The Anglo-Gadabuursi Treaty
THE GADABURSI TREATY (Concluded with the British authority, in December 11, 1884 ) We, the undersigned Elders of the Gadabursi tribe, are desirous of entire into an agreement with the British Government for the maintenance of our independence, the preservation of the order, and other good and sufficient reasons. Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follow: Article I The Gadabursi tribe do hereby declare that they are pledged and found never to cede, sell, mortgage or otherwise give for occupation, save to the British government, any portion of the territory presently inhabited by them or being under their control. Article II All vessels under the British flag shall have free permission to trade all ports and places in the territories of the Gadabursi tribe. Article III All British subjects, residing in, or visiting, the territories of the Gadabursi tribe, shall enjoy perfect safety and protection and shall be titled to travel all over the said limits under the safe conduct of the elders of the tribe. Article IV The traffic in slaves throughout the territories of the Gadabursi tribe shall cease for ever and the Commander of Her Majesty’s vessels, or any other British Officer duly authorised, shall have the power requiring the surrender of any slave, and of supporting the demand by force of arms by land and sea. Article V The British Government shall have the power to appoint an agent or agents to reside in the territories of the Gadabursi tribe, and every such agent shall be treated with respect and consideration and be entitled to have for his protection such guard as the British Government deem sufficient. The above written treaty shall come into force and have effect from the date of signing this agreement. In token of the conclusion of this lawful and honorable bond, Iama Roblay, Mohamed Ali Balol, Ilmee Warfah (Ughaz’ son), Rogay Khairi, Waberi Idlay, Roblay, Warfah, Doaly Dilbad, Amir Egal, Gaylay Shirwah, Warfah Roblay, Yunus Boh and Major Frederick Mercer Hunter, the former for themselves, their heirs and successors, and the latter on behalf of the British Government, do each and all in the presence of witnesses affix their signatures, marks, or seals at Zaila on the eleventh day of December one thousand eight hundred and eighty-four, corresponding with the twenty-fifth of Safar one thousand three hundred and two. (Signed) F. M. Hunter, Major, Bombay Staff Corps Signed in presence: (Signed) Percy Downes, First Grade Officer, I. M. (Signed) Dufferin, Viceroy and Governor General of India This agreement was ratified by the Governor General of India in Council at Calcutta on the twentieth February one thousand eight hundred and eighty-five. (Signed) H. M. Durand, Officiating Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department Fort William, The 25th February 1885
The Gadabursi kings: The role of Imam Said Samaroon in Dir History
The Dir history in Iman Samaroon’s era- Submitted By:Huurshe Mahe Dir! Mahe Dir! Tariikhda Direed ma qormeyso, mana soconayso Madanluug Dir laantii. Imam Samaroon Said alle ha unaxriisto 1432 AD ,when the Amhara cruseaders conquered Somali, Iman Said was the muslim leader who led the Madanluug Dir and when the imam was later fighting in the Westren flank of the Guurey army he was injured at dardarley. The name Gadabuursi was given to his descendents at the last critical moment before he made a final stand to the Amhara at the mandaluug ancestral homeland of Amuud which was destroyed 1459 A.D by the Xabasha invaders over 50,000 homes where discovered by archeologists recently and the place was leveled with the ground 10, 000 thousands perished. The Magadle Dir was completely annilated except for the 10,000 or saw that survive in Cerigaabo. The Madoobe Dir installed a Madaxweyn Dir dynasty The Wardiiq who was the ruling remenants of the Madaxeyn Dir in the north. Madigan, Gurgure and the Barsuug Dir fled west and were encirled by the Oromos- Many assimilated and the union formed a half cast Jarso. The Isaaq Dir reconstituted as Maxamed (Axmed Xiniftire) new Habar alliences formed the Nacadoor,Mikidoor,Nabidoor and the Idoor all disappeared. The name Gaada Biirsay means The one who collected the army or “chests” the name refered to the desparate effort of imam Samaroon Said to collect and muster the power of his kinsman against the infidels. Gaado means shafka ama xabadka (gaada ha i saarin oo kale. Gaadsan the westren Dir ‘s name means the one with the army or good chest litraray. The Gadabuursi latter suffered a davastating defeat and actually the present day Amuud which has a old cementary called Lafaruug was destroyed by the Amhara King. Also note it was this period that the King Shihad a Diin buried in Zailac Island was killed. The Gudabuursi Dir and Modoobe Dir never recovered from these davastating blows. The Madaluug in Southren Somalia and the Biyamaal as well as The Fiq’s Suure all left at this point their Southren movement from Amuud region in the 1600′s during the Axmed Guurey era. The Suure Dir who are, as a matter of fact, still in Hauda region and whom refer them self’s as Fiqi’s where the Her or sheikh associated with Awbarre/Buube/ Yusuf Barkad kowniin students who entered Mudug region at the time when the Ajuuran ruled at mereg and some served as Imams under one malakh Gareenow Xaasey. The Suure Fiqi’s, Biyamaal, Guure, and the Badimaal all entered the south by 1700. The Biyamal claim to have entered the Banadir area, a name meaning beynka direeb, in 1700′s. The Gurgure/Akisho cluster and reminders of Madaxweyn Dir conquered the Dira Dhabe ” meeshu Diri Dhabe” ama waranka ka taagay. The Gurgure which is not their real name (Gurgure means trader hence the word Gorgortan – to bargain) or the trader became oromized after the great oromo invasions many Dir became lost or dispered. Today in the south and westren Somali you will find a large cluster of Mandaluug Dir who live with the Southren Suure, Biyamal, and Gadsan
The History of the Dir People.
Fatuhal Habash bookDir People from Ahmed Gurey Ibrahim’s era
In the 1500′s several things happened in the early struggles of Axmed Gran with the Ethiopia Christian Imperialists who where sprearheading attacks into Muslim lands.
According to Fatuh Al Habash: 1) Ahamed Gran came into the hinterlands of North Westren Somalia in order to recruit fighters amoung the Mandaluug Dir, Mahomed Xiniftire Or Mahe Dir and Madoobe.
The fatuh al Habash mentions the Habar Magadle (Maha Dir) by name as one group which Gureey try to draw into his camp.Nevertheless, the Habar Awal and Habar Yonis joined the Gurey jihaad.
For Example, the Makaahil of the Habar Awal was the son of an Amhara princesse who was broght back to Somali by a Habar Awal worrior. The Amhara princes asked her captor one favour which to name the first son. After she bore the son she named him Makahil “Micheal” the angel. As a matter of fact many Mahe Dir like the Habar xabuush or Habar Jeclo were also named in such a case.
According to the Fatuh Al Habash, “the fierce and rebellious Isaaq, Issas, and Afar clans who lived close to these groups and was know as “Oda Cali” caused Guurey many problems because as soon as the attacked the Habash enemies and gained some booty they would return to their territorie this angered Imam Ahmed who wanted a displined army. Ali and Mataan a brothers in-law of Gurey and Ahmed Nuur a knephew or Gurey, who later married Gurey’s wife Batiyo Delwambero(Dawmbiro). It is interesting to not The name Dalwambero. It is no accidental it sounds like Dombiro. The Darood Somali clans under Imam Ahmed Gurey where led by another Garad who was know as Guuray and he was married to Delwambera’s sister Mardiya. It was at this period that the Madaxweyn Dir enlisted the Yabbare, Geeri, and Harla, also it was at this juncture of history that the Darood confuse history.
1) The Darood confuse to distinct persons. Namely, Imam Ahmed Ibrahim Ghazali Aragsame the proper Ahmed Guray and the Garad Gurey who led the Darood armies. After centuries they think that their Garad whose name is mentioned in the Fatuh Al Habash as Guray is the same as Ahmed Gurey. So the legacy of Axmed Gurey is not limited to the Gababuursi or Ciisa or Gurgure but as touched all Somalis.
Sheeikh Cabdul Qadir al Jeylaani (Jilani’s Biography) Patron Sain of the Somalis.
Tariikhdii iyo nolashii Sheekh Cabdulqadir Jaylani o ah Sheekh Dariiqad Qadiriyada of Somali iyo Geeska Africa aad ugu Faatay. Sheekh aweys iyo sheekhyo badan oo somali ah ayaa Sheekhan oo reer baqdad ah raacsanaa. Dariiqoyinka Sufism ka ah baryahan waxay far kulul isku hayaan ardayda ka soo labatay Sacuudiga iyo Kaliijka. Maxay kula tahay ? Dariiqoyinka kale Salixiya iyo Darqawiya, Ahmadiyya Somali way ka jiri jireen. ——————————————————————————– The Shaikh’s Life in Baghdaad Through the mists of legend surrounding the life of Shaikh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani, it is possible to discern the outlines of the following biographical sketch: In A.H. 488, at the age of eighteen, he left his native province to become a student in the great capital city of Baghdaad, the hub of political, commercial and cultural activity, and the center of religious learning in the world of Islaam. After studying traditional sciences under such teachers as the prominent Hanbalii jurist [faqiih], Abuu Sa’d ‘Alii al-Mukharrimii, he encountered a more spiritually oriented instructor in the saintly person of Abu’l-Khair Hammaad ad-Dabbaas. Then, instead of embarking on his own professorial career, he abandoned the city and spent twenty-five years as a wanderer in the desert regions of ‘Iraaq. He was over fifty years old by the time he returned to Baghdaad, in A.H. 521/1127 C.E., and began to preach in public. His hearers were profoundly affected by the style and content of his lectures, and his reputation grew and spread through all sections of society. He moved into the school [madrasa] belonging to his old teacher al-Mukharrimii, but the premises eventually proved inadequate. In A.H. 528, pious donations were applied to the construction of a residence and guesthouse [ribaat], capable of housing the Shaikh and his large family, as well as providing accommodation for his pupils and space for those who came from far and wide to attend his regular sessions [majaalis]. He lived to a ripe old age, and continued his work until his very last breath, as we know from the accounts of his final moments recorded in the Addendum to Revelations of the Unseen. In the words of Shaikh Muzaffer Ozak Efendi: “The venerable ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani passed on to the Realm of Divine Beauty in A.H. 561/1166 C.E., and his blessed mausoleum in Baghdaad is still a place of pious visitation. He is noted for his extraordinary spiritual experiences and exploits, as well as his memorable sayings and wise teachings. It is rightly said of him that ‘he was born in love, grew in perfection, and met his Lord in the perfection of love.’ May the All-Glorious Lord bring us in contact with his lofty spiritual influence!”
(Posted by guest: Warsame Awad)
Boqortoyad Awdal Ancient Gadabuursi civilization Gurrey
As the direct descendants of Awdal (formerly Adal Empire) inhabitants, the Samaroon people, well known as Gadabursi, are the citizens of Awdal. Despite the so-called SomaliLand Administration who wants to govern the North Regions of the former Somalia, the people of Awdal and the local authority are commited to the creation of an autonomous State of Awdal, the Northern region of the former Somalia. The people of Awdal are well known not only by the bravery, discipline and courage of their ancestors who were the rulers and the leaders of the entire East Africa, centuries ago but also, by their civilization and the consciousness of the existence of their Nation. In fact, the name Gadabursi derives from “Gado Birsi”, which means expansion of land. From the 13th century up to about the 19th century, before the arrival of the British Empire, the people of Awdal were true freedom fighters. During that period of time, they have been through many conflicts and wars against the Abyssinians, the Galas and they even fought against the Portuguese. Without going into the detail of the history of that period of time in this section, let me briefly highlight one of the well-known freedom fighter who left his mark; Ahmed Guray.
