Dir) Oo Ay Ku Abtirsadaan Qoomiyada Ugu Badan Somalia ?”

1.
suure says:
April 24, 2011 at 9:02 am

MAGAC DIREED WAA SIDA AY SUURE SHEEGEEN WAA MAGAC FIR, DAD, ASAL, AMA SINJI MACNIHIISU YAHAY. WAA MAGAC MACNIHIISU YAHAY RAG, NIN, GEESI SIDA DHIIRIID. WAA MAGAC DAD AMA FARAC LAGU TILMAAMO OO GABAYADA WAXAAD KU MAQAASHAA GABYAAGOO LEH “DIRKII HORE WAXA AY ORAN JIREEN AMA DADKII HORE”. WAA MAGAC ASAL U DHIGMA. SIDAAS WAXAA LAGA HAYAA ODEYAASHII HORE EE SUURE (CABDALLE IYO QUBEYSBA) OO AHAA QAAR MAGACA ABKOOD AAD U JECLAA ILAA HEERNA MAGACOODA DOORTAY IN AY HOOS U DHIGAAN SI KA AABAHOOD DIR LOO MAQLO.

SUURE MARKA MUXUU YAHAY MACNIHIISA

MAGACA QURUXDA BADAN EE LABAAD WAA MAGACA SUURE. SUURE WAXAA LA YIRI WAXAA DHALAY ODEYGII MAHE DIREED ISAGOO DA,DIISU TAHAY XAWAALI 80 SANO JIR AYAA MAXAMMED XINIFTIRE OO MALIN TIMAHA U JARAYA ABHII KU YIRI AABE WAAN GABOOBEY BAAD TIRAAHDAA XOOGA LAAKIN MAAD GABOOBIN ISAGOO KA YAABAY TAMARTA IYO MURUQA QADAADKA MAHE DIR KA MUUQDA. QADADKIISI UU XIIRAYAY INTUU EEGAY AYUU YIRI AABE GABAR AYAAN KUU DOONEYNAA WALEE INAADAN GABOOBINE.

GABAR 26 SANO JIRTA OO TALISO LA ORAN JIRAY AYAA LOO DHISAY ODEYGII MAAHE DIREED OO SIDEETENKII KOR U DHAAFAY. WUXUU DHALAY WIIL UU KU DARDAARMAY IN UU DHAXLI DOON XIKMADIISA WUXUUNA U BAXSHAY SUURE. KAMADA SUURE BARIGII HORE WAXAA LOOGU’ YEERI JIRAY RUUXA MASKAXDA BADAN, MAANKA SAN, AMA FAHMADA IYO XIKMAD BADAN.

KALMADA SUURE WAXAA LOO ISTICMAALAA SIDAAN HORE UGU QEEXAY IN KASTOO AF SOMALIGU ISBAD BADALAY. TUSAALE AHAAN:

SUURTA GAL MAAHA MARKAAD TIRAAHDID WAA WAXAAN AQLIGA GALI KARIN. TAASO KUU CADEYNEYSA KAMADA ASAL AHAN MASKAXDA AYAY KA TIMID

TUSAALE KALE: MARKAAN DHANO HEBEL ” KIBIR IYO SUURE BADANAA” MACNAHEEDU WAA ” QOF KIBIR IYO AQLI BADAN ISKU DARSADA QOFKU. CALAA KULI XAAL SUURE OO AH MASKAX BADAN MACNEHEEDUNA KA SOO JEEDO “SUURTO GAL-AQLI GAL AMA MASKAX- AYAA LOOGU WAN QALAY SUURE. MAHE DIREEDNA WUXUU SHEEGAY IN UU SUURE UU NOQON DOONO XIKMADIISI OO KOOBAN.
2.
suure says:
Your comment is awaiting moderation.
April 24, 2011 at 9:10 am

QURBA JOOGTA INGIRIISKA JECEL HA KU INDHO KUULATO “SUURE MACNIHIISA ” OO ENGLISH VERSION AH. MAGAC DIREEDNA MA JIREEN SUURE LAAN

Awadwar@yahoo.com

Dear Brothers

I would love to thank you first for the wonderful forum. We need someone to promote and rise our awareness about the illustrious Dir clan.

The orgin of the Suure name

Let me add an old story about the orgin of the Suure name. As we all know by now Suure was the youngest son of Mahe Dir and he was the last one born to Mahe Dir shortly before he passed away, may Allah bless his soul.

It was said by the Dir of old, Mahe Dir one day looked at his youngest son and named him “Suure” which means in old Somali the “Wise one” or literally one who was very intelligent. Know unfortunately, this word is extinct and obsolete in modern Somali,but Suure meant “Intelligent”, Wise as in Somali we use today:

“Kibir iyo Suure badanaa”, which literally means one is full of pride and intelligency. Also the name “suure” is used in the Somali phrase:

“Maskax iyo Suure badne”

“Suurto Gal maaha”

“Waa Suuro gal ama waa aqli gal”

Therefore, in the old Somali spoken by the Dir Suure use to mean intelligent one or one who is wise. Now, this is why the Dir elders of Mudug used to say, “Suure” meant the wise one and it is the nick name given to the last born of Mahe Dir.
# posted by Anonymous Awadwar@yahoo.com : 9:22 AM

Mansha Allah!

