Saturday, October 1, 2011


Foreign Migration
to China’s City-Markets:
the Case of African Merchants
Hélène Le Bail
August 2009
Asie Visions 19
Centre Asie Ifri
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The Ifri China Program’s objectives are:
To organize regular exchanges with Chinese elites and
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through the writing of 8 Policy Papers published in French and
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Asie. Visions
Asie.Visions. is an electronic collection dedicated to Asia. Written up
by French and international experts, Asie.Visions. deals with
economic, strategic, and political issues. The collection aims to
contribute to the public debate and to a better understanding of Asian
issues. Asie.Visions. is published in French and in English.
H. Le Bail/African Entrepreneurs in China
© Ifri
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................... 3
Guangzhou, a Trading Post ....................................................................5
Yiwu: an International Wholesale Market..............................................7
The Student Turned Entrepreneur .........................................................9
The Merchants Networks ......................................................................10
THE ACTIVITIES .................................................................................. 14
The Trading Agencies ...........................................................................14
Sino-African Business Difficulties.......................................................15
Networks and Family Business............................................................16
Transformation and Strategies:
Complementarities or Competition
Between Chinese and Africans Merchants?.......................................17
TRANSFORMATION AND RESISTANCE .................................................. 19
REFERENCES ..................................................................................... 21
H. Le Bail/African Entrepreneurs in China
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The African population in China is more or less composed of three
categories of people: a small number of diplomats, an increasing
number of students and a large majority of merchants and
entrepreneurs. However the lines that separate these different groups
are hazy. Students or diplomats may be involved in the import-export
business while entrepreneurs are sometimes appointed to hold
consulate responsibilities in those Chinese cities with large national
communities and no consulate services.
This paper will focus on the group of African entrepreneurs
often called African merchants, since their activities deal mainly with
the import and export of manufactured goods. Within the merchant
community, there are different types. First, there are the traders
who’ve established trading agencies in China and obtained either a
working visa or a long-term residence permit. Secondly, there are the
salesmen who can be further differentiated into subgroups: Some go
to and fro, between their country and China, their business visa
allowing them to stay for up to 3 months; Some know exactly what
they are looking for and stay only a few days in China, while some
want to canvass the sector and may stay up to one or two months.
Merchants are generally a transient population, but another category
of salesmen are less mobile: they arrive in China without any real
business project, but just with an order from their home country and
the address of a friend or a relative. They want to try their luck in the
Chinese booming market. They usually overstay their business or
tourist visa and stay illegally in China.
Due to the nature of their activity, the African traders and
salesmen usually congregate in the two main Chinese wholesale
markets which are situated in manufacturing areas: the first one is
Guangzhou in the South East Province of Guangdong where the
Perle River Delta is known as the world factory; and the second city is
Yiwu in the Zhejiang Province where many cities and towns have
actively developed their manufacturing sector.
This paper on African entrepreneurs in China is an attempt to
counterbalance the current debates on Sino-African relations which
tend to only emphasize the increasing presence of the Chinese – and
Chinese products – on the African continent. Today, there exists a
Hélène Le Bail is a researcher at Ifri and responsible for the China Programme.
H. Le Bail/African Entrepreneurs in China
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body of ongoing research on the commercial links between China and
Africa from both perspectives. On the presence of Chinese merchants
in Africa, one can already refer to the works of Yoon Jung Park, and
Antoine Kernen and Benoit Vulliet. On the presence of African
merchants in China, only a small number of papers have been
written, notably by Brigitte Bertoncello and Sylvie Bredeloup, Adams
Bodomo, and Li Zhigang.