Born in 1506 at Hubat located between Harar and Galdaysa, Ahmed Guray lost his father when he was still a child and, an employee of his father adopted him, treating him as his only son. Many years later, Ahmed married Baati, the daughter of the king of Zeyla, named Mahfud. With the help that he received from king Mahfud, Ahmed Guray formed a strong army to fight against the Kingdom of Harar and defeated King Abubakar of Harar. The first battle of Ahmed Guray was in fact a long waited conflict in order to get back the Region of Harar and to free the Somali people living in that region. After having defeated the throne, the brother of Ahmed Guray had replaced King Abubakar. Indeed, the inhuman ruling of that Kingdom has been changed and the people got back the joy of the live and freedom with justice. During the following years, Ahmed Guray prepared his troop to a more bigger conflict, once again to fight for the freedom of the people of the region. This time Ahmed had to confront the Abyssinians, in order to bring down their taxation ruling and their discriminatory policy against non-Abyssinian. He formed a coalition of Somali (mainly Gadabursi) and Afar people, whom were the most discriminated that the Kingdom of Abyssinia was forcing and imposing unjustifiable taxation rules. In 1535, Ahmed Guray conquered 3/4 of the Abyssinians land and, at the age of 35, he became the Emperor of Abyssinia. At that time Ahmed came back to Harar, where he established his Kingdom and he was nominated the Emperor of Abyssinians, Somali and Afar people and, he created a centralised government and putted in place regional states.
As the history teaches us the reality of the past, we can find among the Samaroon people, as we do in other Somali ethics, a lot of great individuals who stood up for the freedom of their people and the dignity of their nation. The Gadabursi are civilized people, who are conform with the practices of their patriotism, respect the environment of their land and follow the changes relative to the time. Saying that, the Samaroon people are well known by their dedication to the education and business. Let me remind you that in the 1800 when the British Empire came to the East Cost of Somalia, they found civilized people who were doing business the way the western countries were doing it, from coast to coast and, from China to Central Africa. Indeed, that people were Samaroon, our ancestors. Soon, the British government sent its own business people in mission to that land, in order to understand and interact with the local people. Dear readers, let me refer you to the *Gadabursy Treaty that the authority based in Zeyla, Awdal at that time, signed with the British Empire, in 1884. In fact, this treaty tells us that the Gadabursi people were not dominated easily by the British but rather, they created a kind of business partnership with the British authority.
Nowadays, a priority for the people and the local authority of Awdal is strengthening the security situation of the northern regions of the former Somalia. Actually, while this people is working hard to keep the peace alive, improve prosperity and revitalise the socio-economic of the region by creating micro-economic business, the so-called SomaliLand Administration is engaged to disrupt the social live of the entire region. In fact, almost a decade after the collapse of the former centralised Somali State, Awdal has become a haven of peace in a conflict ridden the Horn of Africa. Unfortunately, this reality has yet to be recognized by the international communities, wrongly informed by an international media that focuses entirely on the inter-clan militia violence in central and southern areas of Somalia.
sawirka hoose waa qabrigii sheekh samaroon Ee sanaag
qabriga sheekh samaroon
Emergence of Adal
In addition to southward migration, a second factor in Somali history from the fifteenth century onward was the emergence of centralized state systems. The most important of these in medieval times was Adal, whose influence at the height of its power and prosperity in the sixteenth century extended from Saylac, the capital, through the fertile valleys of the Jijiga and the Harer plateau to the Ethiopian highlands. Adal’s fame derived not only from the prosperity and cosmopolitanism of its people, its architectural sophistication, graceful mosques, and high learning, but also from its conflicts with the expansionist Ethiopians. For hundreds of years before the fifteenth century, goodwill had existed between the dominant new civilization of Islam and the Christian neguses of Ethiopia. One tradition holds that Muhammad blessed Ethiopia and enjoined his disciples from ever conducting jihad (holy war) against the Christian kingdom in gratitude for the protection early Muslims had received from the Ethiopian negus. Whereas Muslim armies rapidly overran the more powerful empires of Persia and Byzantium soon after the birth of Islam, there was no jihad against Christian Ethiopia for centuries. The forbidding Ethiopian terrain of deep gorges, sharp escarpments, and perpendicular massifs that rise more than 4,500 meters also discouraged the Muslims from attempting a campaign of conquest against so inaccessible a kingdom.
Muslim-Christian relations soured during the reign of the aggressive Negus Yeshaq (ruled 1414-29). Forces of his rapidly expanding empire descended from the highlands to despoil Muslim settlements in the valley east of the ancient city of Harer. Having branded the Muslims “enemies of the Lord,” Yeshaq invaded the Muslim Kingdom of Ifat in 1415. He crushed the armies of Ifat and put to flight in the wastes along the Gulf of Tadjoura (in present-day Djibouti) Ifat’s king Saad ad Din. Yeshaq followed Saad ad Din to the island off the coast of Saylac (which still bears his name), where the Muslim king was killed. Yeshaq compelled the Muslims to offer tribute, and also ordered his singers to compose a gloating hymn of thanksgiving for his victory. In the hymn’s lyrics, the word Somali appears for the first time in written record.
By the sixteenth century, the Muslims had recovered sufficiently to break through from the east into the central Ethiopian highlands. Led by the charismatic Imam Ahmad Guray (1506-43), of the current Abrain clan of the Gadabursi the Muslims poured into Ethiopia, using scorched-earth tactics that decimated the population of the country. A Portuguese expedition led by Pedro da Gama, a son of Vasco da Gama who was looking for the Prester John of medieval European folklore–a Christian, African monarch of vast dominions–arrived from the sea and saved Ethiopia. The joint Portuguese-Ethiopian force used cannon to route the Muslims, whose imam died on the battlefield.
Awdal Empire of 700 AD –>1900 AD
Right after the Prophet’s (PBUH) death, an influx of religious teachers and merchants from the middle east, Oman and Yemen poured into Awdal and started doing business with the Empire. The Empire expanded. And, at the height of its power and prosperity in the sixteenth century, Awdal under the leadership of Sheikh Ahmed Guray, extended from Zeila to as far west as the city of Akxum; what is now western Ethiopia.
Even though the colonial anthropologist I.M. Lewis intentionally gives a distorted image of Skeikh Ahmad Guray’s origin, calling him the issue of a Coptic priest and a Muslim harlot, the Sheikh is from the Abrain sub-clan of the Maxaad Casse’ clan of The Gadabursi. His off springs still live in the city of Zeila where he was the king of.
There are many writings in several different languages about this long and peaceful era, but I chose to include some excerpts from the US Military Strategic Handbook of Somalia written after the Black Hawk down.
The military wanted to learn everything about Somalia and be prepared for future occurrences if any. So they offered grants to ten US universities to study Somalia from the beginning to the present, (everything there is to know ).
And the best beginning these researchers found was Awdal, where they say was the first place the word “Somali” was ever spoken. That alone emphasizes Awdal’s importance in the history of the Horn.
The Dir history in Iman Samaroons era- meaning of Gadabursi
Imam Samaroon Said alle ha unaxriisto 1432 AD when the Amhara cruseaders conquered Somali, Iman Said was the muslim leader who led the Madanluug Dir and when the imam was later fighting in the Westren flank of the Guurey army he was injured at dardarley. The name Gadabuursi was given to his descendents at the last critical moment before he made a final stand to the Amhara at the mandaluug ancestral homeland of Amuud which was destroyed over 50,000 homes where excuvated recently and the place was leveled with the ground 10, 000 thousands perished. The Magadle Dir was completely annilated except for the 10,000 or saw that survive in Cerigaabo. The Madoobe Dir installed a Madaxweyn Dir dynasty The Wardiiq who was the ruling remenants of the Madaxeyn. Madigan, Gurgure and the Barsuug Dir fled west and were encirled by the Oromos- Many assimilated and the union formed a half cast Jarso. The Isaaq Dir reconstituted as Maxamed (Axmed Xiniftire) new Habar alliences formed the Nacadoor,Mikidoor,Nabidoor and the Idoor all disappeared. The name Gaada Biirsay means The one who collected the army or “chests” the name refered to the desparate effort of imam Samaroon Said to collect and muster the power of his kinsman against the infidels. Gaado means shafka ama xabadka (gaada ha i saarin oo kale. Gaadsan the westren Dir ‘s name means the one with the army or good chest litraray. The Gadabuursi latter suffered a davastating defeat and actually the present day Amuud which has a old cementary called Lafaruug was destroyed by the Amhara King. Also note it was this period that the King Shihad a Diin buried in Zailac Island was killed. The Gudabuursi Dir and Modoobe Dir never recovered from these davastating blows. The Madaluug in Southren Somalia and the Biyamaal as well as The Fiq’s Suure all point their Southren movement from Amuud region in the 1600′s during the Axmed Guurey era. The Suure Dir who are as a matter of fact still in Hauda region and whom refer them self’s as Fiqi’s where the Her or sheikh associated with Awbarre/Buube/ Yusuf Barkad kowniin students who entered Mudug region at the time when the Ajuuran ruled at mereg and some served as Imams under one malakh Gareenow Xaasey. The Suure Fiqi’s, Biyamaal, Guure, and the Badimaal all entered the south. The Biyamal claim to have entered the Banadir area, a name meaning beynka direeb, in 1700′s. The Gurgure/Akisho cluster and reminders of Madaxweyn Dir conquered the Dira Dhabe ” meeshu Diri Dhabe” ama waranka ka taagay. The Gurgure which is not their real name (Gurgure means trader hence the word Gorgortan – to bargain)
Posted: Thu Aug 02, 2007 7:01 am Post subject: DIR Clans connections To Ahmed Gurrey War
Ali madaxweyn dir of the Gurgure according to the southren dir of mudug region was the leading head of the Axmed Gurey soldiers and Axmed Ibraahim ghazi was a Gurgure him self. His wife Baatiyo Delwabero was of the Jarso clan. The Gurgure along with their kinsman the Guure/Akisho/ were know in the 1400's as Maanguudo by the oromo's and Afar muslins. Maan(wisdom) Guudo (high). As a matter of fact when the Gurgura Ali Madaxweyn ruled the Ifat they sent the first Islamic missions to Northern Somalia as Sheikh Awbarkhadle, Aw Buube, Awbare,and other sheikhs to the South like Aw Hussen al Bale who was of Guure/Gurgure origin. All the Ifat kings Salah Din who is buried in Zaila and his ancestor Umar Din was of Ali Madaxweyn Dir. All the Northern and Southern Dir clans whether Isaq, Suure, Gadbuursi or Isasa are related to the ancient Gurgura. (Posted by
The Dir history in Iman Samaroons era- meaning of Gadabursi and Gurgure
Imam Samaroon Said (Alle ha unaxriisto) 1432 AD when the Amhara cruseaders conquered Somali, Iman Said was the muslim leader who led the Madanluug Dir and when the imam was later fighting in the Westren flank of the Guurey army he was injured at dardarley.