Maansha Allah! Bravo! Bravo!

This is very interesting and your wonderful analysis is mind boggling.

Honestly, I have never asked or even pondered about what the heck “Suure” meant. Isn’t it a bitch, the Suure whether Qubeys or Abdaalle are obsessed with the name Dir, but yet no one ever pondered or told us what Suure meant.

I think the sad thing about the Suure of Mudug region is they forgot their own name, Suure.

Why is it that no one uses the Suure name? Why are we so obsessed with Dir, Dir, Dir and more Dir.

Don’t misunderstand me, I quite frankly love my “Dirness”,but why is it we dont even know out own Suure name and its history?

I think it is a damn shame and disgusting the Suure do not use their wonderful name. Everybody in Somali will tell you they know Qubeys, fiqi muhumad, fiqi walaal, agoon, fiqi yahye, nacadoor, dabac,ahmed farah, Etc. But the name Suure is rarely heard.

I can tell you what Dir means and we all heard that ten thousand times. That freakin Dir means:

1)the ancestor “fir” ama “ab” ama Farac.

2) we heard Dir means “Dhiiri” boldness, Dirir “Worrior”.

3)Dir means “genetically related to” like when somalis said, “neefkan Dirkiisu wuxuu ka soo jeedaa”

4)Dir also means “people”, “race” or as in old poetry Dir meant People or man.

But I have never heard anybody explain Suure and its meaning and I love your wonderful insight.

It is extremely neat, fantastic and brillent periodly.

You are wise my brother and you, yourself must be some type of a Suure”wise one”, Genius, intelligent, and insightful.
================================
Kibir iyo Suure badanaa”, which literally means one is full of pride and intelligency. Also the name “suure” is used in the Somali phrase:

“Maskax iyo Suure badne”

“Suurto Gal maaha”

“Waa Suuro gal ama waa aqli gal”

Therefore, in the old Somali spoken by the Dir Suure use to mean intelligent one or one who is wise. Now, this is why the Dir elders of Mudug used to say, “Suure” meant the wise one and it is the nick name given to the last born of Mahe Dir.

HABAR YONIS AND HABAR JECLO ISAAQ DIR CLANS

Habar Yoonis
Main article: Somali clan
The Habar Yoonis (Somali: Habaryoonis) is a Somali clan, part of the larger Isaaq group. Habar is the maternal grouping in the Somali tribal segmentations. Said Garxajis married, from the Daarood sub-clan, Geri Koombe (Aba-Yoonis). The most numerous Said Garxajis are from his Daarood (Aba-Yoonis) wife and hence the maternal segment's name. The clan includes Eidegalla, Arap and Ayoup of the Isaaq clan. Also included in Habar Yoonis is the Eliye of the Issa clan, and finally the Harti sub-clan of the Abgaal and Sacad sub-clan of the Habar Gedir, both of which comprise of the larger Hawiye clan. As well, the Sheikhal, Saleebaan, and Ceyr of the Hawiye, the Ashraaf clan of the Rahanweyn are also included. The Habar Yoonis is a sub-clan of the Sheik Isaaq clan. They are famous for being the only sub-clan in Somaliland that has a sizable population in all the cities of Somaliland and Ethopia's Somali region. One of the ancestral cities of the Habar Yoonis is Burco and the Aroori plain, which they still inhabit and control to a great degree.


The Burco countryside where the Habar Yoonis dominate to this date.
Contents
[hide]
• 1 Clan structure
o 1.1 Cali Saciid
o 1.2 Carre Siciid
o 1.3 Isaxaaq care Siciid
o 1.4 Ismaciil Carre Siciid
o 1.5 Cabdalle Ismaaciil
o 1.6 Muuse Cabdalle
o 1.7 Abokor Looge
o 1.8 Faarax Maxamed
• 2 Cumar Cabdalle
• 3 Adan Cumar
• 4 Mohamed Adan
• 5 Xildiid Maxamed
• 6 Cismaan Xildiid
• 7 Xirsi Cismaan
o 7.1 Ceynaashe Xirsi
o 7.2 Sugulla Ceynaashe
o 7.3 Muuse Ismaaiil
o 7.4 Yoonis Ismaaciil
• 8 Musa Care
• 9 Has Three Sons
• 10 Damal Muse
o 10.1 Habar Yoonis Sultans
o 10.2 Idaares Abdalle
• 11 References
• 12 External links

[edit] Clan structure
Saciid Ismaaciil (Garxajis) Is Nick name and Has two sons
[edit] Cali Saciid
(Hassan Haaji and Faarax haaji) Faarax Haaji 1)Ismail Faarax and abdi Faarax
Ismail Faarax 1) Reer ciagaale dheere 2) Reer collow 3) reer Amarre 4) Reer AWAD 5) Reer aw cabdi 6) reer xasan xirsi 7) reer cali xirsi 8) reer cadaawe