H. Le Bail/African Entrepreneurs in China
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The African Entrepreneurs
in the Chinese Market-Cities
With the exception of the city of Hong Kong, which still in many ways
remains apart from the rest of China, African traders and salesmen
gather mainly in two Chinese cities well-known for their wholesale
markets and fairs, as well as their strategic position in manufacturing
Guangzhou, a Trading Post
The first place of settlement for the African entrepreneurs is the city of
Guangzhou in the Guangdong province. Bertoncello and Bredeloup
have proposed an approach centered around “the African trading
post” to describe what the Chinese media name “the chocolate city”:
“The African trading post is, in a sense, a remnant of the
Greek trading post, in so far as its organization, which is
based on an understanding between producer and seller,
is first initiated by the foreigner and works in close
collaboration with the home country. The African trading
post is built, in Guanzhou or in Hong Kong, on the
assumption that the African businessmen, who are the
beachhead for sub-Saharan immigration, will negotiate
their installation with the locals, playing off of the different
local, regional and national laws to furnish the markets
with goods manufactured in the special economic zones
but destined for an African clientele sometimes willing to
come in person to buy.” (Bertoncello, Bredeloup, 2008).
Guangzhou, a maritime port in the Pearl River delta, has long
been an economic pole for exports. Under the Sui and the Tang
dynasties (581-907), trading activities were already significant and the
city of Huangpu (now a district of Guangzhou) was the starting point
of the maritime Silk Road. During the period of country closure (Ming
and Qing dynasty), Guangzhou in the 18 th century became the
exclusive forum of commercial exchange with foreign countries until
the Opium war and the opening of the country to foreign merchants.
Later, in 1957, it was also Guangzhou that hosted the Guangzhou
Fair, the only place where foreign buyers could contact Chinese
manufacturers, and it remained so until the end of the 1970s
(Jastrabsky, 166-167). Moreover, in 1980, three of the four initial
Special Economic Zones (SEZ) were created in the Guangdong
H. Le Bail/African Entrepreneurs in China
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province: Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantou. Since the time of this
initiative, the province has been receiving a large share of foreign
investments and many of the manufacturers are concentrated there.
The Province of Guangdong is the core of the Chinese
manufacturing industry and represents more than 30 % of annual
national exports. One third of exports are concluded during the wellknown
Guangzhou Fair which is held twice a year. While most foreign
visitors of the Guangzhou Fair come mainly from developed
countries, there is also, alongside it, a year-round market which is
dominated by lower-income countries, namely African. In order to
meet the demand from abroad, many Africans have settled down in
Guangzhou and opened their own Trading agencies.
According to the Ministry of Public Security, a total of 30,819
foreign residents are living in Guangdong Province, 70 % of whom
are in the two cities of Guangzhou and Shenzhen. The Public
Security Bureau of the city of Guangzhou reported in 2006
18,000 long-term foreign residents in Guangzhou: 6 % from Africa,
6 % from Middle East, 55 % from Europe or America, 34 % from Asia
(and others)1. In other words, African long-term residents were
estimated up to 1,080 in 2006. They comprise of students and
employees of international companies, but most of them are freelancers
and entrepreneurs with a working visa. The number of African
residents, including illegal residents, is usually said to be around
20,000 people. Most of them arrived with a business visa or a tourist
visa and overstayed them. China, a country of emigration, now finds
itself also confronted to illegal immigration on its territory. But
compared to these foreign residents, the short-term visitors are much
more numerous.
There exist no official statistics by nationality, but the
estimates always assume Malians to be the largest nationality. The
number of Malian residents was estimated by the Malian Embassy a
few years ago to be about 400 people (it is the number of regular
residents). Nigerians, whatever their legal (or illegal) status, are
estimated at somewhere between five and seven thousand in
Guangzhou. Both the Malian and Nigerian communities largely
dominate the African population in Guangzhou, as well as the trading
market. There exists only a few trading agencies held by foreigners
from other areas, even if the African population is more and more
diversified and all the countries now have representatives in
In Guangzhou, African residents and visitors mainly gather in
two areas along the ring road. The first is situated around the central
railway station where are dispatched most of the wholesale markets:
1 “廣州警方重點加強對在穗外國人的管理” (“Guangzhou Police reinforce its control on foreign
population”), Hong Kong China News Agency, 14 December 2006, available at:
H. Le Bail/African Entrepreneurs in China
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clothing, shoes, leather and cosmetics. Showrooms and warehouses
have tended to multiply throughout the Baiyun district, all the way up
to the north towards the airport. In this area, the Canaan building is
well-known for its many African trading agencies. The second area is
known as the “Xiaobei lu” area, in the Yuexiu district along the main
circle line (Li, 2007: 9). Many business buildings are used mainly by
African traders, the most famous one being the Tianxiu building.