The name Gadabuursi was given to his descendents at the last critical moment before he made a final stand to the Amhara at the mandaluug ancestral homeland of Amuud which was destroyed over 50,000 homes where excuvated recently and the place was leveled with the ground 10, 000 thousands perished.
The Magadle Dir was completely annilated except for the 10,000 or saw that survive in Cerigaabo. The Madoobe Dir installed a Madaxweyn Dir dynasty The Wardiiq who was the ruling remenants of the Madaxeyn.
Madigan, Gurgure and the Barsuug Dir fled west and were encirled by the Oromos- Many assimilated and the union formed a half cast Jarso. The Isaaq Dir reconstituted as Maxamed (Axmed Xiniftire) new Habar alliences formed the Nacadoor,Mikidoor,Nabidoor and the Idoor all disappeared. The name Gaada Biirsay means The one who collected the army or "chests" the name refered to the desparate effort of imam Samaroon Said to collect and muster the power of his kinsman against the infidels. Gaado means shafka ama xabadka (gaada ha i saarin oo kale).
Gaadsan the westren Dir 's name means the one with the army or good chest litraray. The Gadabuursi latter suffered a davastating defeat and actually the present day Amuud which has a old cementary called Lafaruug was destroyed by the Amhara King. Also note it was this period that the King Shihad a Diin buried in Zailac Island was killed.
The Gudabuursi Dir and Modoobe Dir never recovered from these davastating blows. The Madaluug in Southren Somalia and the Biyamaal as well as The Fiq's Suure all point their Southren movement from Amuud region in the 1600's during the Axmed Guurey era. The Suure Dir who are as a matter of fact still in Hauda region and whom refer them self's as Fiqi's where the Her or sheikh associated with Awbarre/Buube/ Yusuf Barkad kowniin students who entered Mudug region at the time when the Ajuuran ruled at mereg and some served as Imams under one malakh Gareenow Xaasey. The Suure Fiqi's, Biyamaal, Guure, and the Badimaal all entered the south. The Biyamal claim to have entered the Banadir area, a name meaning beynka direeb, in 1700's. The Gurgure/Akisho cluster and reminders of Madaxweyn Dir conquered the Dira Dhabe " meeshu Diri Dhabe" ama waranka ka taagay. The Gurgure which is not their real name (Gurgure means trader hence the word Gorgortan - to bargain)
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Posted: Thu Aug 02, 2007 7:14 am Post subject: Gadabuursi
The Gadabuursi (Gudubiirsi or Sheik Samaroon) tribe is a northern Somali clan, a sub-clan of the Dir. The Gadabuursi are descendants of Sheikh Samaroon, who suffered a devastating defeat in a war with the highlanders of Ethiopia over a dispute of payment of annual tribute and tax collection from international trade routes connecting the hinterland of Ethiopia with the ports of Somalia in 1432. Recent archaeological excavations suggest up to 50,000 homes were destroyed.
Today they live mostly in northern Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti.
Politically they are represented by the Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA). The current President of self-declared republic of Somaliland, Dahir Riyale Kahin, is from the Gadabuursi tribe. Also the Gadabuursi are the second largest Somali ethnic group in Djibouti where the Dir Isaa (Ciise) are the majority.
The "Gadabursi Kingdom" was established more than 400 years ago and consisted of hundred elders and the King (Ugaas). The Hundred Elders used to work in four sections consisting of 25 Elders each:
Defence, the forcemen were horsemen "Fardoolay" and walkingmen
Economy and collection of taxes
The chairmen of the four sections were called "Afarta Dhadhaar" and were selected for their talent and personnel capability. A constitution, Xeer Gadabursi, had been developed, which divided every case as to whether it is new or experienced (ugub or curad).
The Gadabursi King and the Elders opposed the arrival of the British colonial government and signed an agreement with the British. Later as the disagreement between them had increased, the British Government had established some people against the Ugaas and organized to overthrow him which later caused the collapse of the kingdom.
As one of the Dir subclans, Gadabuursi are ethnically related to the Issa of Djibouti, the Suure (Abdalle and Qubeys central/Southern Somalia), the Biyomaal of southern Somalia, Gadsan and the Gurgure. Gadabuursi are also the second largest Somali ethnic group in Ethiopia.
 Partial listing of sub-clans
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Posted: Thu Aug 02, 2007 7:36 am Post subject: DIR CLAN qorah qoraalkaan bilad ayuu mudan yahay
Waxan caawa galay websit aad u xiiso badan oo xitaa magaca Suure loogu kala dhig dhigayo laf laf, jees jees, iyo sida ay u kala baxaan Suure. Dad badan oo xiiseey beelah Somalida ayaa waxa ay ka soo naqliyaan Websitka (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) beel weynta Dir xitaa lisas ay U.N soo saarto ayaa hada ka soo xigta Websitka heybta Direed. Hal ama laba nin kaliyaan isku taxluujiya in ay macluumadkii ay yaqaaneen Ingriis ku qoran oo ay raýiga Direed aduun weynaha u soo bandigaan.
Anigoo baaray Inginka waxa raadsha Google, 2001 kii ilaa 2002 waan ka waayay magaca Gadsan, Bimaal, Suure ama xitaa Gurgure. 2005 kii ayaan hadana baaray meelo fara badan oo ay ka mid yihiin globalcoordinate.com, Wikepidia, Dir Era, Xeraale, iyo nin aana garaney oo W. Awad la dhaho ayaan waxaan ka bartay macluumad la xiriira dadkii aan ka dhashay.
Dadka macluumadkaa Ingiriska ku qoray waxaa ay u faídeyeen dhalin badan oo xiisaysa tariikhda dadka.
Email ayaa hada ka hor waxaa iisoo diray nin Somali ah oo Pakistaan Jamacada ka dhigta oo igu yiri waxaan Internetka ka helay wax aan Abahey iyo Hoyadeey iga barin Dir oo labaduba ka dhasheen, hatana markaan Itobiya ku noqdo waxaan jeclahay in aan baadi doono dadka Mahe, Madaxweyn, iyo Madoobe ee daafaha dalka ku kala lumay. Yarkaan dhalinyarada ah ayaa igu soo hagay qoraladaan.
MAHAD AYUU MUDAN YAHAY NINKAN MAGACAN DIREED EE SARE U QAADAY EE KHADA IYO QALINKA KU DHIGAY WAXAAN ODEYAASHO XITAA U SHEEGIN DHASHOODA.
Die Dir sind ein Clan der Somali. Sie machen etwa 7 % der Bevölkerung Somalias aus.
Sie leben vorwiegend im Nordwesten Somalias (Somaliland), in Dschibuti und im angrenzenden äthiopischen Ogaden. Daneben gibt es isolierte Dir-Gruppen im Süden des Landes, etwa um Merka. Subclans der Dir sind die Biyomaal, Gadabursi, Gadsan, Issa und Suure (auch Akisho oder Gurgure genannt). Die Issa stellen die Bevölkerungsmehrheit in Dschibuti.
Der gegenwärtige Präsident von Somaliland, Dahir Riyale Kahin, gehört den Gadabursi-Dir an.
Siehe auch [Bearbeiten]
The Somali people are composed of four major tribes. The Dir, Hawiye, Darod, and Rahanweyn make up the majority of Somalis. The Dir are the most ancient Somali clan, and they are the most widespread group. They primarily live in Djibouti as the Issa and Gadabuursi. The northern clans of the self-declared Somaliland, namely the Isaaq, Gadabuursi,and Issa are also all Dir. In Ethiopia, the Dir clans are also the most numerous Somali clan group.
Southern Dir groups claim direct descent from Hiil, Samaale, Aji, Irir, who was the direct father of Dir. One of the brothers of the Dir included the Digaale and the Hawiye.
According to the Dir clan histories, Dir had four sons named Madahweyn, Mandaluug, Madoobe, and Mahe Dir; according to others Dir had a fifth son named Qaldho Dir.
The Dir in Ethiopia are represented by the Issas, Gurgure, Guure, Quranyo Maxamed, Akisho, Gadabuursi, Gadsan, Gariir, Fiqi Muhumand, Qubeys, Layiile, Mandaluulg, Baajimaal, and Wardaai. The majority live in the Dira Dhabe area, Jijiga region, and by the Awash River. The rest of the Ethiopian Dir clans live in southern parts near the Somali border near Dollo Ado and as far as Guure Dhamoole and Negele Boran.
In the Mudug region of central Somalia and all the way to Hiiraan region is another cluster of Dir clans known as the Suure. The Suure have been associated with spreading the Islamic faith in Somalia and the Qadiriya Sufi tariiqa in southren Somalia. The Suure are among the most influential Dir groups in Southern Somalia, and their territories include large areas of the Mudug and Galgaduud regions. Also the Suure have founded major trade cities in the Hiiran area including Alaabay and Kamhanley.
The majority of western scholars (both Italian and British) simply refered to the Surre as the "Dir of central Somalia" without differentiating them, but recent studies in Somalia reveal that the majority of the Dir in Hiiran, Gedo, Jubba and Bakool are divided into two branches, the Qubeyes and Abdalles, both descendents of Suure.
Other branches of the Dir include the ancient Biyamaal Clan who occuppy an area from 50 km south of Mogadishu all the way down to Jilib and Kismaayo, not far from border with Kenya. The Biyomaal of Marka fought against the Italian colonial rulers of Southern Somalia in a twenty-year war known as the Biyamaal Revolt, in which the Dir assassinated several Italian governors.
The Gurgure Dir inhabit the ancient city of Dira Dhawe, which is also inhabited by the Madoobe Dir Issas. The first to arrive were the Gurguras who named the city Dira Dhawe, or "the place that Dir conquered or hit with his spear". Finally, the Issas and other Somali groups followed into the region and the Christian Amharas referred the region to as "Oow-raajaa na Issa na Gurgura" or the region of the Gurguras and the Issas.
Gadsan (or Gaadsan) is one of the largest tribes in Dir, especially the western Dir. They reside mainly in three districts: Liban (Jarrati, Waladaya, Doolow and Guuredhamole), Godey (Iimey and Marole), and Gashamo (Nusdariiq, Marsin, Kabtinuur and Qabridhare). There is also other large population of gaadsan, known as Gaadsan-Qalaawileey in the Shabelle and Jubba regions. In Kenya there is a third division of Gaadsan, known as Gaadsan-Kenya, found in many cities such as Bangal, Garseeni, and Holla.
Political groups associated with the Dir clans include the following groups in Somalia and Ethiopia:
• Issas and Gurgure Liberation Front (IGF) of Ethiopia.
• Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA) of the Gadabursi Dir clan.
• Somali National Movement (SNM) of the Northern Isaaq.
• Southern Somali National Movement (SSNM) of the mostly Mohamed Xiniftire Dir Clans (Bimaal, Mandaluug, and Gadsan) of Jubba, Gedo, Bardheere, and Shabeellaha Hoose region.
• Democratic Liberation Front (DLF) supported Central Somalia Dir groups.
• Gurgure: The Gurgure are divided into three major groups, Habar Daar, Quwaax and Liiban, who are made of many sub-clans:
o Habar Daar
• Reer Aw Said and Abkeey Haji
o Farah Said
o Abiikar Said
o Sacdi Said
o Nuur Said
o Ali Said
o Cismaan Saciid
o Huseen Said
o Hassan Said
o Cumar Saciid
Maha Dir (Maxamed Xiniftire)
• Isaaq (Garhajis, Awal, Arap, and H.Jeclo)
Suure (Qubeys and Abdalle)
o Fiqi Muxumed
o Guuled Agoon
o Warsame Agoon
o Cigaal Agoon
o Jalaf Agoon
• Fiqi Khayre
• Food Cade
• Tolweyne Qubeys
o Faqi Cumar
Yabarcade Faqi Cumar
Fiqi Walaal (Aw-caalin, Xaaji Cabdalle)
Samafale,Maxamud weyne, Aw-Cisman, Maxamud Yare
Xassan Faqi Cumar
Rooble Cismaan (Faarax, Weheliye, Maxamed)
Aw-Macalin (Macalin Muxumed, Macalin Yusuf, Sheekh Cali, Macalin Macow)
o Caalin Mooge
o Maxamed Abtiudug
• Axadoobe Qubeys
o Cismaan Diidshe (Cismaan Iyiinta)
o Cabdalle Diidshe (Cabaas Iyiinta)
• Yabadhaale Qubeys
Yabarow, Xasan, Cumar, Xeefoow
(Many Dir believe the Mandaluug are actually Mahe Dir)
• Issas of Djibouti and Ethiopia
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dir_%28clan%29"
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Posted: Thu Aug 02, 2007 7:50 am Post subject: HOW ISLAM CAME TO SOMALIA AND ROLE DIR PLAYED
qoraalada iga yaabshay oo uu dhalintaan ka qoreen islamka iyo doorka suuban ay Dir ka dheeshay fiditaanka Dinteena Suuban iyo fiqiyaasha Suure/
HOW ISLAM CAME TO SOMALIA AND ROLE DIR PLAYED
According to our noble Dir brothers of Somalia. The eldest son and most ancient clan of the Somalis. 1) Islam came to Somalia in the first Hijra when the followers of the prophet fled to East Africa and came to Ethiopia as refugees. 2) So Islaam come to Somalia before Mecca was recaptured from the pagan Qurishi. The eldest Son of the Dir Ali madaxweyn who lived at this time around 643 Ad accepted the faith and sent a delegation to the Khilifa in 732-67 Ad. Shortly after that period even the illustrious Sheikh Ahmed (Mohamed Xiniftire studied in Yamen and returned to Somalia via the Dahlak Island where he fathered the Maxamed Xiniftire branch of the Dir which includes The Isaaq Axmed(Maxamed), Biyomaal maxamed ,Gadsan clans.
(Posted by guest: W.A)
posted at Tue Feb 08 03:59:07 EST 2005 wax is weydiin
abdi taariikhda aad noo sheegtay waa taariikh xiiso leh ee tixraac maleedahay?
(Posted by guest: abraac)
Agoon History of Islam in Somalia from the Time of Mohamed (Saws)
Shortly after the Hijra (670's) the Quraish or prophet's tribe started persucuting muslims and hundreds of the prophets followers fled across the Indian Ocean to present day Zaila and through Erithrea.
It was in this period that the Somalis and their cousines the Afar-Oromo-Harararis and other nations of the horn of Africa converted to Islam.
According to most Historians the people of Zaila who were of Dir origin and Issas-Gadabursi-Isaaq origins, Islam became well established by 800 A.D. By the 1300 century the whole horn of Africa up to Kenya and Zanziber we have Muslim cities flourishing and Muslim sulltanes like Ifat and Adal all over Somali.
As a matter of fact, it was in 1300's that the ancient Somali Dir saint Sheikh Yusuf Alkownin (Aw Barkadle) innvented the Alif-La-Kordhabee or Somali way of reading and learning to read the Quran scriptures. And around this time, another Sheikh by the name of Sheikh Hussein Al Bale of the Bale Oromo Arsi region left Northren Somali and Islam was well established in Southren Ethiopia all the way to northren Ethiopia.
So the Islam of Somalia dates back to the time of the Hijra and many Somalis became muslims even before the Prophet Islamized the Arabs and Islam succeded in Arabia.
Later in he 1400 AD, the Qadiriya Sufi order of Sheikh Cabdul Qadir Al-Jilani spread to Somalia and Ethiopia revitalizing the ancient faith and further incorporating more Kushitics. The earliest leaders of Qadiriya Order were mostly from the saintly Dir sub-clan of Surre. The earliest Surre rulers were called Fiqis (Islamic Scholars of Diin and Lawyers of Sharia). The Oldest of the Surre clan the Qubeys and his younger brother, the Abdalles fathered some of the best Islamic Scholars in the 1600 century and they spread the Islamic faith all over the Somali coast. Imam Surre sent his numerous sons whom he named Fiqis to central Somalia, South, and North.
By 1456 AD, he Muslim Kings of Ifat, led by a Somali worrior, Imam by the name Imam Axmed Gurey (Left-Handed) was fighting Ethiopian Christian Habasha kings who tried to conquer Somalilands. W.A.
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Posted: Thu Aug 02, 2007 7:56 am Post subject: saamiga ay beelaha Dir ku lahaayeen siyaasadda dalka
Ujeedada qoraalkan ay u diyaariyeen xubno ka tirsan siyaasiyiinta SSNM/SRRC waxay tahay in ay jawaab-celin ka bixiyaan codsi uga yimid Mujaahid Siciid Maxamuud Xuseen (Siciid Indhoole). Wuxuu naga dalbaday Mujaahidku in aanu sababayno arrinta keentay in beelaha Somaliland ee aan Daaroodka ahayn u qaataan saamiga ay beelaha Dir ku lahaayeen siyaasadda dalka ka hor xornimadii. Sidoo kale wuxuu Mujaahidku ka codsaday siyaasiyiinta SSNM sababta ku kaliftay in ay ogolaadaan in beelahaas Somaliland iyo beelaha Dir iskugayntoodu qaataan saami u dhigma kan Hawiye ama kan Daarood. Wuxuu Mujaahidku naga dalbaday qoraalkan ka dib safarkii uu isagu hoggaaminayey ee ka soo noqday Somaliland oo ku soo dhaliyey in ay dhanka siyaasadu keentay tuhun iyo madmadow soo kala dhexgala dadka walaalaha ah beelaha Dir iyo beelaha
Somaliland oo lahaan jiray iskaashi qotodheer. Annaga oo qadarin mudan u hayna Mujaahidka ayaanu u soo diyaarinay warbixintan ka kooban qodobadan hoos ku xusan:
1. Warbixin kooban oo ku saabsan beelaha Dir ee Soomaaliya.
2. Doorkii ay beelaha Dir ku lahaan jireen siyaasadda Soomaaliya ka hor midnimadii Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliyeed (1960).
3. Saamaynta uu midowgii Somalia iyo
Somaliland (1960kii) ku yeeshay miisaanka siyaasadeed ee beelaha Dir.
4. Dadaalkii ay beelaha Dir u galeen sidii ay dib ugu soo hanan lahaayeen doorkii ay ku lahaayeen siyaasadda Soomaaliya ka dib markii ay Somaliland dib ula noqotay qaranimadeedii.
5. Hagardaamada ay urruro ay hoggaaminayaan xubno ku abtirsada Somaliland kula soo noqdeen koonfurta iyo sida ay u wiiqday halgankii ay beelaha Dir ugu jireen dib u yagleelida maqaamkii ay ku lahaayeen siyaasadda Soomaaliya.
a. Dowladii Salbalaar.
b. Shirkii Qaahira.
c. Shirkii Carta.
6. Xubnahaasi sheeganaya in ay Somaliland matalaan ma ku jiraan shirka Kenya ?
7. Reer Somaliland maxay ka qabteen sidii loo xakamayn lahaa xubnahaas burburinaya danta beelaha Dir iyo tan Somaliland?
8. Dareenka ay xubnahaasi kala galiyeen shacbiga walaalaha ah ee beelaha Dir iyo reer
9. Maxay reer Somaliland ka qaban karaan arrintaas.
1. Warbixin kooban oo ku saabsan beelaha Dir ee Soomaliya.
1.1. Beelaha Dir waxay ka mid yihiin afarta qabiil ee ugu waawayn Koonfurta Soomaaliya sida Hawiye, Digil/Mirifle iyo Daarood. Waxay beeluhu u qaybsan yihiin kuwo intooda badan xoolo dhaqato ah oo ku baahsan inta badan gobolada dalka iyo kuwo beeralay u badan oo ku kooban gobolada Shabeelada Hoose iyo Jubbooyinka. Waxay ka koobmaan beelahaas beeralayda u badan Biyamaal, Jiiddo, Warday, Surre (Jamaame) Reer Aw Siciid iyo Mandaluug. Beesha Surre oo u badan xoolo dhaqato waxay ku baahsanyihiin gobolka Gedo, Hiiraan, Galgaduud, Mudug iyo dhulka haatan loo yaqaan Puntland oo ay ku teedsan yihiin gabi ahaan degmooyinkiisa oo dhan.
2. Doorkii ay beelaha Dir ku lahayeen siyaasadda Soomaaliya ka hor midnimadii Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliyeed (1960).
2.1. Beelaha Dir waxay ka soo qaateen door muuqda dowladii daakhiliyada Soomaaliya. Waxaa xusid mudan in beesha (Surre, Dir) ay yagleeleen xisbi ka mid ah 8dii xisbi ee ugu horeeyey, ee rasmi ahaanna uga diiwaan gashanaa maxmiyadii Qaramada Mibooday 1951, oo la odhan jiran Associazione Gioventu Dir .
2.2. Waxaa sidoo kale xusid mudan in uu Mudane Maxamed Abdi Nur Juje (Surre, Dir) uu ka mid ahaa Wasiiradii dowladii ugu horaysay ee daakhiliyada ahayd oo golaheeda wasiiradu ka koobnaa 6 xubnood.
2.3. Marka la darso taariikhda, waxaan mugdi ku jirin in intii ka horaysay abuuritaankii Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliyeed ee ay ku midoobeen Somalia iyo Somaliland ay beelaha Dir ee koonfurta Soomaaliya laahaayeen miisaan siyaasadeed iyo mid bulsho oo la mid ah saddexda beelood ee Hawiye, Daarood iyo Digil/Mirifle. Waxaa taas laga dheehan karaa habka saami-qaybiga beelahaas ee dowladii dalka ka jirtay mudadii daakhiliyada iyo hab-dhaqanka bulshada koonfurta xiligii uu talyaanigu haystay dalka.