HASSAN Haaji, 1) reer samater 2) reer siyaad 3) abdi hassan 4) cismaan hassan 5)cumar xasan 6)jidh jidhan
[edit] Carre Siciid
• Carre Saciid (larger group)
Carre had seven sons:
• Ismaaciil Carre (Cabdale, Muuse and Yoonis)
• Muuse Carre(Ibraahim, Hassan and Damal)
• Isxaaq Carre(Kaliil, Cabdalle, Qaasim)
• Dandaan Carre
• Kuul Carre
• Gambo Carre
• Makaahiil Carre
[edit] Isaxaaq care Siciid
1)Cabdalle Isaxaaq 2)Qaasim Isaxaaq 3)Kaliil Isaxaaq
Cabdalle Isaxaaq= Ahmed Hassan and Hussein Hassan
* Hussein Hassan, ( heer ugaadh, ahmed liig, and cali abdalle).
* Ahmed Hassan, (mahamed ahmed, hussein hassan, and (geeda saluug, salah geel))
[edit] Ismaciil Carre Siciid
Ismaciil Carre, a branch of the Habar Yoonis, is considered to be the largest family branch of all branches within Somali clans. He is the only 4th generation descendant of Isxaaq who is buried along him in his tomb.
His lineage was: Ismaciil, son of Carre, son of Said, son of Ismaiil, son of Sheikh Isaaq bin Ahmed. Ismaciil had three sons: Musse Ismaciil (Gadhweyne and Reer Cawl), Abdalle Ismaciil (Cumar Abdalle, Idarees Abdalle and Muuse Abdale) and Yonis Ismaciil (Sacad Yonis). Ismaciil Carre members are recognized to be the backbone of the SNM struggle against the rule of Somali dictator Siad Barre. Ismaciil Carre members live mostly in the Hawd Ethiopia, Burco, Erigabo, Nugaal, Sanaag and Togdheer regions of Somaliland.
Three Sons of Ismaaciil Carre
1. Muuse Ismaacil (reer Awl + Gadhweyn)
2. Yoonis Ismaaciil (Sacad Yoonis)
3. Cabdalle Ismaaciil (majority of this section)
[edit] Cabdalle Ismaaciil
Cabdalle Ismaacil had three sons, the largest of his descendant are among the Cumar Cabdalle (Omar Abdalla).
1- Idrays Cabdalle a-Muuse idarays -xasan muuse -xasan magan -xasan buureed b-Max/ed idarays c-Siciid idarays
2- Muuse Cabdalle 3- Cumar Cabdalle
[edit] Muuse Cabdalle
1- Abokor Looge 2- Faarax Maxamed
[edit] Abokor Looge
A- Cigaal Abokor 1)Maxamed Cigaal (reer Maxamed Casse) 2)Xassan Cigaal (reer Diiriye) 3) Beyle Cigaal subdivided into 1) Bagaalo (Muuse cabdi + Maxamed cabdi) 2) Farax cabdi and 3)Ismaaciil cabdi 4) Maax Cigaal (reer maax).
B- Muuse Abokor (divisions of Muuse also missing)
C- Cali Abokor: 1. Hagar Cali ( Rooble Hagar, Faarax Hagar ) 2. Xasan Cali ( divisions of Muuse also missing)
[edit] Faarax Maxamed
A- Xasan Faarax B- Cali Faarax (Bah Warsangali + Cali Xasan) C- Jibriil Faarax +Xuseen Faarax(Ba-Gumaroon)
D- Cabdi Xasan Faarax)1)CUMAR CABDI{2}GADIID CABDI E- Allamagan Faarax
[edit] Cumar Cabdalle
had three sons:
A- Ugaadh Cumar (a sub clan by itself) B- Kaliil Cumar C- Adan Cumar (which is the most numerous at this junction).
[edit] Adan Cumar
3 sections:
1. Cigaal Adan (grouped into Gumbuur)
2. Maxamed Adan (the most numerous)
3. Cilmi Adan (reer Cilmi)
[edit] Mohamed Adan
2 sections:
1. Xildiid Maxamed (the most numerous)
2. Rooble Maxamed (Carabala).
A- Baho Rooble B- Reer Samatar (the most numerous)
Rooble/carabala, are the providers of Akils (Caaqil) for their alliane Baho ismail (Rooble Maxamed+Idarays cabdalle+Abokor xildiid)
[edit] Xildiid Maxamed
4 sections:
1- Xasan Xildiid (grouped within Gumbuur alliance) 2- Xuseen Xildiid (reer Xuseen): A- Ismaaciil Xuseen B- Samtar Xuseen c- Galab Xuseen.
3- Abokor Xildiid (reer Abokor): A- Cali Abokor (most numerous) B- Ibraahin Abokor
4- Cismaan Xildiid (the most numerous)
[edit] Cismaan Xildiid
1. Mumin Cismaan
2. Cali Cismaan (Ba-Dhulbahante)
3. Cabdi Cismaan (Ba-Dhulbahnate)
4. Maxamuud Cismaan (Ba-Dhulbahnate)
5. Xirsi Cismaan.
6. Ibrahim Cismaan
7. Iidle Cismaan
[edit] Xirsi Cismaan
8 sections:
1. Ceynaashe Xirsi (17 sections)
2. Siciid Xirsi (reer Weyd + reer Waraabe + reer Cigaal + Cabdi )
3. Cabdi Xirsi (Cawd and Diiriye)
4. Warsame Xirsi
5. Faahiye Xirsi (geedi and ducaale)
6. yuusuf Xirsi
7. Cali Xirsi
8. Xildiid Xirsi.
[edit] Ceynaashe Xirsi
17 sections
1. Axmed Ceynaashe
2. Liibaan Ceynaashe
3. Sugulla Ceynaashe ( 18 sections)
4. Guutaale Caynaashe
5. Guuleed Caynaashe
6. Xirsi Caynaashe
7. Samaale Caynaashe
8. Faarax Caynaashe
9. Ciise Caynaashe
10. Butiye Caynaashe
11. Maygaag caynaashe
12. Kooshin Caynaashe
13. Cumar caynaashe
14. Cigaal Caynaashe
15. Cabdi Caynaashe
16. Suubaan Caynaashe
17. Wacays Caynaashe
[edit] Sugulla Ceynaashe
1. Diiriye Sugulla ( Bah Makahiil and Baha Diiriye)
2. Axmed Sugulla
3. Roble Sugulla
4. Maxamuud Sugule (bah Adam madoobe)
5. Ducaale sugule (bah Adam madoobe)
6. Maxamed Sugule (bah Adam madoobe)
7. Wacays Sugule
[edit] Muuse Ismaaiil
The Muuse Ismaaciil sub-clan of the Habar Yoonis is the second in population after the Cabdalle Ismaaciil. They inhabit the Sanaag region in Somaliland, and some parts of Sool around the district of Xudun. The Muuse Ismaaciil are the traditional inhabitants of the city of Erigavo. Some sections of the Muuse Ismaaciil (reer Cawl) settle in Burco and parts of Ethopia around Gorgor and Qalocan area of Wardheer district. They traditionally had their own sultan who governed the eastern sections of the Habar Yoonis.
• Sultaan Ducaale Muuse(1890-1955)was the first M.Ismaaciil sultan
• Sultaan Cali Suldaan Ducaale (1920-1977)
• Sultaan Rashid Sultan Cali the present sultan (b.1955).
Muuse Ismaaciil tribal divisions are:
• Salax Muuse
• Maxamed Muuse (urursuge)
• Saalax Muuse ( Tuurwaa)
• Yoonis Muuse.
The Tuurwaa are the most numerous and they are three sections:
• Muuse Tuurwaa
• Jibriil Tuurwaa (Xasan and Yoonis) (Qori Jarato)
• Cismaan Tuurwaa
The Cismaan and the Muuse Tuurwaa are the main divisions in terms of population in this stage of segmentation and they spilt as the following:
Cismaan Tuurwaaa:
• Xaamud Cismaan
• Cawl Cismaan (reer Cawl)
Xaamud Cismaan, 3 sections:
• Maxamud Xaamud
• Cabdale Xaamud
• Cabdi Xaamud
• Cawl Cismaan, Ugaadhyahan Cawl (1 son) ,
• Beyle Ugaadhyahan Cawl
• Faarax Ugaadhyahan Cawl
The Beyle Ugaahyahan are the largest and are the traditional enemy of the Daarood (Dhulbahante) sub-clan, this is the only major H.Y sub-clan that shares land with the Dhulbahante in the Hawd region. From this section of the clan hails the famous Guba poet Yawle.
Beyle Ugaadhyahan
• Maax Beyle
• Gadiid Beyle
• Cismaan Beyle (Yawle's sub-clan)
• Adan Beyle.
Notice some sub-clan division are missing, specially the Muuse Tuurwaa the second largest in Muuse Ismaaciil.
[edit] Yoonis Ismaaciil
Yoonis Ismaaciil is better known as the Sacad Yoonis subclan. Sacad Yoonis members live mostly in the eastern part of Somaliland, more specifically in Burco city, Sanaag, Sool, and western Nugaal Regions of Somaliland. Two of the 82 Somaliland parliament seats are held by Sacad Yoonis clan members. The link below is a visual breakdown of the Sacad Yoonis clan structure.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Sacad_yonis3.jpg
Sacad's sons:
• Hasan Sacad (largest branch)
• Maxamed Sacad (Iidarays)
• Maxamuud Sacad (Reer Maxamuud)
Hasan Sacad had son called Jibriil Hasan
Jibriil's sons, Barkad Jibriil, Rooble Jibriil, Adan Jibriil,
Barkad Jibriil had four sons:
• Cali Barkad
• Hasan Barkad
• Camaar Barkad
• Jaamac Barkad
Cali Barkad had three sons
• Faahiye Cali (reer Faahiye Cali)
• Ahmed Cali (reer Axmed Cali)
• Naaleye Cali (reer Naaleeye)
Faahiye Cali had three sons:
• Bayle Faahiye
• Caweer Faahiye (reer Caweer)
• Xildiid Faahiye (reer Xildiid)
Bayle faahiye had son Cumaar Bayle:
Cumaar Bayle had eight sons:
• Nuux Cumaar (Reer Nuux)
• Maxamed Cumaar (reer Xuseen)
• Cabdale Cumaar (reer Cabdale)
• Cali Cumaar
• Xasan Cumaar
• Xuseen Cumaar
• jibriil Cumaar
• Guuled Cumaar
Nuux Cumaar had six sons "Reer Nuux"
1. Cali Nuux (reer Cali nuux)
2. Diiriye Nuux
3. Liibaan nuux
4. Guuled Nuux
5. Dibjir Nuux
6. Daahiir Nuux
Cali Nuux had eight sons
1. Abokor cali (reer Abokor)
2. Wade Cali (reer Wade)
3. Rable Cali (reer Rable)
4. Magan Cali (reer Magan)
5. Ducaale Cali (reer Ducaale Cali)
6. Maxamuud Cali (reer Maxamuud Cali)
7. Axmed Cali (reer Axmed Cali)
8. Ibraahim (reer Ibraahim)
First Sacad Yoonis Caaqil was reer Nuux and still all Sacad Yoonis chief Caaqil is reer Nuux. The Present Sacad Yoonis Chief Caaqil is Saciid Xasan Cali (xuxuule).
Maxamed Sacad - Iidarays
1. Muse Samatar (largest group of the IIdarays)
2. Cabdi Samatar (split into Ba' Arab and Fiqi Egaal)
3. Reer Wacays
Iidarays are the original inhabitants of Ceelafweyn (Ceelafween), a town between Burco and Ceerigabo in Sanaag province of Somaliland. Mahammed Nuur (Fiqi Egaal) was the first man to build a home near the famous water basin in the town. The town now has a sizable popualtion of habar-jeclo clan members who originally lived in the mountains in the vicinity of Ceelafweyn. Iidarays also live in Ceerigabo, Burco, Dararweyne, and Xudun Area. There is a large diaspora population of Sacad Yoonis branches in the UK.

