THE GURGURE DIR CLAN OF DIRA DHAWA
The City Dirra Dhawe (place were the Dir worriors Hit with their spears or conquered) as they named it in the 1450's, after the Gurgura worriors of Adal Kingdom freed the town from Christian invaders of the Ethiopian Higlands and ever since they remain the protectors of that town.
The Oromo call the Maxammed Madaxweyn Dir, Gurgura or Warra Gurgura which in Oromo means the trader, sells men, or merchant. Figuratively, it means in Oroma too, to cheat. Also in the Oroma languege it means Shop, shopper or merchandise and the act of selling.
In old Somali, the word comes from Gorgortan or to sell or barter. Gurgure means also in Somali to carry, for example things or mechandise, therefore, the Somali Isasa and Gadabursi in Zaila area from long time ago called the Gurgure carriers of merchandise to Harrar and as far as the Highlands of Shoa and Wallo. The Oromo adopted that name in 1600 when they invaded Harrar area.
The Gurgure were the dominant trading clan in Eastern Ethiopian Harrar pleatue from the 1500s. They exported to the Middle East, coffee beans, Ivory, Ostrich feathers, slaves, hides of leapords, rhino horns, and gum from hinterland Ethiopia. And returned to Ethiopia salt from Zaila or Djibouti coast. The Gurgure also were were major suppliers to beads, weapons like swords, and other metal utinsiles.
The Dir of the Harrar area say the Gurgure traders didnt only have connections with a network of traders from Arabia, Persia especially Shiraz, but also they purchased from the Akisho Madahweyn Dir, a clan which they say penetrated the Oromo, Sidamo, Gurage, and as far south the Borane country in the era of the Akisho's powerful Queen Araweelo who is said to be Akisho and rules note only Somali cities but also Guraage, Hadiya, and Sidamo towns as far as Bale.
Akisho/Guure/Quranyow Maxammed in Southern Ethiopia and Bale
The remanant Madahweyn Dir of that era, when Akisho acted as a network of collection and the Gurgure specialized in exporting between Zeila and Harrar is probable the Guure clans who today number over 200,000. These Dir speak Arsi and other Oromo dialects well and they are the custodians of Sheikh Hussien Al Bale's tomb where millions of Oromo visit. Also there is a large group of Qurac Mahe Dir deep in Arsi Bale country. The Qurac have a city called Magalo, which in Oromo means Market. The other evidence is the large presence of the Quranyow Maxammed Xiniftire Dir( Furkesho and Kali subclans) in Nageelle, Garissa, Waso, Marsabit and Ceelwaaq area of the NFD. Indeed, there are many Booran, Rendille, and Gabra clans who claim to be Dir. And the Booran section of Dirre which is a Booran Moiet and also territorial group have several Dir clans amoungst them and that whole moiet claims that the entire Dirre section is of Dir origin.
Subclans of the Gurgure
The main Gurgure subclans are:
1)Habar Daar which includes:
- Reer Kundhuuble
2)Guwaah and Liibaan
- Reer Gufaatiile
- Reer Sanceele
- Reer Sanye
Also to this day the Gurgure live in the Somaliland state not far from Zaila, in Arabsiyo, Ijaara, Awabarre and Wajaale areas there are large populations of Gurgure . Many still maintain there ancient trade of carrying merchandise between Northern Somalia and Ethiopia. Also those Gurgure traders of Zaila shifted their trade to Djibouti in 1700s. Unfortunatly, the Gurgure lost this art of trade and business in the last 150 years and many young Gurgures have not adopted the art.
Other Dir groups like the Dudub of Gadabuursi and Reer Gullen of Issas took over where the Gurgure left from 1820s. By 1902 the Dira Dhawe-Djibouti train was built the Gurgure ceased to be active in Somali trade and concentrated in trading with Oromo Muslims like the Itu and Ale who were ancient partners and who trained under them, today the Ale and Itu are more involved in trade then the Gurgure or Akisho. Even in Dirra Dhawa a Gurgure town you will find very few Gurgure traders.
The Oromo Bareentuma of Harrar region, call the Gurguras Maanguuda, or the wise ones. The Gurgura are surrounded by the Itu, Ale and Anniya who they trade with since the 1600s and they speak their langueges fluently, many Gurguras as many as 20% dont even speak Somali even though they maintain their Dir identity. There are other sections of the Gurgure numbering tens of thousands in Afar region across Awash and into Ause, who speak the Afar languege where they traded with them and intermarried with the Odey Ali- which is the name the Dir refer to the Afar, who occupied parts of Zaila in the era of king Salah Din the King of Adal/ Zaila who is buried in the Island of Zaila where Somalis visit and they consider him a Saint, who died at the hands of the Christian invaders from Highlands of Shewa in 1600.
Noole Group Gurgure saved from Oromo destruction
The Noole, one group that is very Somalized and at times claim to be Madaxeweyn Direed are on group that is allied to the Gurgure and lives in the Gurgure region. The closest kinsman of the Gurgure in the region are the Akisho.
Fatuuh Al Habas mentions Gurgure name
The Gurgure Dir were well known as traders and their name was in fact used as early as the 1550's, as they are mentioned in Fatuh Al Habash, the book that described the campaigns of Ahmed Guray ( Ahmed Grange). The Fatuh Al Habash a book written by Shihab Al Din, who left use a full description of Gurey's Campaigns, depicts the Gurgura as fierce worriors who were the best horsemen who contributed 4,800 of their fiercest worriors on horse back, who stuck terror on the infidels hearts and the Gurgure's colorful display and wild chanting of Allahu Akbar probably impressed Shihab Al Din, at the Shimbir Kurey Battle.
Another Madaxweyn Dir clan mentioned by name is the Barsuug clan. The Akisho are mentioned as Subclans, Reer Warjeeh is one such clan which is not that important today.
Gurgure Political Organizations
- Issa Gurgure Libration Front was active until 1991 it was led by an Issa Mr.Riyaale Ahmed
- Independent Gurgure Libration Front was founded by Member of Parliment Abdi Aziz Gurgure who is currently Ethiopian Ambassador to Ivory Coast GLF and IGLF continued to work together even though IGLF became associated with Issas and Mr. Riyaale.
- Horiyaal Democratic Party a Gadaburis Party in Ethiopia also was pulled worked with their Dir Issas and Gurgure, however; several attempts to unite the three with other Isaaq in order to create a Pan-Dir movement failed even though the Mr. Ciid Goverment in 2000 was formed out of their coorparation.
The Gurgure became the leading worriors of Ahmed Ibrahim Qazi or Guurey and at the battle of Shimber Kurey (near Addis Abbaba which was Finfinley at this time)March 17, 1529 they saved the Muslim worriors with their numerous horsemen and are mentioned in Fatuh Al Habash of Shihab Al Diin
MORE UPDATES COMING SOONPictures of the Gurgure
AJIB : THANKS FOR THE COMMENT
Thank you Assoweh I am almost Gurgure (Mother side but I had it Wrong.. but hey I am better than some young Gurgaras I met Haa Haa. Barasho wanagsan. Assaweh
if I try to correct u it is not gowah it is quwaax and libaan
for your information I AM SULTAAN. AXMAD CASSOWEH OF DJIBOUTI GURGURE CLANE
The following artical is to my Gurgure kinsman as my hobby involves learning more about the Dir where ever they are. I have found out that the Gurgure people lack one very important knowledge which is their immediate kinsman. Especially those who leave in Ethiopia.. due to their cosopolitan view the Gurgure never interest themselves anything other than Gurgure. However, I think we should study our immediate kinsman. Their are many political problems facing the Gurgure which cant be solve alone.
Far kaliya fool ma dhaqdo
So please this is some humble observations I made about the Madaxweyn in the South especially this are the immediate kinsman of the Gurgure Gure and Akisho clans
Monday, September 6, 2010
MADAXWEYN DIREED TARIIKHO DHEER
Wareysi Dheer oo aan Layeelanay Mudane Warsame oo Dalka Itobiya ku xeel dheer.
Su'aal Dirsame : Bal dhalinta reer konfurta Direed een kala aqoon reer tolkood wax uga sheeg Madaxweyn Dirka Galbeedka Somalia. Dhamaan Dirka dagan konfurta markii ay maqlaan Madaxweyne wexey la soo boodaan inta badan laba hobol oo Wabari ku jiray, sida Baxsan iyo Cabdi Muxummed Amiin Gabyaga, heesaga, wadaniga weyn. Dhalinta waxa kale eey yaqaanan atirisho Faynus Sheikh Dahir, siiba kuwa majajilada ruwayadaha daawada. Laakin dalkas Somali Galbeed iyo deeganada ma yaqaanan dhalinyarada reer Xamarka ah sideyda, bal waxa nooga sheeg, Madaxweyn Dir itaad Ka aragtay ?