These two areas reflect the tacit divide between African
entrepreneurs: most of the Africans working around the central
railway station come from English-speaking countries, while the ones
in Xiaobei lu are French-speaking. A survey done in 2007 showed
that, in the area of Xiaobei, most of the African traders came from the
following seven countries: Mali, Togo, the Gambia, Guinea, Ghana,
Senegal and Congo. Only Ghana and the Gambia are Englishspeaking
countries but they also share African languages with the
other ones (Li, 2007:14). Nigeria is notably absent from the list even
though they are one of the main nationalities among Africans in
Guangzhou. In fact the African business area around the station is
dominated by Nigerians and there exists a strong division between
Francophones and Anglophones in Guangzhou.
Yiwu: an International Wholesale Market
Yiwu is located 380 km to Shanghai (2 hours by train) and 250 km to
Ningbo port, which are the two main Chinese ports in terms of the
traffic of goods, and the first and the fifth ports in terms of container
As a specialised market, i.e. a wholesale market located in an
industrial cluster, the city offers low prices with goods sent directly
from the factories. In fact buyers can easily visit the thousands of
factories located around the city. There are in particular eight large
industrial sectors that have developed in the Yiwu area: socks, shirts,
wool, accessories, zippers, toys, key sticks and printing (Ding, 2007,
9). Furthermore, given the success of the market, a large number of
producers from other cities of Zhejiang, but also from others
provinces in China, have relocated their showrooms to Yiwu. One of
the main advantages of Yiwu today is the wide range of products that
can be found. The numbers vary depending on the source, but most
suggest there are between 300,000 and 400,000 kinds of products
available in Yiwu. Its three different markets and business streets
house more than 50,000 booths.2 Low prices come hand-in-hand with
2 Information from the Yiwu Commodity City, available at:
Among the main products are: imitation jewelry and hair ornament market, about
7000 booths, socks and stockings, about 3000 booths, stationery market, about 3000
booths, bags and suitcase market, about 2000 booths.
H. Le Bail/African Entrepreneurs in China
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the mediocre quality of the products and these mostly targets low
income level buyers, especially from the Middle East and Africa (Yue
Lin, p191). Among the main foreign exporters of products from Yiwu,
the UAE and Saudi Arabia are ranked first and seventh (Pliez, p 9)
and, as we will see later, the nationals from these countries often
export to many different countries in the area.
According to the Foreign Affairs Bureau of the city, there are
more than 2 300 foreign representative offices, i.e. trading agencies,
in Yiwu, but many more foreign traders live in Yiwu permanently.
From January to April 2009, 2 496 foreigners were given the
residence permit. Furthermore, the number of foreign salesmen
coming for a few days or for up to 1 to 3 months is increasing every
year: in 2008, more than 350,000 people from abroad visited Yiwu.
For the first semester of 2009 (January to April), Yiwu had already
received 96,356 people from abroad. In April, 30,027 people from
abroad were staying in Yiwu including 27,892 foreigners and more
than 2,000 overseas Chinese, among whom, some 12,000 were
residents.3 We should note here that the total population of Yiwu is
around 2 million, of which more than 700,000 are local residents, and
more than 1 million are people from other parts of China (most of
them migrant workers).
There are no official statistics of the foreign residents by
nationality. It is well-known that the foreign residents, especially the
ones who have trading agencies, are from the Middle-East. The
largest nationality represented is Yemen. Among the Sub-Saharan
Africans, most of the residents come from Ethiopia, Angola, Mali,
Nigeria or Senegal.