2.4. Ka hor isticmaarka, beelaha Dir ee ku dhaqnaa dhulkii uu talyaanigu qabsaday waxay lahaayeen taariikh qani ah oo ay ku salaysan xadaarad diinneed iyo saldanado soo-jireen ah oo ay ka mid ahayd saldanadii Biyamaal oo ku xusan qaamuusyada taariikhda casriga ah. Saldanada Biyamaal oo soo gaartay dhammaadkii qarnigii 19aad iyo bilowgii 20aad, waxay ka talin jirtay gobolada ugu qanisan dalka Soomaaliya ilaa uu ku wiiqay gumaysigii talyaaniga halgankii loo yaaqan ‘The Bimal Revolt’.
2.5. Miisaankaas culus ee ay beelaha Dir ku laahaayeen Soomaaliya wuxuu hoos u dhiciisu bilowday midowgii Somalia iyo
3. Saamaynta uu midowgii Somalia iyo Somaliland (1960) ku yeeshay miisaanka siyaasadeed ee beelaha Dir.
3.1. Laga soo bilaabo isku darsankii Somaliland iyo Somalia (koonfurta) ee 1960, saamiga ay beelaha Dir ka heli jireen dowladii daakhiliga ahayd waxaa ku yimid hoos u dhac wayn. Waxay taasi dhacday iyada oo saddexdii beelood ee la saamiga ahaa Dir aysan habayaraatee waxba ka go’in, wax u biira mooyee. Is badalkii ku yimid qaabka loo maareeyo miisaanka saamiga beelaha Soomaaliyada midowday waxay keentay in ay beelaha Dir si wayn loo dhimo saamigoodii, isla markaasna lagu sameeyo dulmi beelaha Somaliland .
3.2. Xaqa beelaha Dir ay u lahaayeen qayb u dhiganta beelaha Hawiye, Daarood iyo Digil/Mirifle waxaa lagu duudsiyey iyada oo loo xisaabiyo beelo la yimid dowlad u dhiganta tii aanu beelahaas la wadaagi jirnay. Xaga doorashooyinka xubnaha baarlamaanka dowladihii 1960-1969, waxaa lagu sii lumiyey xuquuqdii beelaha Dir qaabka loo jeexay goobaha kuraasta la dhigo. Waxaa taas suurtagaliyey iyada oo raggii xukunka waagaas nufuuda ku lahaa oo ay kolkan ku yaraayeen beelaha Dir oo isku waafaqsanaa in beelaha Dir iyo beelaha Somaliland ee (Isaaq, Gadabursi iyo Ciise) ay leeyihiin dhaqan walaaltimino, taas oo hadii loo ogolaado in uu midkiiba helo saamiga uu xaqa u leeyahay laga dhaxli karo in ay beelaha Daarood iyo Hawiye hanan kari waayaan doorka madaxtinimada dalka. Waxaa la arkay in hadii labadaas qaybood mid walba helo xaqiisa ay samaysan karaan iskaashi aan laga qaadi karin madaxnimada Jamhuuriyadda.
3.3. Walaacaas ay ku midaysnaayeen Daarood iyo Hawiye wuxuu keenay in la hinsido barnaamij siyaasadeed oo lagu xakamaynayo labadaas garab ee kala ah beelaha Dir iyo kuwa
Somaliland ee aan Daaroodka ahayn.
3.4. Qorshaha lagu wiiqay xuquuqdii siyaasadeed ee beelaha Dir ku lahaayeen Soomaaliya waxaa suurtogaliyey dhowr arrimood oo ay ugu muhiimsanayd iyada oo ay siyaasiyiin hurmood u ahaa beelaha Daarood oo u badan Majeerteen ay ku qanciyeen dhigooda Hawiyaha ah iyo kuwa reer Somaliland (Isaaq) barnaamij ahin laba qaybood xukunka dalka loo qaybsado. Iskaashigaas dhex maray siyaasiyiin hoggaaminayey beelaha waawayn ee koonfurta gaar ahaan Hawiye, Daarood iyo beesha ugu badan Somaliland ee Isaaq oo ku salaysnayd in wax loo qaybsado Irrir iyo Daarood ayaa door wayn ka ciyaartay in ay lunto isku dheelitirkii ka dhex jiray beelaha koonfureed ee Dir, Daarood, Hawiye iyo Digil/Mirifle. Heshiis-hoosaadkaas u danaynayey in ay dhowr siyaasi oo muhiim ka dhex ahaa siyaasadda waagaas in ay hantaan xukunka dalka ayaa keentay in ay burburiso culayskii siyaasadeed ee ay lahaayeen beelaha Dir iyo Digil/Mirifle. Waxaa halkaas lagu hirgaliyey istaraatijiyada lagu xukumo dalka oo ku dhisan laba dhardhaar oo kala ah huwan Irrir loo bixiyey oo ka kooban Hawiye iyo Isaaq oo qol madow wax kula qaysaday Daarood. Qaabkan cusub ee khalkhalka galiyey dhaqankii saami-qaybsiga koonfurta wuxuu dhaawac ku sii kordhiyey xuquuqdii siyaasadeed ee beelaha Somaliland oo asalkiiba looga sadbursaday isku darsankii.
4. Dadaalkii ay beelaha Dir u galeen sidii ay dib ugu soo hanan lahaayeen doorkii ay ku lahaayeen siyaasadda Soomaliya ka dib markii ay
Somaliland dib ula noqotay qaranimadeedii.
4.1. Beelaha Dir waxay qayb firfircoon ka qaateen halgalkii SNM, iyaga oo furay aagga koonfureed oo ka waday dhaqdhaqaaq military xuduudka Soomaaliya iyo Itoobiya, saldhigiisuna ahaa Baaray.
4.2. SNM waxay go’aansatay in aysan hoggaamin halganka lagu jabinayo xukuumadii militariga ahayd dhanka koonfurta maadaama ay Hawiye ku dhawaaqeen USC, Daaroodna ay yeesheen xisbi cusub oo Ogaadeen hormuud ka yahay oo la yiraahdo SPM.
4.3. Heshiiskii dhex maray USC, SPM iyo SNM ayaa sababay in halgankii beelaha Dir ee ku socday magaca SSNM uu burburo, wakhtigaas oo ay madaxda SNM go’aansatay in ay hubayso USC iyo SPM, isla markaasna Itoobiya uga samayso xiriir ay ku taageerto labadaas jabhadood.
4.4. Waxay SNM ugu baaqeen xooggagii SSNM in ay ku biiraan USC oo ka dagaal galaysay gobolada dhexe oo ay u badnaayeen ciidamada SSNM si loo qabto magaala-madaxda Muqdisho.
4.5. Taasi waxay keentay in SSNM heli waydo taageero militari iyo mid siyaasadeed maadaama Itoobiya la xiratay USC iyo SPM ka dib soo-jeedintii SNM.
4.6. Ka dib markii la jabiyey xukunkii Maxamed Siyaad Barre, beelaha Dir oo ka qaday taageeradii militari iyo saad ee Itoobiya iyo faa’iidooyinkii ka dhashay oo ah in lagu furto hubkii cuslaa ee dowladu ka tagtay, waxay dib u yagleeleen xisbigoodii SSNM oo aan lahayn awood militari oo ay ku muuqdaan.
4.7. Wuxuu xisbigu qaaday dadaal siyaasadeed oo aan wadan awood militari.
4.8. Cudud la’aanta militari ee ku dhacday beelaha Dir waxay dhalisay in Hawiye ku habsado dhulkoodii.
4.9. Iyada oo ay jirto in aysan beelaha Dir gacanta ku dhigin hubkii cuslaa ayaa hadana waxaa mar walba dhacda marka beelaha reer Koonfureedka gaarka u tashanayaan aanan sinaba indhaha looga qabsan karin miisaanka siyaasadeed iyo kan bulsho ee beelaha Dir. Taasi waxay keentay in SSNM ay ka mid noqoto isbahaysigii qabsaday inta badan gobolada koonfureed ee SNA (1992) oo ka koobnaa USC (Hawiye), SPM (Daarood), SDM (Digil/Mirifle) iyo SSNM (Dir). Qaab-dhismeedka isbahaysigaasi wuxuu tusmo ka yahay miisaanka ay beelaha Dir ku leeyihiin bulshada koonfurta Soomaaliya iyo hab-dhaqankii asalka ahaan jiray ka hor midnimadii 1960kii oo ay beelaha Dir ahaayeen hal ka mid ah afarta beelood ee waawayn.
4.10. Xiligaas markii xigtay oo ay beelaha koonfurtu shireen oo wax qaybsadeen waxay ahayn mudo dheer ka dib shirkii Awasa ee lagu soo dhisan SRRC oo laga soo qaybgaliyey urrurada siyaasadda ee matala koonfurta oo kaliya. Waxaa xusid mudan in saami-qaybsiga ay iskood u samaysteen xisbiyadaas matala beelaha koonfurtu uu u dhacay 4.5 oo ay beelaha Dir qaateen saami u dhigma kan Hawiye, Daarood iyo Digil/Mirifle, halka beelaha yaryar la siiyey qayb badhkeed.
4.11. Marwalba oo ay beelaha koonfur wax qaybsadeen kaligood oo aysan ku jirin wax qaybsigaas beelaha Somaliland, waxaa dhacda in ay beelaha Dir ee ku dhaqan Koonfurtu ay helaan saami-qaybta ay xaqa u leeyihiin oo ah mid la siman beelaha waawayn ee kale. Hadii ay meesha soo galaan xubno si rasmi ah u matalaya Somaliland amaba sheeganaya in ay magaca beelaha Somaliland ku hadlayaan, waxay beelaha Hawiye iyo Daarood suurtagaliyaan in ay u adeegsadaan xubnahaas ku abtirsada
Somaliland xakamaynta iyo duudsiinta xuquuqda siyaasadeed ee beelaha Dir.
4.12. Intii u dhaxaysay wakhtigii SNA iyo markii SRRC la sameeyey 2001, waxaa siyaasadda Soomaaliya dib ugu soo laabtay xubno sheeganaya in ay matalaan beelaha
5. Hagardaamada urruro ku abtirsada Somaliland kula soo noqdeen koonfurta iyo sida ay u wiiqday halgankii ay beelaha Dir ugu jireen dib u yagleelida maqaamkii ay ku lahaayeen siyaasadda Soomaaliya.
5.1. Isla xiligii la riday xukunkii Siyaad Barre 1991, waxaa jiray siyaasiyiin reer Somaliland ah oo dowlad la dhistay Cali Mahdi, kuwaas oo ka soo jeeday beelaha Isaaq, Gadabursi iyo Ciise sida Cumar Carte, Hussein Ceelaabe Faahiye, Cabdiraxmaan Ducaale Cali oo dhamaantood lagu saami siiyey magaca beesha Dir. Waxaa sidoo kale sheeganayey 1992 inuu SNM matalo Muse Ahmed Sahar, halka uu SDA sheeganayey Ali Xaaji Hersi oo labaduba saxiixay heshiiskii BAHER DAR.