Sida ay u kala baxaan noo sheeg horta ?
Mudane Warsame Jawaab: Marxaba anigoo hadalka soo koobi doona. Saad ogsontahay Dir wuxuu dhalay 4 wiil oo kala ha:
2)Maahe Dir-Isaaq;Biimaal;gadsan; dabruube iyo Bajimaal
3)Madoobe Dir-waa Ciise iyo beelo soo raaca oo isaga ladhashay lana dagan
4)Dir-Mandalluuga koonfurta dagan (sida Makahiilka, Nuure, Buufow, Reer Majuun, Reer xasan) iyo Gadabuursi (beel weynta Samaroon Saciid)
Horta Madaxweyn uma dhalan anigu (waxaan Ka soo Jeedaa Surre Dir). Laakin aad iyo aad ayaan u baaray, oo ku darsay beeshan balaaran ee Madaxweyne Direed. Dhowr safar oon Somalia, Kenya iyo Etioobiya meelaha ay dagaan ayaan ku soo maray, kadibna waxaan baaray oo yara raad raacay buugagta ay qoreen reer galbeedka. Marka, waxad odhan kartaa wax woogan ogahay, laakin cudurdaar, hadii aan wax is dhaf dhafiyo ha la ii dulqaato, hana la i saxo hadoow, oo foorumku waa furan yahay iyo comments kuba.
Madaxweyn wuxuu Dhalay:
Maxammed iyo Ali madaxweyn ayyeenu inta badan aan maqalnaa oo kala ah:
Reer Aw saciid
Reer Dayo ( Wardaay)
Jiido Geedle Cali Madaxweyn ( Wajis iyo Sifir)-Qoryoolley area.
2. Hordare waa sadex (Etiyoobiya iyo jubada Hoose)
3. Yaxye waa reer zona Jubbada Hoose North of Kismayo & wamo
Waxa kale oo Jira beelah oo Waqooyi Galbeed iyo Itobia dagan:
Su'aal Dirsame :Deegaanada Bal noo kala sheeg, Mudane Warsame ?
Horta madaxweyn Dirku waxaa uu deegan ahaan, asasiyan uga yimaadaa Galbeedka Somaliyada Itoobiyo Guumeysato siiba laga bilaabo Erer, Harrar, Shiniile, ilaa Qabri Bayax. Laakin laga bilaabo 1600 ilaa 1890 kii ,xiligii gumeystiihii Menelik, boqorkii Itobiya uu qabsaday Harrar ilaa maanta waxaa ku dhacay Madaxweyn Dir kala daadsanaan iyo xoogaha jah wareer oo ay u kala guureen konfurta Itoobiya ilaa Afdeer, oo Doloow Ado u dhaw, ilaa Bay iyo dooxooyinka wabiyada Jubba iyo Shabeelle.
Tusaale, Guuraha oo 180,000 ruux gaaraya, ilaa Afdheer ilaa Guure Dhaamoole oo Jarati iyo Gooblka Liiban ayaay usoo qaxeen, itooda badan waxa aa u burburiyay Menelik boqorkii Itoobiya 1890kii oo gibir ama canshuur baad ah ku qoray. Beesha Guure iyo Mandalluug waxa ay barigaa ka tageen intooda badan Tog Faafan oon ka fogeeyn Jigjiga iyo Harrar.
Qeybo kala oo Madaxweyne Dir ah qarnigii 1500, markii Mujaahid Axmed Ibraahim Qaazi (Axmed Guurey) la jabiyay ayaa waxaa jiidhay Oromo fara badan oo qabsatay, Harrar iyo nawaxigeeda.
Waagaas waxaa Galbeedka ka qaxay dadka ay ka mid yihiin, Quraanyow Maxamed Xiniftire Mahe Dir ama qaybta Garre ee Dirka ah oo deegan ahaan dagay Bay, Awdheegle, ilaa Nageele. Qurac oo Mahe Dir Xiniftire ah waxa ay dageen Magalo tuulo dalka Aruusada Oromoda ah ku taal, sidoo kale Guurah oo dagay dhankaas xuduudna la leh Aruusada. Jiido Ali sidoo kale qarnigii 1600 ayay soo dageen Bay iiyo Jubo/Shabeelle Valley.
Sidoo kale, beelah Biyomaal, Bajimaal, iyo Dabruub ayaa ka mida beelah Mahe Dir ee ay Madaxweyn Dir iska soo raaceen dhankaan Harrar iyagoo soo raacaya wabiga Shabeelle ama Wabiga Jubba. Qaar Iimey iyo dhankaas ayay aadeen, Qaar shabeelle ayay soo raaceen oo waxa ay dageen Bay, Jubbada hoose iyo shabeelle. Marka, beello boqollal sanno ka hor daganaa konfurta iyo qaar dawaan ka daba yimid ayaa jira.
Beelaha dhawan ka yimid Galbeedka waxaa ka mid ah Gadsanka, Mandaluuga iyo beesha reer Aw Saciid ee fananada aad jeceshahay, Dirsame eey ka dhalatay, Marow Faynuus Sheekh Dahir.
Dirsame Su'aal :Mexeey u kala baxaan Aw Saciidka ?
Beesha Reer Aw Saciid waxa ay u kala baxaan Abkeey Xaaji oo Adeer ah iyo Farah, Abikar, Sacdi , Nuur, Ali, Cismaan, Xuseen, iyo Cumar.
Halkaan Ka daawada Sawirada iyo Bilicda Casimada Labaad ee Gurgure Dir ,Hurso: http://www.hurso.com/Photos/Index.html
Markaa waa beel aad u balaaran oo kala dagta: Ijaara, wajaale, Arabsiyo W.G Somali land ilaa Qabri bayax, Diraa dhabe, Fayanbiiro, Gura Dhaamoole, Diraa Dhabe, Jigjiga, Hadana u sii fiday Maiso, Awash,Hurso,Erer goota, Harar, Kismaayo, Buaale, Luuq ilaa NFD Garseen Lake Tana area iyo Doolow Nageele xageeda. Marka dad badan oo aan lasoo koobi karin oo Malyuun Kor u dhaaf aya weeye.
Bil Matalan, Akisho waxa ay ku leeyihiin magaaloyin ka Waqooyi Galbeed ka xiga Hargeysa beero sida beerah ku yaal Odjiid agagaarkeeda oo ay isla dagaan is na dhalaan beesha Yoonis Jibriilka. Ingiriiskii ayaa waxa ka qoray ganacsatada iyo beeraleyda beeshan, siiba Warre Kiyo Reer Carre Cumar Bullalle iyo lafahooda sida Addo Carre iyo Reer Daud Carre ( Caddale Daud iyo lafta Geelle Daud)
Mudane Dirsame maxay ku dhacdaa ama loo moodaa in Ogadeenku ugu badan yihiin Gobolka Somali Galbeed ama dhulkan Xabishidu guumeysato ee Region 5, hadii arinku saad shegeysid yahay ?
Ogadeen boqolkiiba 30 % xitaa ma gaadhan dad ahaan dadka ku nool Gobolka Somali galbeed. Qiyaastii beesha Ciise xitaa ayaa uga badan. Dirka dalkaa dagana waa Gurgure, Gadabuursi, Beelweynta Isaaq, Gadsan, Guure, Gariire, Surre oo leh Fiqi Muxummed, Nacdoor, Fiqi Khayre, Fiqi Yaxye, Mandaluug, Akisho, Obo, Bajimaal Quraanyow Maxammed Garre iyo Dabruube. Marka waa wax saxafadaha reer galbeedka (western media) laga dhaadiciyay. Dirka waxaa weheliya Karanle Hawiye, Murille, Hiraab. Waxa agaakan dagan Shiikhaal, beelo Raxanweyn ah iyo Garre Marre, Duubo, iyo Digoodi ba. Marka waa iska probaganda raqiis ah oo hir gashay.
Iimey Dir ayaa ugu badan, waa run Ogaden Reer Amadin iyo beesha Duubo waa dagan yihiin.