2, Maxamud sacad is divided two parts.
[edit] Musa Care
[edit] Has Three Sons
Ibrahim Muse, Hasan Muse and Damal Muse
Ibrahim Muse is the Largest section in Muse Care and his grandsons are 6
1- Jibriil Adan Fiqi 2- Muuse Adan Fiqi 3- Cali Adan Fiqi 4- Muxumed Adan Fiqi 5- CabdulRaxmaan Fiqi 6- Samane Fiqi
[edit] Damal Muse
1- Roble Damal == 2- Adan Damal ==
[edit] Habar Yoonis Sultans
The royal sub-clan (the one that provides the Sultans) of the Habar Yoonis are the Reer Sugule, who hail from the Caynanshe branch of the Habar Yoonis.
1- The first H.Y Sultan was Sultan Diiriye Suguule (1760-1840) 2- Sultaan Amaan Sultan Diiriye (1790-1854). 3- Sultaan Xirsi Sultan Amaan (1824-1879) 4- Sultaan Cawd sultan Diiriye (1830-1899)
In 1899 Sultan Cawd (Awd) was killed during a battle with the rival Daarood (Ogaden) tribe in western Ethiopia. There were 2 first cousins sultans each supported by different segments of the Habar Yoonis clan some Pro-Devrish and others opposed to it, the Pro-Devrish sultan Nuur A. Amaan eventually defeated his opponent Madar X. Amaan and for a period of 15 years him and his son held the sultantes, only after their death did the H.Y proclaimed him a sultan.
5- Sultaan Nuur Axmed Sultan Amaan (1844-1910)killed during the Devrish struggle. 6- Sultan Doolaal Sultan Nuur(1856-1917)also killed during the Devrish years. 7- Sultaan Madar Sultan Xirsi Amaan (1876-1938) 8- Sultaan Cali Sultan Madar (1900-1979) 9- Sultan Xirsi Qani (1916-1987) 10- Sultaan Yuusuf Sultan Xirsi Qani (1925-1991) 11- Sultaan Ciise sultan Xirsi Qani (1929-1999) 12- Sultan Cismaan Sultan Cali sultan Madar (b 1957) 13- Sultaan Maxamed Sultan Xirsi Qani (born 1967)
[edit] Idaares Abdalle
The oldest of the Abdalle Ismaciil sub-clan, who were also Sultans of the Habar Yoonis. Together with Reer Sugule (Current Emirs) they are known as "Reer Odweyne" after their town and where the Sultans reside.
Before 1960.
1-Shermaarke Saalax Baasha (1790-1861) the conqueror of Zaylac and the man who for the first time in Somali history brought Zaylac under the rule of Somalis, the first Somali Qadiif who in 1825 with 5 cannons and 60 H.Y musketeers took Zaylac and forced its Arab ruler Maxamed Al Baari out. He was accorded the title of Qadiif Al Soomaal by Cabdixamiid Baasha and was presented with two Arab and one Turkish slave women. The founder of what was referred to as the Government of Zaylac.
2- Sultaan Diiriye Suguule (1760-1844) the first H.Y sultan and the originator of over 30 Somali idioms and sayings.
3- Boqor Xirsi Amaan the warrior king (1823-1879) the first founder of centralized northern Somali state, the first sultan who ever imposed regulated tax on both the coast of Berbera and Bulaxaar, coining the Somali term of "sed boqortooyo" before 'cashuur' was even known. The only power the Persian recognized in Somalia in their bid to counter Siiciid Baraqash and the first Somali man to be referred to King Amaan by the Qajar Shaah of Iraan in 1857. Every year via his connection to Suur sultanates of Oman he received his Royal Presents from Persia. His wars against the Kuumbo in furthering his borders south west to Somali Galbeed and his legendary death in the battle with his cousin Guuleed Xaaji is a legend even among his enemies the Kuumubs:
Keysahaa aduun ina Amaan Koos Dhan Buu Heleye
Isba kii bani Israel ma hadin kamana yaabayne
Ragbuu keeno gali yidhi weysa soo kabiye
Ragow Kibirka waa lagu kufaa taana hala ogaado.
4- Sultaan Nuur Amaan (1844-1910) the first sultan who declared war against the British and gave shelter to the Dervish when all Kuumbu sultanates including Garaad Cali Garaad Maxamud (who sent a letter to the Brits crying for their help against what he called new religious fanatics, and who was killed as result), Sultaan Cali Shire, Boqor Osman mahamoud sided with the colonials. The first battle of the Devrish took place in Burco in 1899 when Sultan Nuur Amaan led the new devrish to Burco and later was forced to withdrew. Sultaan Nuur Amaan abondened his Sultanate for the cause and later was killed some say by the Devrish some say by some Kuumbu's.