 Waxaa isla sanadkii xigay ka qaybgalay shirarkii dib-u-heshiisiinta ee
Addis Ababa ka dhacay oo lagu saxiixay heshiiskii xabad-joojinta 8-15kii January, 1993 Maxamed Faarax Cabdilaahi ‘Xasharo’ (Gadabursi, SDA), Cabdiraxmaan Ducaale Cali (Ciise, USF).
5.2. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, waxay dhibaatada xubnahaas u dhashay Somaliland saamayn ku keeneen qadiyada beelaha Dir taariikhdu markay ahayd 29kii April, 1994 oo ahayd markii Cabdiraxmaan Axmed Cali oo madaxweyne ka ahaa Somaliland, isla markaasna ahaan jiray guddoomiyaha SNM uu ku dhawaaqay in xisbiga SNM uu dib uga laabtay gooni isku-taagii Somaliland, isla markaasna heshiis la galay Gen. Caydiid oo isagu madax ka ahaa USC-da ay xisbiga beelaha Dir ee SSNM iskula jireen isbahaysiga SNA.
Xisbiyadii ay SSNM xulufada ahaayeen ee kala ahaa USC (Hawiye), SPM (Daarood) iyo SDM (Digil/Mirifle) waxaa ku dhalatay dareen la mid ah kii 1960-1969 oo ah in aanan loo dulqaadan karin SSNM oo la miisaan ahayd beelaha ay ka soo jeedaan ay hadana u ogolaadaan SNM in ay hesho saami u gaar ah. Soo galista ay raggaas sheeganaya in ay matalaan Somaliland ku soo noqdeen saaxadda siyaasadda koonfurtu waxay keentay in hoos loo dhigo himiladii SSNM oo wakhtigaas ka hor lahayd miisaan le’eg kan xisbiyada ay xulufada la galeen.
Damaca ay ku heshiiyeen beelaha koonfur oo xooggoodu yahay Hawiye iyo Daarood oo haysta xulufo reer Somaliland ah wuxuu caddaaday markii la gaardhay heshiiskii lagu dhisayey dowladii Salbalaar ee ay wax ka saxiixeen Cabdiraxmaan ‘Tuur’ (SNM), Ismaaciil Hurre ‘Buubaa’ (SNM), Cabdiraxmaan Ducaale (USF) iyo Maxamed Faarax ‘Xasharo (SDA). Waxaa xusid mudan in ay raggaas leh waxaanu metelnaa Somaliland ay magaca Dir ku saami-qaateen iyaga oo ka ogolaaday in ay 31kii wasiir ee la magacaabay ka qaataan 7 xubnood. Mas’uuliyiinta SSNM oo caddeeyey mowqifkooda ku aaddan xubnahaas oo ay qeexeen in aysan xaq u lahayn in ay ku qayb-qaataan magaca Dir ayaa waxay dhalisay tuhun iyo madmadow soo kala dhexgala Gen. Caydiid oo Habargidir (Hawiye) ah oo ay beeshiisu aad u hubaysantahay iyo beelaha Dir oo dhulkoodu ku jiro gacan USC.
Xubnahaas oo gabbood ka dhigtay USC ayaa xalaashaday xaqii Dir lahaa oo ka siiyey saamigii 7da ahaa ee ay caadi ahaan iskood u heli lahaayeen hal kursi.
b. Shirkii Qaahira:
Shirkii Qaahira waxaa ka qaybgalay oo ku saxiixan Jaamac Maxamed Qaalib (SNM) iyo Maxamed Faarax ‘Xasharo’ (SDA) oo la socday wafdigii uu hoggaaminayey Xuseen Caydiid oo Salbalaar xukunkeeda ka dhaxlay aabihiis Gen. Caydiid. Waxaa shirkaas ka dhacday fashilaad balaaran oo ah in magacii Dir gabi ahaantiisaba ay qaataan xubnahaas u dhashay Somaliland oo markii uu khilaaf kulul ku dhex maray raggaas SNM iyo SDA ku fadhiyey shirka iyo SSNM. Waxaa xal loo arkay in beelaha Dir ay saamigooda oo ku soo koobmay 23 xubnood loogu daro beelaha laga tirada badan yahay halka ay raggaas SNM iyo SDA ku fadhiyey shirka ay qaataan 90 xubnood oo ergo magaca Dir ah.
Waxaa nasiib-daro ah in beesha Hawiye, Daarood iyo Digil/Mirifle uu midkiiba qaatay 174 xubnood oo ergo ah. Halkaas waxaa ku cad in iska daa beelaha Dir ee koonfurta ay xaqoodii la sinnaa beelaha kale qaataan oo noqon lahayd 174, aysan iyaga iyo kuwa magacii Dir iyo reer Somaliland afduubtay isku gayntooda loo tuuray 113 xubnood.
c. Shirkii Carta:
Waxaa shirkii Carta ka qaybgalay rag farabadan oo iyagu qaarkood jagooyin ka soo helay goobtaas halka qaar kale ku soo hungoobeen. Waxaa ragga shirkaas ka qaybgalay ka mid ahaa Cabdiraxmaan Axmed Cali ‘Tuur’, Jama Maxamed Qaalib, Ismaaciil Hurre, Maxamed Warsame, Cismaan Kalluun, Xuseen Saalax, Yuusuf Dheeg, Maxamed Faarax ‘Xasharo’, Cabdiraxmaan Ducaale, Xuseen Ceelaabe Faahiye.
Waxaa sidoo kale ka soo qayb-galay Suldaan Maxamed Suldaan Cabduqaadir. Sidii la caadaystay shirkii Qaahira iyo horteed ayeey raggaasi fuliyeen in lagu jujuubo beelaha Dir in ay qaataan wax aan u dhigmin xaqoodii. Waxay taasi dhashay in xubnihii sheeganayey reer Somaliland oo kaashanaya Hawiye iyo Daarood ay isla meel mariyeen fulinta qorshe lagu tirtirayo xuquuqda siyaasadeed ee beesha Dir. Qorshahaasi waa kii la caadaystay laga soo bilaabo midowgii Soomaaliya 1960 ee lagu lumin jiray dheelitirka afarta beelood ee koonfurta, isla markaasna lagu duudsiin jiray mudnaanta beelaha Somaliland oo xaq u lahaa miisaan la siman kan koonfur maadaama ay ahaayeen laba qaybood oo iyaga oo madaxbannaan isku darsamay. Dulmiga lagu sameeyey beelaha Dir waxaa kuu cadaynaysa qaabka uu baarlamaanka Carta u lumiyey sinaantii afarta beelood guud ahaan maadaama ay Daarood heleen 65 xubnood, Hawiye 55 xubnood, Digil/Mirifle 49 xubnood, saamiga Dirna ku qayb qaataan Isaaq, Gadabursi iyo Ciise oo 42 xubnood, halka beesha Dir lagu tirtiray xuquuqdii ay Daarood iyo Hawiye la sinaan jirtay oo loo tuuray 7 xubnood.
5.2 Hoggaamiyeyaashii beelaha Dir oo dhan (Dr. Cabdicasiis Sh. Yuusuf oo hoggaamiya beesha Surre, Cabdi Warsame Isaaq oo Gaadsan (Biyamaal) ah iyo Cabdulaahi Sh. Ismaaciil oo isaguna Biyamaal ah ayaa garabyadii SSNM ka saaray shirkii Carta iyaga oo ku biiray xisbiyadii iyo maamuladii ka soo horjeestay Carta. Garabyada SSNM waxay ka qayb galeen shirkii Awasa ee lagu soo dhisay golaha SRRC oo ay fadhiyeen dhammaan urruradii iyo maamuladii ka jiray koonfurta. Sida aan kor ku soo xusnay, shirkaasi ma loo ogolaan in ay reer Somaliland ka soo qayb galaan. Taasi waxay dhalisay in ay beelaha Dir hantaan doorkoodii la sinnaa 3da beelood ee kale maadaama ay si saafi ah u qaateen qayb ka mid ah 4.5, isla markaasna ka heleen xubin 5ta guddoomiye ee wareegtada ah ee Golaha SRRC.
6. Xubnahaasi sheeganaya in ay Somaliland matalaan ma ku jiraan shirka Kenya ?
6.1. Waxaa marwalba dhacda in dowladda Somaliland uusan khusaynin shir loo qabanayo
Somalia maadaama ay yihiin qaran madaxbannaan oo la yiraahdo Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland. Sidaas oo kale ayeey u qeexeen mas’uuliyiinta dowladda Somaliland in aysan uga qaybqaadan doonin wadahadalo u dhexeeya qaybaha ku hardamaya xukunka
6.2. Iyada oo ay taasi horeba u dhici jirtay ayaa waxaa haatanna shirka jooga oo loogu yeeray sidii ay u fulin lahaayeen danihii laga lahaa ee cabudhinta beelaha Dir iyo wiiqida qadiyada Somaliland xubnihii u dhashay Somaliland.
6.3. Garabyada SSNM oo ka tirsan isbahaysiga SRRC oo ku leh qayb la siman saddexda beelood ee waawayn ayaa iyaguna shirka ka matalaya beelaha Dir.
6.4. Waxay garabyada SSNM si rasmi ah u cadeeyeen in aysan ogolayn xubnahaas sheeganaya in ay matalaan Somaliland. Waxaa taasi keentay in ay ku midoobaan dhammaan qaybihii kale ee siyaasadda oo ay xitaa ka mid yihiin hoggaamiyeyaal SRRC ah oo ku doodaya in aysan dhici karin in beelaha Dir ka horyimaadaan ka qaybqaadashada xubnahaas u dhashay Somaliland shirkan dib-u-heshiisiinta Somalia .
6.5. Dowlado ay hormuud ka yihiin Jabuuti iyo kuwa carabta oo taageero wayn u haya Cabdiqaasim Salaad Xasan ayaa garabka ugu wayn u ah raggaas haatan mar kale loo soo wado in ay dhabarjabin ku sameeyaan xaqa beelaha Dir iyo jiritaanka
Somaliland. Waxaa sidoo kale garab u ah raggaas Isbahaysiga Dooxada Jubba oo ah kuwa haysta qaybo ka mid ah dhulka beelaha Dir ee Jubbooyinka.
6.6. Waxaan qarsoodi ahayn in culayska ku yimid shirka ee ka socda dowladahaas ay ka midka tahay Jabuuti oo nufuud wayn ku leh maamulka shirka iyo jimciyada carabta oo ay Masar hormuud u tahay ay ku guulaysteen in ay ilaa iyo wakhtigan aanu ku jirno oo shirka gabogabo yahay ay xubnahaas sheeganaya in ay matalaan Somaliland si rasmi ah uga mid yihiin ergada rasmiga ah ee shirka dib-u-heshiisiinta.