Jarati iyo Liiban: Dir ayaa majority ah ilaa Waladayo, Doolo, Guure Dhamoole.
Godey: Iimey West iyo East iyo Booley
Gashaamo: Sida Nusdariiq, Kabtinuur, Qabri Dahare
Kalaafo Ilaa Mustaxiil. Bajimaalku waxa ay dagan yihiin iyo Dir kaleba magaalooyinka Gumar, D'are, Niman, Mayko, Qodi dudul, Burdhinle, Mustahiil
Baalle, nageele, dhanka kale Fayaanbiiro, Hara Maayo, Maiso, Gobolka Shiniille oo dhan Fiiq.
Ma lasoo koobi karo adeer. Hada ka hor ayaa shirkii Kenya lagu qabtay ayaa odayaal Darood iyo Hawiye ah oo Dir la yaaban ayaa waydiiyay wiil yar oo Surre Dir ah, " Waryaa Dir badatee, meeqa Gobol ayaa dagtaan?
Wiilkii Surre isagoo isku kalsoon ayuu yiri, " War adeerayaal Darood iyo Hawiyow idinkaa fudud ee is xisaabiya, wixii soo haran anaa leh, hadii aan dhaho carro Dir aan xisabinaa, waagaa baryi oo hadana baryi, marka idinkaa fudude, oo koobane lana xisaabin karaa deegankiine dee sheegta halkaad dagtaan, halkaan dagana waa dagaa anigoo Diree.
Mahadsanid Mudane Dirsame. Waxaan rajeyneynaa in aad nagala hadashid tarikhaha aad uruurisay, anaguna waa dabic doonaa.
Wareeysigu waa socon doona, kolba markii aan E-mail ka helno
Gurra -a group of Dir living between wabi Gastro and Dumale. Gurra Dhaamole, Afdeer, lands of the Guure Madax weyn Dir, group very related to Akisho and Gurgure numbering over 260,000.
Qurac- Mahe Dir Group living in Magalo, Bale.
Posted by DIRSAME at 1:35 AM
Labels: The Madaxweyn Dir Clan Of Somalia GURGURE AKISHO
A DISCUSSION ON DIR CLAN BY SOUTHERN DIR AND DIR FROM ETHIOPIA
Ibro aliya the Zahgawa
Ibro - The Bear and the Student
The well known Islamic Sufi poet Jamaladin Rumi once said, a thousand years ago, "Do not trust a man who pretends to be religious until you have used your inner eye; becuase some conceal their true nature and have the nature of Satan" What you write tells so much about you. One minute someone cliams to be Akisho and then panicks when another knows his true origin. Another in this forum pretends to be one thing - a Dir woman from among the Oromo called CAASHA ALI - who then swears and thus reveals who she really is. You only bring laughter to us! Another claims brother bashing - and then another says Dir bashing ----- the same words but signed by different names ---- strange. This is a forum for discussing history and culture but some among us are rude and swear and hide who they are - and hide their agenda, Jamaladin Rumi once said that a man saw a bear skin in a flowing river. His teacher, an aged man, did not have a warm coat. The man (the student) jumped into the river and grab hold of the coat. Suddenly he realised that the coat was a live bear. His master called to him saying "leave it be and come back" - but the young student shouted back "I have left it but it will not leave me". Sometimes you have to know what is worth battling for and what is a waste of time. Time is valuable and it has been wasted here. Enjoy the river and the bear.......one day you will realise the value of Time. But by then it would have run out! Ibro Exit
posted to IBRO :Do you just Appreciate Everything "None-senseNULL,"What do you appreciate, even that analysis you say you appreciate is not based on facts. Do you simply enjoy and believe whoever tells you what you want to hear, that somali tribes are none existent and they are a fabrication or the somali tribe structure do not exist. Reality is reality whether you realie it or deny it. The Dir tribe existed for 2000 years and will exist long after you die. So stop the Dir bashing and respect your roots. at Tue Jan 18 15:02:25 EST 2005.
AGoon or Ibro have said things which are believed by a large number of Dir people. Neither of us have ever said anything offensive - debate is natural - history, tribe, culture can be debated in a FREE society. We are not in Ethiopia where every is scared to say anything. It seems that people are offended for imaginary reason. I haven't insulted anyone. We the Gurgura of the north believe we are Somali and that the Ali Madaxwyna, Leheleh, and other ancient tribes founded Awfat. This our history - and it can be proven. It seems that younger tribes are offended if Gurgura or Leheleh claim anything. You cannot take another mans history. Freedom of speak and debate may be foreign to Ethiopia and most of Somalia - but the Internet is about freedom of speak. You critise our behaviour - Why - debate is normal - neither of us have use inappropriate or offensive word. A man must use his intelect to prove what he is saying. If people want to learn about Dir history they have a RIGHT to heard as many views as possible - and then make up their minds. Its called FREEDOM.
posted to Ogaysis: Ibro iyo Agoon Edeb ma lihidiin. at Fri Jan 14 16:47:28 EST 2005.
I accept your logic. The answer you have constructed is corrected.
posted to On the Tribal orgins of the Isaaq, Gadabuursi and Issaas. at Fri Jan 14 16:34:56 EST 2005.
Leheleh can be spelt in many differnt ways - with i or e etc. The Spelling doesn't matter. CAASHA ALI has never heard of Leheleh the brother of Gurgura. Why? Everyone who is Gurgura from Harer to Erer has heard and knows who the Leheleh are. Why don'y you know them. Ask someone from the Beidor Gurgura clan - ask Abdi Wahab or any other Gurgura leader - or haven't you heard of any Gurgura elders or leaders. You are the only person to swear in this forum. Many people debate tribe and history but their is no need to swear. Using the F... word is not acceptable. That suggest you are not Dir. The Dir can debate anything without getting angry or swear. The Dir are not Oromo. We are Somali - and proud of that. The leaders of the Gurgura are Somalis - and the Esa and Gadabursi are our close relative - and brother - we may critize each other - but we will never be Oromo. It is not negative to say we are proud Somalis - the Darod and Hawiya are our brother. However, if you are raised among Oromo - then you are Oromo - Dir are Somali, fact. We are proud to be Somali. And we wish that all Dir territories in Ethiopia could join Somalis. We did not waste our youth in 1997-78 - Somali natinalism is Dir nationalism. You stay with the OLF. Thats your choice. But we the Gurgura will chose Esa, Ishaq, Hawiay, Gadabursi, Marehan, Bimal, and the rest of the Somali nation each time - they are our brother.........The Oromo are strangers......who are not related to us......so why don't you ask a Beidor Gurgura who the Leheleh are ........they will tell you. GLF was Somalis and fought the Oromo .........and now CAASHA ALI wants us to become them.......NO WAY. Long live Greater Somali.............!!!!!!
posted to Issas Iyo Gadabursi - Gashanbur people.. at Fri Jan 14 16:31:15 EST 2005.
Rendilleh and Gabra doubts?