6- Engineer Said Faarax (1910-1963) the first Somali civil engineer and a graduate of Edinburgh University class of 1933, the designer of Burco city roads and much of colonial infrastructures.
7- Maxamud Axmed Cali the Father of Somali education, the first modern Somali educator.
8- Xaaji Yuusuf Xaaji Aadan (1914-2005)(second Father of Somali Education, the first founder of Somali political party in Somaliland and pioneer of Somali education also the composer of the Somali national anthem.
9- Maxamed Naxar the first chairman of the SNL before Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaal and among its founders.
10- Sayid Axmed Sheekh Muuse (1910-1979) the founder of the first religious party Xizbul Allah in 1957 and first Somali graduate of Azhar university and the author of Xizbulaah wa Xizbul Shaydaan.
11- Abdirahman Ahmed Ali (tuur) First Somaliland President
[edit] References
Habar Jeclo
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Main article: Somali clan
Habar Jeclo (Somali: Habarjeclo) is one of the three main Isaaq (إسحاق) clans. They are comprised from three of Sheikh Isaaq Ahmed's sons, Muusa, Mohamed and Ibrahim binu Is-haaq. They mostly live in the eastern parts of the self-declared state of Somaliland, stretching from the outskirts of the city of Berbera all the way to Ceel Afweyn in Sanaag. and Evigavo
Of the three sons the majority (about 90%) of the Habar Jeclo are descended from Muse binu Is-haaq. There are many families and subclans within the Habar Jeclo clan. Some who are larger than others and others that are very prominent in overseas country but less so in Somaliland. For example the descendants of Musa make up four large groups, which in turn go down to even more and more families. The three largest Habar Jeclo subclans are believed to be the Barre Adrahman subclan of the Musa Abokor, the Noah subclan of the Mohamed Abokor and the Reer Yonis subclan of Muse Abokor. In Somaliland the Mohamed Abokor, Samane Abokor, Sanbuur and Cibraan settled in the Togdheer Region and Haud, while the Muse Abokor is more concentrated in the Sool and Sanaag Regions.
[edit] Major subclans
• Adan Madoobe (wolf of the north)
• Ahmed Faarah
• Alah Magan Abdulle
• Ali Barre
• Ba'iide
• Farah Ba'iide
• Ahmed Farah Ba'iide(the lion of the north)
• Bayle faarah
• Eibraan
• Fahiye Farah
• Idarays
• Omar Jibriil
• Reer Daahir (eagle of the north)
• Reer Dood
• Reer Yoonis
• Samane Abokor
• Solomadaw
• Sanbuur
• Uduruhmiin
• Yeesif
• Ibreem Yeesif
[edit] Notable Habar Jeclo people
• Mohamed Ibrahim Warsame 'Hadrawi', Somali poet and songwriter
• Ahmed M. Mahamoud Silanyo, Kulmiye chairman; former SNM chairman