In Yiwu, the phenomenon of visible residential concentration
only relates to people from the Middle-East: in this case, in the central
part of the city, afar the new market. There are many Muslim
restaurants and even a mosque. The established traders usually have
their office not too far from the market, but there are few
concentrations except for a few business buildings.
Yiwu and Guangzhou are the two main destinations for the
African entrepreneurs today and in both cities there are certain typical
profiles of migrants. While the migrant experience consists of a
diversity of narratives, there are two conventional figures that often
emerge from these stories: the student-turned-entrepreneur and the
nomadic merchant.
3 Interview at the City Hall in Yiwu, 11 May 2009, and information from the China
Commodity City Website, available at:
H. Le Bail/African Entrepreneurs in China
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The Actors: the Student
and the Veteran Merchant
The Student Turned Entrepreneur
Some of the African entrepreneurs arrived as students in the 1980s or
1990s, usually with a Chinese scholarship, under some general
program of development assistance or cooperation and would later
act as “middle-men” or intermediaries in business thanks to their
command of the Chinese language. After graduating from a Chinese
university, some decided to stay in China and open their own
agencies. This was the case for A. who arrived in 1996 as a student
at the Beijing foreign languages university:
“ I first spent a year studying the language before
entering the agricultural university of Guangzhou. I left for
China with the intent of training in agronomy. That year
we were six scholarship-recipients from Benin, two in
agronomy, two in medicine, one in civil engineering, I
can’t remember the last one. I began to work before the
end of my studies; I took up odd jobs to make some
money. A Tunisian friend offered me a job as an
interpreter for the Guangzhou market. He introduced me
to the Niger Agency to escort groups of buyers. “4
Even before graduating from University, A. found a job. He
had the opportunity to work as an interpreter during the Guangzhou
commercial Fair for a trading company held by an entrepreneur from
Niger. His work was appreciated and he was hired by the trading
agency as an intermediary for buyers from Africa. The agency then
sent him to Niger for a mission to supervise the delivery of
construction materials for a hotel. However, at the end of the mission
he had not received his return ticket to China and managed to go to
Ivory Coast (his second nationality from his mother side) where he
endured six months of administrative and procedural delays before
finally going back to China. In Ivory Coast he met with a merchant
woman who wanted to import from China and she became his first
client when he opened his own agency soon after his return to China.
4 Interview conducted in Guangzhou, 5 May 2009.
H. Le Bail/African Entrepreneurs in China
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D. is working in the agency of his brother who opened the first
export company in Beijing:
“My brother arrived in the eighties when he was twenty,
as the recipient of a Chinese government scholarship. He
was very poor and took up odd jobs as an interpreter for
tourists and businessmen. He was one of the rare people
who could speak both Chinese and English. He saw that
the Chinese market was picking up speed and he started
his own company just after having obtained his degree.
At the time, it was the only foreign export company in
Beijing. He was exporting clothing at the time.”5
D.’s brother was among the first foreigners to settle down in
Yiwu. Today, he is extremely rich and returned to Beijing with his
Chinese wife. His two younger brothers are in charge of the company.
The Africans who arrived in China as students and later
stayed and launched their own businesses are a minority amongst
the entrepreneurs of African nationality. The majority of the traders in
China arrived after having started a business in their home country or
in a third country.
The Merchants Networks
The settlement of African entrepreneurs in China is one facet of a
more vast commercial strategy which lets them move their activities
from country to country to seize opportunity. Guangzhou and Yiwu is
sometimes just a stop-over, more or less, before moving to other
markets (some already speak of India). The emergence of trading
posts in China occurs in parallel with the appearance of other trading
posts in the Middle East or in Asia. Some of these have already
experienced their golden age (like Bangkok) while others have
managed to consolidate a key role in the network of international
wholesale markets (like Dubai).