What proof do we have that the Rendille are Dir. They are not Muslim; they drink camels milk and blood and have more in common with the Masaai. I haven't seen any evidence for them to be Dir. Just to say they are Dir is not enough. It seems that the problem with the Dir is that anyone can say they are Dir - without any need for clarification. The Rendille and Bayso are non Muslim - Nilotic tribes that speak a language that is part of Macro-Somali languages. There culture is not Somali. I have not come across any Rendille, Gabra, or Bayso that can accurately trace their genealogy to Dir. The study of their language which differs from Somali by at least 35% - indicates that they separated from the Somali people many centuries ago. Some say the Tutsi are Dir. But not one single piece of evidence is offerd. Some say the people of Northern Chad are Gurgura. But again no evidence. A story about a conversation that is said to have taken place in Mogadishu is not evidence. The northern people of Chad are called Tebu and they have lived in Chad for thousands of years - originally refered to by Greek historians as the Garamantians. To suggest they are Gurgura is unlikely. The other tribes of Chad - the Zahgawa, etc. are Nilo-saharan and no evidence for a Somali connection is found. The Gabra are bitter enemies of the Somalis - their cousins are the Oromo Borana again enemies of the Somali Gure and Dagodia and Awlihan tribes - if they were Somali then can anyone explain why they Hate Somalis. They do not claim any affinity with Somalis. Some Somalis claim that the people on the Island of Socotra are Somali. Again this is not correct - they are not Somali and never have been - studies of blood types has shown that the Somalis are not related to the southern Arabian tribes - since sickle cell and other traits found in the southern Arabians is not found among the Somalis. The problem with the Dir is they accept everyone as Dir with proof or evidence - the Tutsi, Rendille, Gabrra, etc., cannot be simply classified as Dir just becuase someone hear a conversation. Evidence needs to be accurate. Otherwise we cannot build up an accurate history of the Dir. The Dir ancient homeland was eastern Somalia (now Puntland) - all the evidence points to this. However, European historians have tried to place the Somali homeland in southern Ethiopia - this is completely wrong. The Oromo and the Somalis do not share the same homeland. The Afar and the Somali are more closely related both historically and culturally. Everytime the Dir see the Gura, Guri, Gureh, Gurgur, gurgureh, etc., they immediately suggest it is Gurgura - but this is not a scientific method. Hussein Habre as a Madaxweyna Dir is not proven - and cannot be accepted without proof. People have to find evidence which support the claim before the cliam can be accepted. I do not believe in accepting every one who claims to be Dir - There are some Dir who when in Dire Dawa say they are Dir and when they return to the Ogaden they claim to be Darod. Surely that is not acceptable. Ones identity cannot be changed. How can you trust people that change their identity - one minute Oromo, next Darod, next Dir, ......etc. I cannot accept Rendille - non Muslim, blood and camle milke drinking, Masaai cultured - as Dir. To be a Dir - you have to first be Muslim, second have a genealogy that proves you are Dir - it must be linked to other Dir genealogies. For example if someone claims to be from Auboba or Aubarre then their genealogy must be the same as other Auboba and Aubarre families. If someone cliamed to be your cousin and couldn't name your father or his father would you accept them as your cousin? NO!
posted to MP list - correction to Dir list. at Fri Jan 14 16:16:40 EST 2005.
MP list - correction to Dir list
The following posted by CODKA BEESHA DIREED needs to be questioned since I cannot agree that all of those listed below are Dir - The List posted was :- QALDHO DIR 1. Noole 2 Warday 3 Jarso 4 Babili 5 Randiile 6 Gabro 7 Digoodi 8 Ajuuran According to my experience - 1. Noole - adopted into Dir through a formal alliance as a result of a war between the Nole and the Itu & Ala Oromo tribes. The Gurgura saved the Nole from the attack of the Itu & Nole and ever since have come under the protection of the Gurgura - thus they pay blood-money with the Gurgura 2 Warday - The Warday as Dir is a new concept. Exactly how are they Dir - is it through adoption or a federation of tribes. Need more evidence for them to be dir - who are they descended from? They appear to be Oromo rather than Somali? 3. Jarso and 4. Babili - both these are mixed Oromo and Somali - for example the Geri Darods are more closely related to the Babili than the Dir - hence the tribal name Geri Babili etc., 5 Randiile - definately not Dir, cannot be classed as Dir - part of the Masaai group / Samburu - they are not Muslim - and have Hawiya blood etc. - so cannot be placed with the Dir. They are a Lost Somali group - who have lost their identity and religion - thus they should not be included in any list of Somali tribes. 6 Gabro - The Gabro or Gabrre are Oromo tribe that are closely related to the Boran. They are on bad terms with the Somalis and the Gabbre despise trading. Only when desperate will they sell anything to the Somalis. The are mainly non Muslims - although small amounts have become muslim. Some minorities among the Gabrra are Somali but do not have any power - the Somali minority show tend to form alliances with the neighbouring Gurre, Garrire, etc. But the relationships depend on the political climate at the time. For example, the Gare in the 1930's formed alliances with Tigrean against the Dagodia. Gabrra are not Somali but Oromo. Minorities within the Gabrra are Somali - but have their identity supressed 7 Digoodi - These are not Dir or Hawiya but descendants of uncle of Dir and Hawiya 8 Ajuuran - Not Dir - they are maternally Hawiya and on the father side descendants of a man found in a tree - his origin can be debated but was not a Dir man. They are more related to Hawiya. Everyone is not Dir. The existence of Qaldho Dir is to be questioned - no eveidence of the existence of this tribe. Itu, Ala, Arussi are absolutely Oromo. The Babile and Jarso are mixed Dir, Darod, and Oromo origin - the exact percentage of each is uncertain. If a tribe see themselves as Oromo - then they cannot be considered as Dir. If the Babile and Jarso form part of the Oromo political groupings then they cannot be considered Somali. Dir origin anf Somali Nationalism are linked. If a tribe stops claiming affinity with Somalis - then history needs to be re-written so that only those who consider themselves Somali are included as Dir, Darod or Hawiya ?
posted to BEESHA DIREED LIST OF MP MEMBERS OF PARLIMENT. at Thu Jan 13 16:39:12 EST 2005.
Issas Iyo Gadabursi - Gashanbur people.
Issas Iyo Gadabuursi iyo Jarso In response to article, I would like to clarify some points – 1. You say it is unfair to say that the Gadabursi are mixed. I would like to stress that I stated that every Somali clan is mixed – be they Dir, Darod, Hawiya, etc. Anyone who has studied and travelled across the Horn of Africa and spoken to various, different, tribal groups – same story is heard over and over again of the heterogeneous origin of our people. I do not know why you say that the it is unfair – if you study the genealogy of various tribe the frequencies of Ba Gurgura, Ba Harla, Ba – X Y Z – clearly shows that Somalis are comprised of groups who have re-invented their identity continuously. 2. The Isaq are mixed – and are probably the most mixed of all the Somali tribal groups – I don’t want to go into detail because I do not want to focus on the detail of genealogies – but let me say that anyone who knows the history of the Ishaq will know, for example, that the large Habr Gerhajis division – are in fact said to be Darod – the child was swapped by relatives during a visit to the Haud. Thus the distressed mother on finding that her baby was swapped for another – she was told to “hold the baby tightly to her shoulder” – thus the name Gerhajis is derived. In today’s political climate, Somalis seem to be offended by their own tribal folklore – but we cannot suppress or eradicate our folklore. The name Magador Dir the mother of the Isaq tribes or half of the Isaq - is almost forgotten in Hargeisa and other northern towns. (Magadoor Dir gave rise to the HAbr Awal, Habr Yunis etc. While Habr Jelle are descendants of an Ethiopian wife of Isaq ......etc. 3. The Ishaq do not have whole branches named after Gurgura clans. Only some very minor sub-branches of sub-clans have names such as Ba-Gurgura, etc. A typical example is found among the Saad Musa (i.e. Jibril Abokr) branches of the Habr Awal Ishaq. Using the word accuse suggest that a crime has been committed. Somalis are extremely mixed – this is fact – not an accusation. I can prove it by writing down the entire Somali Genealogy – but I think that those who do not accept that they a mixed will never accept any evidence. It is good to recognise that we are mixed. Thus the Somali civil war (both North and South) would not have happened if people believed in Islam rather than Tribe! 4. The Wardiq are not and have never been Gurgura. As a Gurgura I have never heard any Esa or Gurgura even suggest this. The Wardiq are never Gurgura. The Esa have 3 adopted groups, not two – but that doesn’t matter. The adopted Esa sections are so well know that I can’t see why it would cause offense. The Esa even to this day practise the adoption of people into their clan – but that is another story. In the 1600 the Esa did not even live in the Dire Dawa region. We the Gurgura who live with the Esa today know the true history of the Dire Dawa region. Awarja Gurgura is the official name of the Dire Dawa region - until it was changed and the Esa tried to cliam the city - even though they are a tiny minority that live in HAfad Esa - an area of Dire DAwa given where the Esa were allowed to settle by Ugas Buh. Before Ugas Buh - no Esa had settled in Dire Dawa. The Garads were all Gurgura - eg. Ganda GArada area of Dire Dawa etc. were all held by Gurgura elders or Garad..........etc. The Esa never lived in the region until quite recently. Shinle north of Dire Dawa, Harawa Valley, Biyo Gurgura all north east of Dire Dawa were occupied by the Gurgura until recent history. All our neighbours both - in particular the Esa and Gadabursi complain that all the lands previously inhabited by the Gurgura are all barren land – this is true – Shinle (barren) – Biyo Gurgura (near Abdel Qadir town is barren), Zeilac (barren), etc. The Gurgura left barren lands and conquered the most fertile regions in Ethiopia. Our advanced agricultural techniques and settled way of life – left behind a legacy of ancient towns in Somalia such as Amud, Au Bare, etc. – stone constructed towns similar to Harer but older – abandoned so that we could live in more fertile lands. In the early 1990's the Esa told the Meles Government that the Gurgura were a tiny minority and the town was populated by Esa. On hearing this a Gurgura member of parliamment spoke up for his people - the Gurgura and told the Meles Govt that it was a Gurgura town - on inspection the entire Gurgura population of Dire Dawa filled the streets and showed the Meles Govt that we are the silent majority. The city came to a stand still. 