6.7. Wuxuu guddoomiyaha guddiga qabanqaabada shirka uu si rasmi ah ugu dhawaaqay bishii August 1deedii, 2003 in ay reer Somaliland qayb ka yihiin shirkan iyo dowladda ka soo bixi doontaba. Taasi waxay markale ku abuurtay beelaha Dir niyad-jab wayn maadaama aysan sinaba u dhici
karin xubnahaas oo ka mid ah shirka in ay xaqiijiyaan qaabkii sinnaa ay wax ula qaybsan jireen beelaha Daarood, Hawiye iyo Digil/Mirifle.
6.8. Xisaabtanka ugu wayn ee ay Jabuuti, Carabta iyo TNG-dii Carta lagu soo dhisay ay u garab taagan yihiin xubnahaas aan matalin Somaliland waxay tahay iyaga oo laf-dhabar u ah codka uu Cabdiqaasim ka heli karo baarlamaanka la soo dhisi doono. Waxaa xusuusin mudan in uusan Cabdiqaasim ku xisaabtamaynin cod xooggan oo beelaha Hawiye uu ka helo maadaama ay xaadir yihiin garabyadii USC oo badankoodu ka soo horjeeda in uu helo jagada madaxweynaha. Hase ahaatee, wuxuu Cabdiqaasim ku xisaabtamayaa raggan aan cidna matalin ee isaga la socda oo loo suurtagalinayo in ay boobaan xaqii SSNM si ay u hantaan kuraas la siman Hawiye oo codkoodu yahay mid aan isaga lagu haysan. Codkaasi waa midka lagu baabi’inayo xuquuqdii beelaha Dir, isla markaasna lagu waxyeelaynayo Somaliland.
7. Reer Somaliland maxay ka qabteen sidii loo xakamayn lahaa xubnahaas burburinaya xuquuqda beelaha Dir iyo tan Somaliland?
7.1. Sidii aanu kor ku soo xusnay, Dowladda Somaliland waxay bayaanisay in uusan shirkaasi khusayn oo aysan ka soo qaybgali doonin maadaama ay madaxbannaanidoodii dib ula soo noqdeen. Hase ahaatee, ficil intaas dheer oo ay Dowladu ka qabatay sidii ay u hor istaagi lahayd dadkaas magaceeda sheeganaya ee ergada ka ah shirka
Kenya ma jirto.
7.2. Waxaa tuhun galiyey beelaha Dir iyo madaxda SSNM markii ay ogaadeen in ragga qaarkiis oo ka mid ah kuwa aanu kor ku soo xusnay in ay la xiriiraan mas’uuliyiin ka mid ah Dowladda Somaliland. Xiriirkaasi ma aha mid shaaca laga qaado, laakiin waxaanu haynaa dhacdooyin tiro badan oo tusaalaynaya in ay jirto dabacsanaan keenaysa in aysan dedaal ka samaynin Dowladu sidii ay uga qaban lahayd xubnahaas dhaawacaya beelaha Dir ee dhulkooda iyo beerahooda la haysto, kuwaas oo ah beelihii la soo halgamay SNM markii Soomaalida kale oo dhan ku jireen isirtirka aqlabiyada Somaliland.
7.3. Waxaa jirta talaabooyin farabadan oo u furan Dowladda iyo shacbiga Somaliland oo ay uga hortagi karaan xubnahaas u dhashay beelahooda ee caadaystay dhibaataynta beelaha Dir. Qaadis la’aanta talaabooyinkaasi waxay sii xoojisay dareenkii ku jiray beelaha Dir ee ahaa in ay Somaliland u hayso dulqaad dadkaas sheeganaya magacooda, kuna dhibaya dadkii la soo halgamay.
8. Dareenka ay xubnahaasi kala galiyeen shacbiga walaalaha ah ee beelaha Dir iyo reer Somaliland .
8.1. Sida kor ku cad, beelaha Dir waxay la soo halgameen walaalood reer Somaliland oo ay la wadaageen dhibaatada ay dowladihii dalka ka jiray ku hayeen labada shacbi laga soo bilaabo midowgii Jamhuuriyadda Soomaliyeed. Waxaa kale oo qoraalkan ku qeexan sida ay u luntay xuquuqdii beelaha Dir oo ahaan jiray beel la siman beelaha kale ee waawayn ee ay wadaageen maamul iyo deegaanka. Waxaa kale oo taariikhda ku cad sida ay reer Somaliland ugu xaqirmeen midnimadii ay la galeen qaybtii uu talyaanigu gumaysan jiray taas oo ay ka galeen halgankii buddhiga u ahaa burburintii xukuumadii kali-taliska ahayd ee Maxamed Siyaad Barre.
8.2. Waxaan shaki ku jirin in shacbiga reer Somaliland ee ku dhaqnaa koonfurta iyo kuwa ku abtirsada beelaha Dir lahaayeen xiriir walaaltinimo oo dheer, kaas oo keenay in ay wadaagaan wax walba. Iskaashiga labadaas qaybood wuxuu gaarsiisnaa in deegaanada Dir oo ay deggaan, ganacsi iyo beero ku lahaayeen beelaha aan Daaroodka ahayn ee reer Somaliland ay wadaagi jireen dhaqan, qaaraan iyo hiil aan lahayn kala hadh. Shakhsi walba oo reer Somaliland ah ee ku dhaqmay deegaan Dir leeyahay wuxuu markhaati ka yahay dareenka walaaltinimo ee ay ka arkeen shacbiga Dir.
8.3. Hase ahaatee, dhacdooyinka kor ku xusan iyo dhibaatooyinkii ay keeneen waxay dhalisay dareen ay labada shacbi u arkaan in mid walba lagu dulminayo
kan kale magaciisa. Beelaha Somaliland waxaa ku soo noqnoqotay in xubno u dhashay
Somaliland oo ku qayb qaatay magaca Dir loo adeegsado wiiqida qadiyadooda.
8.4. Xubnaha beelaha Dir oo dhaqan ahaan ka heli jiray soo dhawayn iyo garab walaaltinimo marka ay u baahdaan walaalahooda reer Somaliland waxaa haatan ka hortimaada dhibaatooyin ay keeneen dad iyaga u dhashay oo ku dhex jira siyaasadda koonfurta. Waxay shacbiga Dir iyo madaxdooda daneeya xiriirinta walaalahooda reer Somaliland dareemaan in dulmigii ay kala kulmeen raggaas u dhashay Somaliland ugu sii darsanto dambigoodii oo iyaga la saaro.
8.5. Xadgudubkii soo-jireenka ahaa ee ay beelaha Hawiye iyo Daarood ku hayeen beelaha Dir iyo Somaliland iyaga oo adeegsanaya siyaasiin u dhashay Somaliland ayaa waxay haatan u sii siqaysaa in ay waliba sababto kala shaki ku kala dhex dhasha labada shacbi ee walaalaha ah ee lahaa taariikhda dheer ee iskaashi.
9. Maxay reer Somaliland ka qaban karaan arrintaas.
9.1. Beelaha Dir waxay kalsooni buuxda ku qabaan in ay Dowladda Somaliland iyo shacbiga Somaliland awoodaan in ay dadkaas sheeganaya magacooda ka hor istaagaan dhaqankan ay caadaysteen oo ah in loo isticmaalo xaqiraadda beelaha Dir ee koonfurta iyo burburinta Somaliland.
9.2. SSNM oo ku jirta shirka Kenya waxay kala kulantay culays farabadan sidii ay ula xarbiyi lahayd furimada faraha badan ee gaboodka u ah xubnahaas. Sidaas awgeed, hadii ay
Somaliland wax ka qabato qaybaha qaarkood ee taageera xubnahaas, waxaa suurtogal ah in ay SSNM iska caabiso qaybaha Soomaalida ee shirka ka taageera xubnahaas.
9.3. Somaliland waxay leedahay awood diblomaasiyadeed oo ay ku khafiifin karto awoodaha taageera xubnahaas. Waxaa kow ka ah talaabooyinka ugu muhiimsan ee ay Dowladda Somaliland qaadi karto iyada oo kaga bilowda Dowladda Jabuuti. Dowladda Somaliland iyo Dowladda Jabuuti oo haatan xiriirkoodu wanaagsan yahay, waxay dowladda Somaliland awoodaa in ay Jabuuti saarto culays ay uga tanaasusho taageerada aan kala harka lahayn ee uu safiirkoodu u hayo dadkaas sheeganaya in ay Somaliland beelaheeda matalaan ee shirka Kenya jooga.
9.4. Talaabada kale ee ay reer Somaliland qaadi karaan waxay tahay maadaama ay shacbiga u dhashay Somaliland ku leeyihiin jaaliyad xooggan dalka United Kingdom ay culays la taaban karo saaraan dowladda Ingiriiska iyo ergaygeeda u fadhigaya shirka dib-u-heshiisiinta (H.E. David Bell) oo xubin aan laga maarmin ka ah xubnaha dowladaha caalamka ee taageerada diblomaasiyayeed iyo tan dhaqaale u haya shirka. Taageerada uu ergaygu ku taageero SSNM in aysan xubnahaasi xaq u lahayn in ay ka qaybqaataan shirka waxay wiiqaysaa awooda Jabuuti iyo carabta ay ku taageerayaan dadkaas aan cidna matalin. Hadii aqoonyahanada iyo indheergaradka reer Somaliland ay abaabulaan barnaamij ay ku qanciyaan dowladda Ingiriiska iyo ergaygeeda shirka u fadhiya, waxaanu hubnaa in aanu ka guulaysan karno Cabdiqaasim iyo qolyaha kale ee Mareexaanka iyo Cayrka ah ee haysta Jubbooyinka oo aysan waxba u tari karin dadkaas ay doonayaan in ay ku shaqaystaan.
9.5. Waxaa jirta in ay Kenya ku dhaqan yihiin shacbi aad u balaaran oo reer Somaliland ku abtirsada oo nufuud culus ku leh gudaha Kenya . Hadii ay aqoonyahanada iyo indheergaradka reer Somaliland ee qurbajooga ahi abaabulaan ganacsatada iyo mas’uuliyiinta u dhashay reer Somaliland ee reer Kenya, waxaanu ku kalsoonahay in ay awoodi karaan ku qancinta mas’uuliyiinta Wasaaradda Arrimaha Debadda ee Kenya in aysan taageerin dadkaas aan matalin Somaliland.
9.6. Dowladda Kenya oo ah dowlad ku shaqaysa qaab ka duwan badanka dowladaha kale ayaa waxaa suurtogal ah in lagu qanciyo arrimo fudud oo aan caadi ahayn iyada oo la awoodo in wax walba laga fuliyo madaxda ugu saraysa ee dowladaas.