Africans arrived progressively in China. Many first spent some
time in Dubai where they could purchase some Asian goods. Within
the Persian Gulf, Dubai is one of the most prominent commercial
areas for good transit and re-exports. Under a policy launched by
Cheikh Rachid in the 1950s, Dubai developed into a redistribution
center for the neighbors’ areas, but it also attracted people from the
former soviet republics and from African countries.6 In the nineties,
Dubai offered well-stocked and cheap warehouses. It is still very
lucrative, thanks to its merchant networks and its excellent
5 Interview conducted in Yiwu, 11 May 2009.
6 See Marc Lavergne (2002), « Dubaï ou la métropolisation incomplète », Cahiers de
la Méditerranée, vol. 64, pp. 257-296 ; Roland Marchal (1997), « Dubaï: le
développement d'une cité entrepôt dans le Golfe », Les études du CERI, June.
H. Le Bail/African Entrepreneurs in China
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infrastructures and connections with the rest of the world. Today
Dubai is a stopover for buyers between China and Africa. Except for a
few African cities like Johannesburg or Harare, most African countries
have no direct flight to China. They may have to go through another
African country, through Europe or through Dubai which has become
the preferred route to China. Buyers stopping there can patiently
develop their commercial networks and to complete their purchases
before going back home. Travelers may also just want to stay in the
airport, where the duty-free area is considered one of the most
attractive in the world. Dubai airport is still developing quickly and is
aiming to become the world’s largest airport in a few years.7
Many of the African entrepreneurs in Guangzhou already
spent some time in another Asian country, more often in Bangkok or
Kuala Lumpur. Some of them arrived for the commerce of gems. The
stones were imported in Thailand to be transformed. These
merchants sometimes settled down in South-East Asia and converted
their activities into more lucrative businesses (Bertoncello, Bredeloup,
2008). Bangkok was an important wholesale textile market for
Africans during the 1980s and 1990s. It was a country more open
than its neighbors but the financial crises in 1997 compelled foreign
merchants to take the next step.
Hong Kong is another key place for African merchants on the
road to China. When South-East Asian countries were stricken by the
financial crises, many African traders moved to Hong Kong. The city
offers first-rate financial services and is at the doorstep of the
Guangdong Province. Hong Kong also has excellent transportation
services: a large part of Chinese production still transit through Hong
Kong in spite of increasing competition from Shanghai in this sector.
Since it is easier to get an entry permit to Hong Kong than to China, it
is a suitable platform for organizing trips to China. The conditions for
entry into the trading profession are very strict in Hong Kong and not
many Africans have been able to open an agency. Today only about
ten Sub-Saharan Africans have opened a trading agency in Hong
Kong (Bertoncello, 2009). HK remains a point of transition from where
it is possible to develop a network, to complete purchases and to
manage the administrative procedures: visa, currency exchange, etc.
All these activities are concentrated in the well-known
Chungking Mansions. In the Tsim Sha Tsui commercial district of
Kowloon, the Chungking Mansions accommodate shops, offices and
guest houses used by immigrants and visitors mainly from Africa,
South Asia and the Middle East (Bodomo, 2006: 445). A documentary
made at the end of 1988 baptized the building “The Tower of Babel”
for it was a multicultural area in the city of Hong Kong. Bodomo, the
main investigator of a survey conducted in 2005, indicated that more
7 “Second quarter set to be better than first - Dubai Airports official”,,
available at:
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than half of the residents of the mansions originated from Sub-
Saharan countries. More than half of the Africans were from Ghana,
followed by Nigeria (19 %), Congo and Kenya (7 % each) and
Guinea, South Africa and Tanzania (4 % each) (Bodomo, 2006: 450).
Similar to the African merchants in Guangzhou who were described
earlier, the population living in the Chungking mansions are often
characterized as a low-level income group with no schooling, but the
same survey showed that in reality the population is diversified: 27%
of the respondents had a college degree and 67 % a secondary
school degree (Bodomo, 2006: 452).
Many of the Malian and Nigerian entrepreneurs who are now
settled in Guangzhou have also worked previously in other Asian
cities like Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur or Jakarta. They sometimes have
tried to establish in Hong Kong. Yiwu which developed more recently
and is considered a less expensive market than Guangzhou, also
welcomed entrepreneurs who came from Gangzhou or who opened a
branch of their agency in Yiwu.