5. The Gurgura know as the Awaleen or the first ones, occupied the areas north of Borama – along the Zeila road. The occupied Berbera but called it Sahil. The town of Biyo Gurgura is on the Zeila road, and was occupied by the Gurgura until the climatic chances and the increasing dryness made them move further west – this was at a very early period and the Esa were not even born then. The Esa are not mentioned in Futih Al Habash at all. They now cliam to be related to the Ishaq - see the Djibouti web sites! 6. The Gurgura never captured Dire Dawa - We built if during the reign of Haile Selaasie. But the older towns Jaldesa, Hobat, etc. were built by the Gurgura. Harar was also built by the Gurgura – but many towns to the west are older. Harar came to significance much later than other Gurgura towns. The Adari and Argobba tribes were converted to Islam by the Gurgura in the regin of Amda Seyon – you can check this! 7. The Esa lived near the Somali coast. Only during the past century or so have they come near the Gurgura city of Dire Dawa. The Gurgura use to defend the Esa from being persecuted by the neighbouring clans. But the dominance of the Gurgura was toppled by Cornel Mengistu (1970’s) who favoured the Esa after the 1977 -1978 war. The Esa and Gurgura a bitter rivals. During the 1977 – 78 war whenthe Gurgura annilated the Ethiopian army at Hurso. And liberated vast areas. The intervention of the Russians and Cubans led to the Gurgura defeat and persectution – Gurgura refugees were refused entrance to Djibouti and the Esa used this opportunity to join Mengistu and blame the Gurgura for the 1977-78 rebellion. Gurgura from Hurso that did not manage to escape to Somalia were captured and forced to live 100’s of miles away at Sodere. On a visit to Sodere, I was informed that some familes had only rcently returned back to their homeland. Even today the farms of the Gurgura are held by the Ethiopians. Many Gurgura are still refugees in their own land – all because the fought and cause so many casulties to the Ethiopian army – that they (the Ethiopians) have said that they (Gurgura) will never have their farms back. The Gurgura ability to unite and defeat their enemies in battle is well know and feared. Just as in the ancient description by the Ethiopian kings such as Amda Seyon – “They ties thems selves together and swear to fight top the death” – a clear description of the Gurgura heroic attitude to battle. 8. The Esa foolishly tried to take on the Oromo Liberation front in the early 1990’s without the Gurgura – as a result the Esa were defeated. The Gurgura, a peace loving people, asked the Oromo Liberation Front to leave Gurgura town of Melka Jebtu – and stop trying to force their idnetity on the Gurgura. The Gurgura patiencly waited for 3 days and gave the Oromos OLF a chance to leave – our leaders do not rush into conflict. The Tigreans were nervous, and thought the OLF was powerful. But on day 3 the brave Gurgura warriors were brought together – with there ancient battle oath – translated as “we are unbreackable” – the Gurgura drove the OLF to the hills and followed them capturing all their possession and impressing the Tigreans who did not think the quite Gurgura were so fierce in battle. This is a true account – the Esa and Gurgura Liberation Front IGLF fell apart because the Esa were contiunually being tribalistic and undermining the Gurgura. The Gurgura left the IGLF and formed the GLF – many of the Gurgura who refused to form an alliance with the Esa – then came and joined the GLF – which dominated from Harar to the Awash. 9. The Gurgura are know as the one that drove the Afar into the barren desert they now occupy – in the ancient days. The Esa have always lost in their battles with their neighbours – the Afar, the Gadabursi and Gurgura have all defeated the Esa in recent history. The Esa have never dominated the NW Somalia/Ethiopian region. 10. The Lahele and Gurgura have a close history – I will not re-tell it hear but the detailed history which I have collected from the Lehele and Gurgura indicate that a series of complicated events took place which resulting in the Lehele having to migrate to various areas – e.g. Ogaden and areas south of Dire Dawa – while many became absorbed among the Gurgura Beidor subclan. Exact history is too complicarted to re-tell hear. But my detailed interviews of elders of Lehele and Gurgura (plus interviews with other Dir such as Madigan, etc. ) indicates a complicated historuy where people had developed a highly sophisticated society – based on Islam. 11. The name Gadabursi is not mentioned in Futuh Al Habash – Iman Saed is mentioned - who is said to be the founding father of the Samarone Gadabursi – is said to be an army general. If you follow the logic that in 1540 Iman Saed – the Gadabursi founding father – is said to have lived – this clearly proves that the Gadabursi are not of antiquity. Since Auboba – a Gurgura Sheikh – also mention in Futuh al Habash – gave rise to the small sub-section of the sub-clan of the Nabidur Gurgura. The Nabidur or other Gurgura sub-clans do not claim to be descnednats of a man that lived in the 1500’s AD. But small families such as my own can traces back to Auboba abd Aubare – i.e. rer X Y Z. Thus a Rer or family unit in the genealogical tree would make sense if the genealogies werer accurate. But for a whole tribe such as the Samarone to be descendants of one man who lived in 1540 AD indiactes that the genealogy is not accurate and that inorder to explain the large numbers of the Samarone Gadabursi – the numbers were increase by adoption of other. This is accepted by the Gadabursi and I have collected info direct from the GAdabursi who are our neighbiours. The information has not been collected from Isaq since they have no concept of who the various Dir are. On the other hand the Gurgura and Lehele have a wider knowledge and are able to give a detailed history of who is who. This is not an insult – just do your maths – if we say that 30yrs is given (approximate) for each generation. Count how many people who be alive if a man lived in 1540 – i.e. say 3 generation per 100 yrs (approximate only). You will see that it is impossible for the Gadabursi to be all descendnsta of one Man that live in 1500’s – THE SAME CAN BE SAID OF THE ISHAQ – HOW CAN THEY ALL BE DESCENDED FROM ONE MAN THAT LIVED AROUND 1400’S AD ? Scientifoically you will ses that it is not possible. 12. As for the southern Dir – the Gare occupied the Bajun Islands many centuries before the Bimal arrived. They were one of the earliest Somalis to live in the region - the Madinle, Silcis etc. were after them. Even to this day remnenants of the Gare are found as far west as Lake Stephanie and lake Rudolph and even further west. The Bimal were not the first Dir to settle in southern Somalia. History is not that simple. When on studies the tribal genealogies – one can see who the early inhabitants were. This is a useful exercise and I recommend that anyone intersted in finding out who we really are should carefully study the names in your own genealogies. We are all mixed - and apotion of other tribes both somali and non somali has been practiced from the beginning of time. To deny this is to deny history. Ibro
posted to Issas Iyo Gadabuursi iyo Jarso. at Fri Jan 07 12:00:23 EST 2005.
Dir and the Camel - Xiddhiga Kow - Kamel Gurgura
The info posted by Agoon Historian is interesting since I have come across the same story of the Rendille being started by lost Somalis who havd to give up their religion and became adopted into the Masaai people (Samburu etc.) The Camel story in Somali folklore is interesting - a brief summary is as follows. In the Ancient days, the Gurgura lived along the northern Somali coast, along the Zeila and Berbera region. The Gurgura belived that all the camels in the world belonged to them. Having captured all the camels in the land. The Gurgura held a tribal meeting to discuss the one camel that had escaped them. The elders were informed that the Camel in the Sky (the Southern cross star - which is referred to as the camel in the sky) - had escaped them. The Gurgura climb the mountain called Elmas just a few miles west of Berbera - each Gurgura man climbed on the shoulders of another. The formed a human chain - each on one anothers shoulders until the reached the sky and the camel in the sky. As the boy on top of the human pyramid grab the camels tail - the human pyramid collasped - all the Gurgura fell to earth. All that was left was the camel in the sky - (southern cross constellation) - which today is remembered by all Somali as Xidhiga Kow - Kamel Gurgura. Thus all Somalis when conting the stars include the name Gurgura. This story indiactes that the first astronomical definitions in Somali Culture are associated with tye Gurgura - since the stars are named after them. The story is very imaginatie. The real history behind the introduction of the naming of stars in Somali culture probably has a lot to do with the connection between the Dir and the ancient people of mesopotamia (southern Iraq) - the Dir have many ancient stories which indicate that they once dominated southern Iraq and western Iran - the Somali clebration of Dabshid is also linked to the ancient Elamites of Iraq - a black skinned people associated with the 2nd millenium BC. In the UAE they were known as the barbar people - an ancient name usually associated with the Dir and Hawiya in ancient texts. The connection between Irag/western Iran and the ancient Somalis is also suggested by place names across the country. In Yemen the barbara - (ancient Somalis) are remembered as having driven out the Romans just after the invasion of the AlQumr or Indonesians of Madagascar. The Dir have colonised many parts of the World - the MAldives, Yemen, Oman, Chad, Iarq and Iran and probably more. The history of the Dir is fascinating and should be celebrated. Without understanding Dir History - one cannot understand Somali history. Ibro Aliya
posted to Biyamaal Dir Myth "the first camel was mine. at Thu Jan 06 11:03:20 EST 2005.