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Habar Awal
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Main article: Somali clan
Habar Awal (Somali: Habar Awal) is one of the major subclans of the Somali Isaaq family. Its members inhabit the western and northern portions of Woqooyi Galbeed, Saaxil, and northern Togdheer regions of Somaliland. They also inhabit Ethiopia's eastern Haud area and Djibouti. The Habar Awal is named for the youngest son of Sheikh Ishaaq. Awal had six sons:
• Ciise Muuse
• Sacad Muuse
• Afgaab Muuse
• Egale Muuse
• Cabadala Muuse
• Celi Muuse
The Sacad Muuse spilts into Isaxaaq Sacad (Xuseen Abokor, Jibriil Abokor, Abdalah Abokor, Ugaadh Abokor, Ciisa, Makaahil, Muse Case, Maxamed & Yaasuf.) Cabdala sacad, C/rahman sacad and xassan sacad (cabdala xassan)
The main clans of Ciise Muuse Are
• Aadan Ciise
• Maxamed Ciise
• Abakor Ciise
• Iderays Ciise
Aadan Ciise :-(particularly the Aadan Ciise had nine sub-clans), Maxamuud Jibriil ( Aadan Ciise) are very powerful, Afgaab-Muuse Spilits into two Daahir Afgaab And Nageeye Afgaab. Celi muuse splits into the Maxamed celi and Xuseen celi.
Habar Awal reside in at least three of the six regions of Somaliland, namely Woqooyi Galbeed, Saaxil and Togdheer. Also, in Woqooyi Galbeed, there is a prominent district region called Gabiley where most of the farms of Somaliland are located.
The two main sources of revenue for the Somaliland comes from Saaxil (Berbera port) and Woqooyi Galbeed (Gabiley customs), also they have a wealth of amimals (camel, cattle and sheep) in an area from hargeisa go ogaden and this makes the Habar Awal a very powerful and influential tribe in Somali politics and certainly in Somaliland.
[edit] Notables
• Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, president of the self-proclaimed Republic of Somaliland
• Abdillahi Suldaan Mohammed Timacade, prominent Somali poet
• Rageh Omaar, journalist who currently works for Al Jazeera English