Waxaanu qoraalkan ku soo koobnay dareenka rasmiga ah ee beelaha Dir ee ku dhaqan
Somalia iyo culayska ka haysta sidii ay u soo ceshan lahaayeen maqaamkii ay kaga jireen siyaasadda dalka ka hor midowgii Somaliland iyo Somalia . Waxaa kale oo aad ka dheehan kartaan qoraalkan in ay jiraan shakhsiyaad u dhashay Somaliland oo li’di ku ah sidii beelaha Dir u xaqiijin lahaayeen himiladooda siyaasadeed. Somaliland oo dib ula noqotay madaxbannaanideedii maadaama ay ku hungowday himiladii ay ka lahayd midnimada ayaa waxaa sidoo kale ku haya dhibaato isla shakhsiyaadkaas. Qoraalkani waxaa kale oo uu tusaalaynayaa sidii ay isaga kaashan lahaayeen labadaas qaybood sidii loo xakamayn lahaa dhibtaas oo u baahan in ay Dowladda Somaliland iyo waxgaradkeedu gacan muuqata ka gaystaan. Iskaashigaasi wuxuu meesha ka saarayaa tuhunka ku kala dhalan kara labadaas dhinac ee walaalaha ah, isla markaasna soo dhawaynayaa hirgalinta himilooyinka labada
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Posted: Sat Aug 04, 2007 8:16 am Post subject: The Issa Clan and Its Sub-clans Duriyad Isse Madoobe Dir
The population is divided into two main groups, the Issa of Somali people and the Afar.
The remainder is formed by Europeans (mostly French and Italians), Arabs and Ethiopians. Tensions between the Afar and Issa was the cause of the civil war in the early 1990s.
The Somali ethnic component in Djibouti is mainly composed of the Issas, who form the majority and the Gadabuursi and Isaaq, all of whom are closely related as Dir subclans. The Issas form part of the ciise Madoobe Dir, while the Gadabuursi and Isaaq are part of the Mahe Dir, Mohammed Hiniftire.
Issas was the youngest son of Dir and his father was known as Madoobe. Dir had four other sons namely Madaweyn Dir(Gurgure, Layiile, Aw Said, and Akisho), Mahe Dir (Isaaq, Bimaal, Gadsan and Sure) and Mandaluug Dir (Gadabuursi). The fifth Dir son was Qaldho Dir.
The Issa Madoobe Dir are divided into two groups:the Abgaal and Dalool which are futher divide into seven sub-clans:Howlgati and Walaaldoon (Makahir, Mahamuud, Iidleh)Uurweeyne (Fiqi and Abdalle), Wardiiq, Hooroone (Habar Walaala and Geelwalaal), Howleh, Fuurlabe (Mahdle, Saahib) and Ceeleeye (Mamaasan and Muuse)
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Afarta Cadalle ayaa ugu c
Posted: Sun Aug 12, 2007 6:28 am Post subject: Afarta Cadalle ayaa ugu curudsan . Maxamed - Soleeymaan - Ca
Afarta Cadalle ayaa ugu curudsan . Maxamed - Soleeymaan - Cabdi - iyo Gorod. De ino so jawaaba .
(Posted by guest: Samatar)
Nacadoor ayaa ugu Curadsan. 4 Cabdalle iyo adeerkood Habar Deel ayaa laysku yiraahdaa. Nacdoor Cabdalle Cabdi Cabdalle Goorad Cabdale Saleeban Cabdalle Iyo Adeer Habar Deel Magaca Nacadoor waa naaneys, waxana la sheegay barigii odeyga cabdalle dhimanayay ayuu afart wiil isugu yeeray iyadoo xili dagaal ay tahay oo uu sharaf iyo dad diin iyo imaan leh ilaahay igu barayay inay noqdaan. Maxamed Cabdalle ayaa wuxuu abihii u sheegay in ay arlada ay ku nool yihiin ay tahay arlo dagaal oo dagaal iyo xoog laysku sheegto markaa waxa uu ka dalbaday inuu wiilash xoog iyo xeelo dagaal ugu du'ceeyo. Odaygii Cabdalle oo ahaa wadad caalim aha ayaa waxa uu ku yiri Maxamed aabo "Naca ha dooran" anigu dagaal iyo dad dilnimo idinkuma duceeyn ee Diin iyo Imaam ayaan idinla rabaa. Calaa kuli xaal, Nacadoor waxaa qabsatay naáneystii maadama ay ahayeen taliyaysh reerka oo xili dagaal culus lagau jiran ay ahayeed.
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Posted: Sun Aug 12, 2007 6:35 am Post subject: Boqortoyadii Adulis iyo Ifad: Doorkii Dir ka Ciyaareen
Boqortoyadii Adulis iyo Ifad: Doorkii Dir ka Ciyaareen
Qarnigii 1300 boqortoyada Ifat, Moora iyo Adulis waxaa asasay Gurgure Ali oo dhamaan axmed Guray,Axmed nuur,iyo Gidaarka harar ku wareegsan dhisay.
Magalada Dira Dhabe waxa loogu bixiyay "Dir baa Dhabay" ama meeshi uu Dir waranka ka Taagay kolkii ay Gurguraha ka kacsheen Gaaloda.
Generalka Gurgure Axmed Ibrahim (Axmed Gurey)waaqoyiga Somalia markii uu cidan ka soo doontay 1434 tii isaga oo ay hogaminayaan Garad Sacid Somaroone oo garadka Gadabuursi ah waxa ay u yimaadeen Isaqa oo barigaa ahaa Magadle Dir.
Wadanka qebihiisa koonfurta iyo waqooyigaba dadkii Gurgure ee xukumi jiray xiligaa wali dirta koonfur iyo kuwa waqooyiba wa laga helaa hatan.
Nabidoorka iyo Baciidad Gurgure oo dalka Habar Jeclo xukumi jiray asasayna wali magacyadaa ayaa loo yaqaana. Koonfurta Reer aw sacid, Layiile, Sure, Gure,Gariire, dhamaan waxay ka soo jeedan dhankaa.
Suldaanka Ali madax weeyne waxaa ku Abtirsada Qabiilka Jiidad ee Qoryooley dagan. Afarta sheekh ee Waqooyiga somaliya keenay Awbare,Sh. Yusuf Kawnin, iyo Aw Buube waxa lagu sheega in ay Harar ka soo tageen 1300 oo ay dinta ku fafsheen ilaa Gobalka Bale ilaa hada Abe xuseenkaGobalka Bale reerka Guure oo Gurgure/Akisho la dhashay oo Gure dhammole agteed daga ayaa sheegta sheikh Xuseen Al Baale.
Nasiib daro tariikh badan ayaa la aasay manta. Barsuuga dir, Madigaan, Magadle(ceerigaabo), Boqortoyada Biyamaal of Talyaniga baabiyay, Bajimaal, Suure Cadalle iyo Qubeys(Mudug), Jiido, Guure,Gariire,Gadsan,iyo dhamaan intayada waqooyi galbeed
( Isaaq,Ciise iyo Gadabuursi) isku ab baan nahay. Dir Aji ! Madaxweyn Dir(1) Gurgure, Guure, Akisho, Jiido,Gariire, Layiile,Aw sacid I.W.M
Madoobe (2)ciise (wardiiq,howgati) Mahe Maxamed Xinif tire Biyamaal,Gadsan,suure,dabruube, Barsuuq,magadle, Quranyow-Gare iwm)
Mandaluug dir(Gadabuuris iyo Mandaluug sure la daga) Qaldho dir( Noole iyo qar kale Afrata qol) (Posted by guest: Geesi gaweydo)
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Posted: Sun Aug 12, 2007 6:48 am Post subject: Ali madaxweyn dir of the Gurgure
Ali madaxweyn dir of the Gurgure according to the southren dir of mudug region was the leading head of the Axmed Gurey soldiers and Axmed Ibraahim ghazi was a Gurgure him self.
His wife Baatiyo Delwabero was of the Jarso clan. The Gurgure along with their kinsman the Guure/Akisho/ were know in the 1400's as Maanguudo by the oromo's and Afar muslins. Maan(wisdom) Guudo (high). As a matter of fact when the Gurgura Ali Madaxweyn ruled the Ifat they sent the first Islamic missions to Northern Somalia as Sheikh Awbarkhadle, Aw Buube, Awbare,and other sheikhs to the South like Aw Hussen al Bale who was of Guure/Gurgure origin.
All the Ifat kings Salah Din who is buried in Zaila and his ancestor Umar Din was of Ali Madaxweyn Dir. All the Northern and Southern Dir clans whether Isaq, Suure, Gadbuursi or Isasa are related to the ancient Gurgura.
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Posted: Fri Aug 24, 2007 8:31 am Post subject: Hinjile Aadan Cabdalle Muuse Saciid
Mahamud Ugaas Shirshore Habarwa Cabdalle Muuse Saciid
Hamuud Ugaas Shirshore Habarwa Cabdalle Muuse Saciid
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Yahye Cabdalle Muse Saciid
Hinjile Aadan Cabdalle Muuse Saciid
Wadada Mahamad Muuse Saciid
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Jump to: Select a forum Cowslafil discussion Forum. Fadlan registration isku samee si fikirkaaga aad u soo dirto.----------------Halkaan Ku Dir Hambalyada Madaxweyne Axmed Maxamed Maxamuud SiilaanyoFADLAN KA QAYB QAADO MAGAC BIXINTA URURKA BEELWEYNTA DIREEDArrimaha SiyaasadaSIDEE LA ISUGU KEENI KARAA DIRTA WAQOOYI IYO TAN KOONFUR?Maxkamadaha oo horumar deg deg keenay, deg degna lagu burburiyeyWarlord iyo fowdo, dowlad itoobiya wadataMuqdisho maxay la degi la'dahay?BaafinDagaalada Bacaadweyne (2009 - 2010)Abaaraha Soomaaliya 2011 TACSI: INNAA LILLAAHI WA INAA ILEYHU RAAJICUUN----------------Tacsi:Inaa Lilaahi Wa Inaa Ieyhi Raajicuun Marxuum SHEEKH CABDULAAHI MAXAMED XAAJI ( TAWASALTACSI!!!!! INAA LILAAHI WAA INAA ILEYHI RAAJICUUN WAXAA KU GEERIYOODAY MAGAALADA MUQDISHO MARXUUM Maxamuud Faarax Cumar IndhabuurTACSI GEERIDII MARXUUM CALI IBRAAHIM FAARAX **CALI XISBI**TACSI: December.03.2009: Drs Qamar Aadan Cali, INNAA LILLAAH WA INNAA ILEYHU RAAJICUUNTACSI: 28.08.2008 Marxuum Ahmed Muxumed Mursal oo ku geeriyooday Doolow.TACSI: March.02.2009: Sheikh Ibrahim Suuley, INNAA LILLAAHI WA INAA ILEYHU RAAJICUUNTACSI: 14.december.2007. HALKAN KU SOO DIR TACSIDA MARXUUMAD MAANO XAAJI CABDIRAXMAAN. Guji/Riix new topicTACSI: 10.oktober.2007. Marxuum C/qaadir xassan cusmaan C/qaadir baydhabo oo ku geeriyooday magaalada London ee dalka UKTacsi Maxamuud Faarax Cumar Indhabuur
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His wife Baatiyo Delwabero was of the Jarso clan. The Gurgure along... Jump to text »
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