The Gadabursi are mixed - the genealogy suggests that the main section are direct decendants of Madalug Dir while some other sections are soraac or aopted. The origin of the adopted sections are said to be Darod and Isaq, but this is unclear. The same can be said for the Esa - 3 sons are direct from the union of Esa and a Madigaan Dir women - while the other 3 are soracc - or adopted - the adopted sections are said to be Afar, Habr Jeelee (Isahq), etc. - the exact origin can be debated and is unclear. The same can be said of sections of the Afar who are infact Gurgura but have become lost among them during an ancient war. Again in the Hawakil Island of Eritrea - Darod Somalis have become Afar. The same can be said for Ishaq - some Akisho have become Saad Musa during the colonial period of the British - the list is endless. There is no need to be offended. The Somalis are not pure Tribe X Y or Z - we are mixed. That is why tribalism is crazy. We have to educate each other on the complete history of our people. We must not invent history. We must all know how we are related to each other. Somali society has become destroyed becuase of people following fictional genealogies which are not accurate. The Gurgura dominated Nothern Somalia before the Esa and befor the Gadabursi. This is fact. The Ali Madaxweyna, and Lehele were also part of the development of the Awfat and Awdal. The antiquity of Gurgura, ALi, and Lehle is clear. The exact orgin of the Jarso and other eastern tribes needs to be documented. Since the movement of the Itu, Ala, Arussi tribes was during the last days of the Muslim sultanates. Where are the Jarso from - what is the history of the 5th son of Dir. Could more info on this be placed in this forum, please. As a historian, I feel it is important to debate history so that everyones veiws are acknowledged. Ibro Aliya
posted to Gurgure are not strangers to us they are our Sons. at Tue Jan 04 16:57:52 EST 2005.
Gurgura and the Camel
Did you know that the Gurgura intrdouced the Camel to Somalia. According to Somali legends the Gurgura introduced the camel and are as a result, the most ancient of all Somalis. There is a long tales about this. The Gurgura are belived in Somali Folktales to have reached to the skys to claim the Camel in the Sky.
posted to Gurgure Dir. at Thu Dec 02 16:17:55 EST 2004.
History of Gurgura - Who are the Nole
The Gurgura have a special relationship with the Nole tribe. The Nole are not Somali, but Oromo. You may ask - What is the link between the Gurgura and the Nole. Let me clear this up for you. According to the elders of the Gurgura tribe in Ethiopia, the Gurgura were masters of the Somali coast. At the time when they inhabited Biyo Gurgura, a war was being fought between the Oromo. The Oromo tribes were fighting each other. The Itu and Ala had made an alliance against what are today the Nole. The Nole were being destroyed by the new arrivals (Itu and Ala). The Gurgura warriors consulted the religious leaders and asked about what they should do. The were told to fight the Itu and Ala for only three days. Their mystical leaders said that during thoses three days they would be undefeated, and that their enemy would be broken. They were also told that they must not continue any war beyond those days. The Gurgura swept down from Biyo Gurgura and completely defeated the Itu and Ala Oromo; they saved the Nole from destruction and ever since the Nole Oromo have been bound to be allied to the Gurgura. That Gurgura along with their brothrs Alele have a complicated history. The eastern Oromo speakers the Jarso, etc. are not really Oromo but mainly Somalis who have adopted the Oromo languange. They consist of both Dir and Darod elements. The Gadabursi are not of any antiquity. Anyone who has read Richard Burtons First Steps in East Africa wiil recall that Burton says "the Gadabursi cannot throw any light on the history of the ancient ruins around Aubarre and Amud; they say that these places were occupied by an ancient people at the time when the Gadabursi lived far to the east. This indicates that the Gadabursi are not the ancient inhabitants of Audal or Awfat. Also the Gadabursi are a mixture of Dir and Darod tribes who have come together to form a new tribe. The Esa are not mentioned in Futuh Al Habash, the the Gadabursi are not mentioned - Aubarre and Auboba are Gurgura - of the NAbidur branch. The Gurgra still inhabit the north west Somaliland region (Ijara, Gebile, etyc.) - The Eastern Oromom do not exist in any real numbers; most of the Oromo speakers in Harerghe province are Somalis who have adopted the languange. The Jarso, and other Oromo speakers around Harer have to adopt Somali nationality if they wish to be considered Dir. Since the Dir are the first born of SOMAL - anyone who doesn't accept Somali identity cannot be considered Dir. The Dir are Somali Languange is not identity. So if Gurgura in England speak English - that doesn't make them English Like wise - is Dir person speaks French, English, Oromo, Amharic or Afar - as long as they recognise that they are Somali - then languange is not important. From the Awash to to Bale is Somali - be it Gure, Gura, Gurgura, Degodia, Awlihan, Malingur, Aksiho, Karanleh, ect. Thus to summarise the Gurgura fought many wars in alliance with neighbours. They defended the Nole and saved them from existinction. That is why the Nole say they are Nole Gurgura. They are stories of Gurguras among the Afar people and among other parts of Ethiopia. They have not lost their identity but are waiting for the time when the Gurgura rule again, just as in the days of Ahmen Gure.
posted to ibro aliya's Channel. at Thu Nov 25 17:07:41 EST 2004.
Gurgura Culture is Sufism
The Gurgura are the oldest of all the Somali tribes. That is not in dispute. But what makes us more interesting is that we have a different culture to some of the other Somalis. As more and more Gurgura marry outside of their tribe; we see them change and adopt allegiances to tribes that would see the Gurgura disappear. The first Gurgura to reach Galbed did not battle with humans ( that was the second battle ) - the first battle was with the many jinns that inhabit the mountains west of Dire Dawa. Even today the people of Hurso remember when any foreign traveller would not be able to spend a night in that town - The jinns would shout "there is a foreigner in our midst" Gurgura country is the land of the Awliya - the foundation of Harer and the ruined towns of Aubarre, Amud, etc. were by a quiet, inteligent people, who lived in peace with each other. The unqiue culture of the gurgura has to be preserved from those who seek to change it. We do not practice tribalism among ourselves like other Somalis - this makes the Gurgura a target for other tribes who try to influence us by marraiage to non Madaxweyna Tribes. The name Gurgura is missing from every UN report on Galbed. Why? It was once said (yr 2000 Balawa Shir) "Some say we are like the Harla, a forgotten people that once existed" Are we going to be confined to the pages of History or are we going to be a living culture that support each other? The Gurgura are at their lowest time, war, poverty, hunger..........the list goes on. The Gurgura do not have anyone outside in Europe or USA or Canada............they will have to survive alone and depend on each other. Those outside of Africa only talk......and talk is cheap....... Why? Gurgura in the UK for example some do not even talk to each other and yet they say they are going to help Dire Dawa, or Hurso etc. Building castles in the Sky. Even brothers do not talk to each other in the UK.........so go back to the beginning of what I was saying..........The Gurgura first did battle with the Jinns..........That still applies to everyone. If some of the Gurgura I know were taken to Dire Dawa, they would be tied to a tree by the elders........... Don't lose your culture.......... Rumi, "the mystical poet said do not trust a preacher until you have seen inside him with your inner eye" Ibro Aliya (Ibrahim Ali Noor Haji Mohamed) Official Historian of the Gurgura UK new book title due out 2005 to follow previous out of print edition
posted to Gurgura. at Wed Nov 24 17:19:56 EST 2004.