HONORABLE OMAR GEELE PRESIDENT OF DJABOUTI BIOGRAPHY

The Republic of Djibouti is situated at the junction of the rifts of the Gulf of Aden, the Red Sea and East Africa. Most of the country is volcanic. Some sedimentary formations of the Mesozoic era -- Jurassic lime and chalky stones -- can be found in the southeast of the country, especially around the town of Al-Sabieh. Djibouti, comprising 710,000 inhabitants, holds huge mineral resources, most of which remain untapped.
Djibouti's current president, Ismail Omar Guelleh, was born on 27 November 1947 in Direwada, Ethiopia. He is the son of one of Djibouti's first teachers and the nephew of Djibouti's first president, Hassan Gouled Aptidon. It was during Djibouti's fight for independence that Ismail Omar cut his teeth as a militant. Early into his political career, Guelleh devoted much energy to breathing new life into the Popular African League presided over by Aptidon. In 1976 Guelleh was a member of the Ligue Populaire Africaine pour l'Indépendance charged with negotiating terms of independence with Paris.
When independence was officially proclaimed, on 27 June 1977, Ismail Omar was appointed as chief of cabinet affairs. Guelleh was only 30 years old. Guelleh had to manage two major challenges: internal and external security and the risk of ethnic violence. His role as head of the secret police enhanced his political clout. Following the founding of the Rassemblement Populaire pour le Progrès (RPP) in 1979, Guelleh climbed the political ladder to the highest echelons becoming vice-president of the RPP in 1994. In April 1999 Guelleh succeeded President Aptidon at the age of 52.
Considered a political, social and economic reformer, Guelleh won a second term in one-man presidential elections in April 2005. All citizens of Djibouti are free to form political parties within the limits of constitutional and democratic principles. Guelleh received 97 per cent of the 72 per cent of Djiboutis who voted in the elections. His campaign included promises to tackle poverty and reduce Djibouti's dependence on food imports. Mr Guelleh supports Djibouti's traditionally strong ties with France and has tried to reconcile conflicting factions in neighbouring Somalia.
His Excellency Ismail Omar Guelleh believes 2007 will be crucial for Djibouti: "This year is the most significant year in the history of the Djibouti people. It's been 30 years now since we claimed our independence from France. This year, we are not only celebrating our 30th anniversary but we'll also start harvesting the fruits of projects we launched seven years ago. Thirty years could seem meaningless in the history of a nation, but looking at the challenges we faced, we have accomplished a lot. These achievements push our economy forward and provides great opportunities for securing our people a prosperous life."
After scrutinising the performance of the government in the past seven years, the president has established certain benchmarks of reform, in order to combat the rigidity of the economic, social and institutional system. "We have redefined our priorities and this will be the focus of the government in the coming years. A top priority concerns the economy and the reorganisation of public finances, following our commitment to structural adjustment. We are beginning to see the first results of our efforts at rationalising government on the way to clearing its debts. We have absorbed a budgetary deficit and the balance of payments has become positive in our favour, thanks to increasing export activities. We kept inflationary pressures under control at around six per cent."