Posted by DIRSAME at 4:21 AM 0 comments
Labels: A DISCUSSION ON DIR CLAN BY SOUTHERN DIR AND DIR FROM ETHIOPIA
HISTORY OF THE GURGURE MADAXWEYNE DIR
The History of the Gurgura People
Tribe is a general term used in various controversial ways. It can best be defined for the purpose of this brief analysis, in a general sense as a traditional political entity that organizes fragmented nomadic (pastoral) and sedentary (agricultural and urban) populations into large-scale alliances. Gurgura solidarity remained relatively durable (not as strong as the Issa, though) in contrast to the solidarity (tribal bonding), which was formed latter on, in larger scale alliances. What are the social ingredients that serve as the basis for a tribal solidarity? The family and kinship played an important role for a genuine sentiment of group feeling within the smaller branches of a tribal solidarity, such as the extended families or a coalition of related families. However, the basis for solidarity within a larger unit such as the Gurgura consists of the following unifying features, which include generally accepted popular figures, such as a hero, a wise or generous person, a religious leader or an ancestor. Any symbolic or historical attributes that have an effect of binding the group together such as the myth of a common remote ancestor are considered the basis of a tribal solidarity or confederation, and are thus, expressed in the name of a tribe. Tribe is, in this sense, regarded as a political organization from which tribal solidarities such as Gurgura drive a feeling of a common identity.
The name Gurgura before the Italian occupation of Ethiopia and during the expansion of Minilik's 'MalkaycC rule over the Dire Dawa region, entails a tribal confederation, consisting of seven sub-tribal groups or clans; namely: Ga'alwaaq, Kundhuble, Ba'iida, Cufattiile, Sannaya, Sancheele, and Nibiddor. These shared-descent groups within Gurgura tribal confederation can each further be subdivided into several branches, totaling approximately, twenty sub-lineage groups and sub-clans, categorized into two bonds of union known as 'Dar' and 'Dudub'. Accoiding to local legend recounted by traditional Gurgura Elders ; 'Manguddo'/'Odeyaar, Gurgura evolved as a social group, out of a recurrence of tribal solidarities into a tribal confederation during the period extending, perhaps, from the end of the Middle Ages to the end of the Ottoman Empire. Gurgura is a tribal solidarity based on a local custom and a traditional oral law known as 'Heera'/'Heer', in the absence of the nation-state.
While a considerable proportion of the Gugura are bilingual, the majority speaks afaari-Oromo. But almost one half of the total population speaks af-Somali, which is still regarded as the language that binds them together. Gurgura traditional elders called their two languages, afaan-Gurgura and af-Gurgura respectively, confirming a bilingual identity. There are some community elders who recount traditional stories, 'Sheekko' (folktales), whereby 'Afara-af was regarded as an ancestral language. Moreover, The Gurgura joined with tribal solidarities such as Oroino and Haleele forming a triad tribal confederation called 'Hole. Latter on, the Nole together with 'Ala', 'Oborra', and so on, formed a larger tribal/ethnic alliance called 'Afranqalou'. According to a local legend, Gurgura were identified as the oldest descendants among several tribes and nationalities of the same stock, related to a common ancestor such as the Issa, gadaboursi, Issaq, and so on, tracing their descent from a common lineage of an ancient family or clan called 'Dir' who is traditionally regarded as the first founder of the earliest clan. There had nevertheless, been a common belief, according to some legend that the 'ShehkHash' were the oldest of the 'Dif lineages. However, according to another popular legend it is also maintained that the Gur^.uia are descendants of an anonymous ancestor. The Gurgura, therefore, trace their respective lineage to a common ancestor, and their respective ethnological urn-ins to varying branches of a. Cushetic Language Family such as Aiar, Oromo, and Soniaii.
The Gurgura are recognized to be a coalesccnt group within a cluster of minority nationalities in Ethiopia. The Gurgura were regarded as an ancient small society comprised of nomadic and sedentary (agriculturalists and commercial) communities that built the first permanent settlements in the region of Dire Dawa city, or as it is sometimes also called Dare Dawa. Due to the fact, that the Gurgura permanent, as well as, nomadic settlements were neither extended across the republic of Djibouti boundaries, nor the North Somali borders, the Gurgura tended to habitually associate themselves with their neighboring communal societies distributed adjacent to their local regions within the boundaries of Ethiopia, i.e., Ethiopia's International Boundaries as recognized by the United Nations (UN) ant! the Organisation of African Unity (OAU).
While, the Gurgura have historically maintained their shared local Somali language and much of the traditional ways of life with their neighboring Issa, Gadaboursi, arid Is sag on the one hand, they have also maintained their shared local Oromo language and the traditional life style and custom with their neighboring Haleele, Oromo, Ala, and Oborra on the other. According to some critics, the Gurgura and Issa have not been successful in achieving their respective social and economic aim for progress. Neither have they used the opportunity to develop any tangible or any politically useful alliance with each other, except in response to the usual crisis time solidarities, significantly during the earlier periods before the existence of any "modem state " in the area. However, a profound cultural bond and a wide range of undeniable mutual cooperation existed between the Issa and Gurgura. These practices of cooperation were, primarily, carried out through their respective tribal council of representcitives, each being headed by a tribal confederation leader 'Ugaaz'. With regards to the Issa and Gurgura nomadic pastorals, sharing grazing lands and engaging in a traditional territorial defense were considered important aspects of mutual cooperation.
The Gurgura as a nationality group have steadily proclaimed their identity including those with whom they are legitimately affiliated as a coherent social group. The historical role played by traditional Gurgura communities in bringing the cultural interactions between their neighboring af-Somali speaking cousins to the north and afaan-Oromo speaking cousins to the south, together placed them, with respect to the peripheries, in a natural position to blend into the subsequent adjacent communities.
The Gurgura people share in language, icligion. custom, and traditional rural tribal systems, but these traits might not have prevented their total absorption into another ethnic group, if they had not solidly occupied a territory, which is their own genuine homeland. The traditional territorial claims and historical locations with which they are identified include the area of the region surrounding Dire Dawa, the inner city, and much of its outskirts.
BEESHA LAYIILE MADAXWEYN DIR
Layiile Sidaan Lawada Socono Waxay ka Tirsan Yihiin Umadda Direed ee Faraha Badan. Waana Beel dagan konfurta Soomaliya oo ay qaybo fara badan kaga kala dadsan yihiin Kismayo Ilaa Beledweyne. Mida kale, Reer Awa Saciid iyo Layiile anaga xagayaga waa ka mid oo waa isla Cali
Madaxweyn. 2-1995-kii anigu waxaan isku dayay in aan uruuriyo Tariikhda Dadka Direed eelkasta oo ay joogaan Geesta Afrika anigoo isku dayay in aan Baaro waxa ay Reer Galbeedku ka qoreen dadka Direed. Isla Markaana Baari tankeygi waxaan ku Tagay Dalka Djabouti, Dire- dhabe, NFD,iyo Waqooyiga Soomalia. Marka ugu Horeeysa qoraaga I.M Lewis ee Ingiriiska ah oo Waqooyiga ka qoray Bugaagta ay ka mid yihiin "Nomadic Democracy"oo ku saleyn jiray Buugaagtiisa Baritaano hore oo Qoraaga Talyaaniga ee la yiraahdo Cerruilli ayaa aad uga
hadlay Tariikhda Layiile Ali Madaxweyne.
In uu layiile Ali Madaxweyn ahyeen nimanka ugu awooda weyn Madaxeeyn Direed ilaa 300 sano. ka
Horna ay Jabiyeen Labo Beelood oo kala ah Isaaq iyo Ogaadeen iyo Ajuurankii ka talin Jiray Dhanka Qalaafe. I.M Lewis "The Layiile Ali Madaxweyn Dir Became Highly Dispersed and Lost Their Tribal Integrity" 2)I.M Lewis waxaa uu qoray oo uu sheegay in Dadkan Direed ee Layiilaha ah ay kala Daadasho, iyo Firir weyn ku Dhacay oo ay ku Dhex Milmeen Ummado kale oo Dir iyo
Shisheeyaba Leh. Waa sidii ku Dhacday Beelah Baajimaal iyo Dabruube oo Labaduba ku Dhamaaday
Dagaladii ay Ajuuraanka Qalaafo kula galeen qarnigii 1700. Sanadkii 2000-2001 anigoo isku Taxluujinaya inaan ka Salgaaro oon Wax Ka Ogaado Dadkaan Direed iyo Tariikhdooda ayaan Waxaan Tagay Dalka Ethiopia oo aan Safar Dhulka ku kala Maray ilaa Dira Dhabe---Jijiga--Hargeysa---Sheeikh--- Burco---Boorame-Arabsiya iyo meelo kale oo fara badan waxaanan soo ogaaday Taarikho bada:
Magaalada Diraa Dhabe iyo Jigjiga intaa u Dhexeysa Waxaan kula kulmay Dadka Indheer Garadka iyo kuwa Tariikhaha Uruuriya oo u kala Dhashay Dadka Direed Sida Barsuuga, Gurgurah, Akishoda, O Layiile, Gadabuursi iyo Ciisaba. Waxaa la ii sheegay in Layiilah Badankiisu ay Dhex Dagaan Gurguraha oo ay Dad isugu xigaan. Waxa kale oo la ii sheegay in ay Degaan Layiilah Carro Ogaadeen oo xitaa Qaar kamid Ahi ay Xukumaan Ogadeenka Qaybo Dhan. Waxaa la ii sheegay in Gabyaaga weyn ee Dhoodaan uu Asal ahaan ka soo Jeedo Beesha Layiile oo waxaa La’yidhi Ninkii Layiile ee Dhalay ayaa Nin Layiilaha Dilay Una Cararay Deegaanka Ogadeenka Isagoo Wata Canugiisi iyo xaaskiisii. Odeyaashii aan La kulmay ee Layiile ee Gurgurah la Dagaanaa waxa ay
ii Sheegeen in Kala Daadasho Xoogan ay ku dhacday Beesha Layiile oo ay Badh Dhankaas Nageele-- ilaa Guure Dhaamoole ay Gurrah Wada Dagaan, Badhna ay Waqooyi Galbeed Hargeeysa xageeda jiraan, laakin xooga Beesha uu u Badan yahay Dhankaan Howdaka.
Magaalooyinka Harta sheeikh iyo Qabri bayax Layiile fara badan ayaan Kula kulmay.Bartamihii 2000, Waxaan Soo Gaadhay Magaalada Hargeysa oo aan ku soo Dagay Xaafada la Yiraahdo Xero Awr. Malin maalimaha ka mida, ayaa Dagaal xoog Badan ka Dhacay xaafad Xero Awr oo ilaa 400 oo Nin ay isku Soo Baxeen oo ay Suuqa ilaa Xafadah Dhexdeedi la is Eryadaay:
Maalintii Ayaanu Ku Barjaynaynay Aqal waxaanan La fadhiyay niman Isaaq oo Habar Awal ah waxaa la igu Yidhi Waxaa Dagalamay Beel Habar Awal ah iyo Layiile. Anigii yaab ayay igu Noqotay Arrintii, Gadaal ayaa waxaa la iiga sheegay in Layiilaha ay ku Badan Yihiin Magaalada Hargeeysa
oo ay Si Wayn Isu Dhalaan Reer Gadiid oo ka mid ah Habar Awal, Waxaa ay Iisheegeen Ragaas inkastoo ay Layiilah aheyn Isaaq Hadana Reer Gadiika ayaay isla Dhiig Baxaan Layiilah. Maalintii uu Dagaalka Dhacay Ka Dib Ayaa Waxaanu Israacnay Labo Nin oo Midna Gurgure yahay midna Surre laakin ku Dhashay waqooyiga, waxaanu Fariisanay Guri uu leeyahay nin Layiile ah oo odey u ah Layiilah Xafada Dagan Waxaana Lagu Yidhi nin Direed oo Konfurta ka Yimid ayaa Doonaya inuu kula kulmo. Ragii meesha iigu Yimid waxa ka mid ahaa Cabdisamad X. Cabduulahi iyo Xasan Cabdi. Ragaan ayaa ii Sheegay in ay Dadkooda ay Dagaan Ethiopia Dhanka Hawd oo ay Qaarkalena ay Mandaluug Uwada Guureen Kismayo iyo Hiiraan oo ay la Dagaan Dirka Dalkaas. Waxa kale oo ay ii sheegeen Layiilaha in ay Rag iyaga ka mid ah Ay Soo Dageen Waqooyiga Hargeeysa 200 sano ka hor, Markii ay soo Dageen la Ximiyay oo ay Dagaalo Fara Badan Galeen Oo Markaa Mag ( Diyo ) Farabadan loo Qabsaday oo ay Sidaa Darteed Diyada ku Darsadeen Beesha Hargeysa Dagta ee loo Yaqaan Reer Gadiid inkastoo Aysan Iska Heyb Aheeyn:
Ragaas waxa ay ii Sheegeen in ay isku Dad Yihiin Guurah iyo Gurgurah Waxa aynaa ii Xisaabsheen Xildhibaanada Barlamaanka iyo Dowlad kilinka Shanaad ku Jira ee Gurgure iyo Guureba Sidii ay Yihiin Rag Layiila ah.
Qabiilka Direed ee Reer Dood Maalin Niman Isaaqa Ayaan Qaad la Cunay Markaas Ayaa Ruux u soo Galay oo uu ku Yidhi Ninkan Idiinla Fadhiyaa Yuu Yahay waxaa ay ku Yirahdeen Waa Nin Direed. Markaas ayuu Ragii ku xanaaqay oo uu Yidhi, War Soo Idinkoo Dhan Dir MaTihiin, Isaaqow Maxaad ka Wadaan. Ninkii Markaanu Sheekeysanay in aan nin Direed oo Reer Mahe Dir ah u Sheegtay oo Ladhashay Maxamed Xiniftire ayaa (Lilmo Indhihiisa ku soo Joogsatay) Waxaa uu ii sheegay in uu 70 sano jiro Walina Uusan Horey u arkin Qof Dir Sidaan u kala sheeg sheegi kara, Odeygii ayaa i Weydiiyay Miyaad Maqashay Reer Dood, Hadii Aad Tahay Wiil Direed oo Maxamed Xiniftire
dhalay ? Waxaan ugu Jawaabay Maya ee ii Sheeg, Tolkeey aan Bartee? Odeygii Waxaa uu igu Yiri Waxaan Ahay Reer Dood, Reer Doodna waa Dad Direed oo La daga Habar Jeclo, kana Mida Habar Jeclo Laakin ka soo Jeeda Maxamed Xiniftire. Waxaa u ii Sheegay Odeygaan in Fananda Weyn ee Guduudo Carwo Ay Ka Soo Jeedo Reer Dood, Waxaana uu i Siiyay Walakeed oo Jigjiga Dagan oo
uu Igu Yiri Raadi:
Qabiilka Maxbuubta Aad sheegeyso waxan kula kulmay Nin Darawal ah oo Dagan Magaalada Abaarso Habeen aan ka Doodnay Dirnimada iyo Shirkii Carta ayaa Rag waxaa i Weeraray Habar Awal ah oo Yidhi Wax Dir la Yidhaada Majiraan, Geelaa Carta ku sameeyay. Ragii Isaaq ahaa ayaa waxaa iiga
soo dhex Baxay Nin Difaacaya Dirnimada oo Markii Danbe Si Cad u Yiri Anigu Waxaan Ahay Nin Direed oo ma Diidayo Dirnimo. War Yaad Dir ka Tahay ayaan ku Idhi Darawalkii Waxaa uu iigu Jawaabay Anigu waxaan Ahay Nin Direed oo Maxbuubta ka Mida oo La Dhiig Baxa Reer Shirdoon (Habar Awal). Markii aan sii War Wareystay ninkii waxaa soo Baxday in Ninkaan uu Yahay Gaaljecel-- Maxbuub oo Waligood la Dagaanaa Rerkan Habar Awal Lana Dhiig Baxaan Reer Shirdoon. Ninkaan adinku Hawiye u arka ama iska Daaya Isagu Waxaa uu ii Sheegtay in uu Yahay
Maxbuub Dirna Yahay Dalkaa Waqooyigana uusan ka Xigin Nina. oo uu Yahay Dal Direed.
Magaaloyinka Arabsiyo-Awbare-Gibiley-Ijaara -Taysa-Darbiga Waxaan La kulmay Rag fara Badan oo ay ka Mid Yihiin Mandaluug reer galbeeda iyo Gurgure( Reer awbare) iyo Madiigaan iyo Beel weynta Gadabuursi oo Si Wacan iiga Waramay Tariikhaha Dadka Direed:Lasoco