Djibouti City
According to the president, economic growth is present and assured. "However, it remains modest compared with what is needed to guarantee the social and economic well-being of our population. Economic adjustments have had their negative effects with a relative increase in poverty and social insecurity. In order to remedy the worst effects, the government is doing everything possible to increase tax revenues, to contain inflation, and to direct a large part of its expenditure towards poverty reduction programmes as well as new statistical methods for better economic and social planning."
Mr Guelleh views decentralisation as an "important step towards increasing the participation of citizens in the process of economic and social change." This equally applies to the management of everyday public affairs. "The decentralisation plan is based on the principle of the local community's right to administer itself. It is a political project that aims to redistribute the state's power, relinquishing certain possibilities at the higher level and delegating these responsibilities among elected regional bodies."
Five regional communities have been created: Dikhil, Al-Sabieh, Tadjourah, Obock and Arta. Each has been incorporated and is endowed with elected regional assemblies as well as a regional executive created from members of these assemblies. The size of each assembly is determined on the basis of one deputy per 1,000 electors. Djibouti City's status differed from that of others. Members of regional assemblies are elected by universal suffrage. The ballot consists of the election of lists of candidates and it is organised in two rounds.
President Guelleh believes Djibouti needs to increase its stake in world trade. "The level of growth that we hope to achieve will only be possible if we can attract foreign investors into our country. Public works projects such as the new deep-water port in Doraleh, the strategic partnership with Dubai, and the Common Market of East and South Africa (COMESA) as well as newly established industrial and commercial zones should attract investors and enhance Djibouti's reputation as a distribution centrepoint and gateway to Africa."
"The COMESA stretches from the Horn of Africa to South Africa, also encompassing the islands of the Indian Ocean. It is a market of 340 million inhabitants. This common market, created in 1993, is functioning well. We benefit from trade accords with the European Union. Djibouti is therefore an attractive economic base to investors from countries without such access to the EU. Also, the special commercial and economic support that Djibouti enjoys from membership in the Arab League should become stronger with the construction of a common Arab market."
President Guelleh underlines, also, progress made in human resource capacities. "In a completely different sector, the first results of reforms undertaken in education and professional training illustrate that we have succeeded in bringing together demand and supply in primary, secondary and higher education by establishing the University of Djibouti. Notably, there has been remarkable growth of our technical capacities, as well as our human resources."
The University of Djibouti was opened in 2002. Incentives were created to encourage the return of graduated nationals interested in teaching careers. "The university system is based on distance learning, a method that worked very well for the training of primary and secondary school teachers. It is also based on the experience of teachers of the public secondary schools of Djibouti, who provided professional training courses. Already existing institutions of higher education have been integrated into the new university. Diplomas of the University of Djibouti are delivered by French institutions, and undergraduate courses no longer have the sole objective of preparing teachers."
Regarding challenges ahead, Guelleh believes that the success of the Djibouti's macro-economic equilibrium policy would be threatened were political stability and the principles of good governance absent. "This is why we have preferred a strict policy of financial transparency in the management of our resources in order to change the perception of the state and its institutions. We have also encouraged citizen's participation in public issues and we have guaranteed the values of our republican institutions. From now on, it falls upon the media, the political parties, and the different components of our civil society to play their roles and take part in [bolstering] pluralism, the foundation of democratic practice."
Since becoming president, the foreign policy of Djibouti has focused on strengthening and diversifying cooperative links with traditional partners. "This policy is in line with fundamental principles of mutual interest, friendly neighbours and economic development. At the same time, we affirm our will to cooperate in the fight against terrorism and extremism in all its forms, and our commitment to regional stability and peace."
In Guelleh's era, Djibouti's women were granted, in the parliamentary elections of January 2003, the right to run for office. A law passed in 2002 established a female quota in parliament. Ever since inauguration, Guelleh has reiterated his interest in the betterment of women's status. As a positive signal, Guelleh nominated a woman for a ministerial position, a first in Djibouti's history. Meanwhile, the cabinet includes three women. In a May 1999 declaration, the government vowed to fight against all forms of sexual discrimination.
According to President Guelleh, it would be difficult for any nation to develop if "half of its population is excluded from the decision making process." In 2000, Guelleh had noted that, "In spite of the energy spent by authorities, the sluggishness of reform due to cultural traditions constitutes the most important obstacle in our struggle for social equity." In addition to traditional obstacles, women face severe difficulties when working in the informal sector of the economy where their skills and competencies are not sufficiently appreciated.
To address this, a new law was adopted on 17 July 2002 and which defines a national policy for the integration of women into Djibouti's development strategy. "The goal is to increase the participation of women in decision making, especially in high priority areas such as the economy, education and health. The strategy defines the tasks and the short-term measures needed to make the activities of women an essential part of the country's development. To this end, it responds to the needs of development, modernity and more social equity, while respecting our cultural and religious values."
Other important reforms to improve women's conditions were adopted during President Guelleh's first term in office. For example, law number 152 of 31 January 2002 revises and updates the family code that integrates Islamic Sharia rights with common and modern law. It clarifies the otherwise vagueness of common law and the unclear codification of Islamic rules in terms of family law. Lack of clarity had had the effect of reducing women's rights, especially in case of divorce. The new code breaks with the practice of repudiation and states that it is within the judge's authority alone to announce the divorce of two spouses, the only exception being the case of mutual agreement.
But despite reforms taking part in some sectors, Djibouti still faces significant problems which stand in the way of the development process and investment. "The fight against poverty, water resource management, mining prospects, energy resources, rationalisation of key sectors of the economy, a system of justice accessible to the average citizen; all these are challenges to be confronted at the beginning of the third millennium." Guellah adds: "We are working very hard to find solutions but we need to be patient. It's a matter of time and we are going in the right direction."
Mr Guelleh counts on the ability of the people of Djibouti to find genuine solutions to their problems. "On a path full of potential pitfalls, let us keep alive the legendary wisdom that characterises Djiboutians more than any other people in the world, and which constitutes its prime national resource. We have paved the way for a better future and we are ready to take up all challenges that may lie ahead."
President Guelleh concludes: "Our country is engaged in a reform programme whose slow progress and modest and fragile results must not change our determination to implement this project. It is an ambitious project, but it is crucial for the future of our young nation."
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