Mustafa spent four years in Bangkok before coming to
Guangzhou. His journey to China wasn’t planned. After 15 years in
the Senegalese Army, he retired with the project of migrating to
Australia, where he would receive training in aviation and work. He
made a first step in Bangkok in order to obtain a visa at the Australian
Embassy there. While waiting for his visa, he started working for
Malian, Senegalese and Guinean merchants and eventually
abandoned his original plan. When the export activity from Thailand
slowed down, he decided to make a trip to China like many other
entrepreneurs in Bangkok. He realized that prices on the Guangzhou
markets were half that in Thailand for the exact same product. One
month later, with a friend from Mali, he moved to Guangzhou.8
The different ways in which entrepreneurs settle down in
China may also be illustrated by the case of Abudu. Abudu started
with two clothes shops in Casablanca. To find the goods, he first
started to travel to Spain. He realized that the products were imported
and decided to go to Dubai. From there, he noticed that a ticket to
Hong Kong was inexpensive and decided to go there and canvass.
He first went to Shenzhen and Shanghai where people recommended
he check out Yiwu. After 4 or 5 trips, he decided to settle down in
Yiwu. At the beginning he focused on his own sector: fabrics for
traditional Moroccan clothes. Gradually he agreed to act as an
intermediary for buyers from abroad.9
Bertoncello and Bredeloup give another illustrative example of
the African merchant itinerary. K from Mali arrived in Guangzhou in
2000. As a child he had traveled in Africa: he first sold cigarettes in
Bamako then later worked in the textile business in Cameroun and
8 Interview conducted in Guangzhou, 6 May 2009.
9 Interview conducted in Yiwu, 11 May 2009.
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Gabon and in the gems business in Tanzania and Madagascar. The
gems’ barter introduced him to import-export activities in different
countries, including Thailand and Malaysia. In 2000, he decided to
relocate his activities to Guangzhou and closed his offices in Bangkok
and Jakarta. D.’s agency is now exporting all kinds of manufactured
products (Bertoncello, Bredeloup, 2007: 99-100).
The traders who settled down in China have often made
stopovers in different market-cities prior to their settlement in China.
This is also the case for the buyers, who often do tours in several
countries to make their purchases before going back home: some
may go to the different Asian markets, make a stop in Dubai and even
sometimes go to some European country for some other products.
The interconnections between the different city-markets are illustrated
by the fact in June 2009 that the Dubai Exhibition offered to expose
the Yiwu Fair. It is the first attempt at an overseas exhibition of Yiwu
Fair, with more than 260 enterprises having already signed up.10
10 Information available at
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The Activities
The Trading Agencies
The opening of an agency requires the establishment of an importexport
company in one’s home country or in a third country that has
been recognized by the Chinese embassy. Financial conditions are
also important; the entrepreneur has to prove his or her investment
capacity.11 There exist different types of agencies. Some only offer
services as an intermediary for buyers coming from abroad with a
business visa. Others also have their own export activities.
The services proposed to foreign buyers include guidance,
interpretation and bargaining with Chinese factory bosses and other
Chinese sellers, grouping and packing in warehouses, transportation
in containers by shipping companies or by air-cargo, customs
clearance. Some of the agencies may also propose delivery services
in the country of reception or even accommodation for the buyers
coming from abroad (they set up dormitories or small inns in the
business buildings. Agencies usually have plenty of small-scale
clients and they group their goods together in order to fill containers
for the same destination).
There exist agencies of different size. Most of them are
usually small companies with 2 or 3 employees in the office and 5 to
10 employees in the warehouse (with at least one compatriot to
supervise, while most of the employees are Chinese). In the case
of D., he had one of the eldest and more profitable companies in
Yiwu, 30 employees were working in the office and 50 in the
warehouses (they send an average of 30 containers a day). In
addition, many independent traders are working in more informal
conditions. They may borrow or even share a desk inside another
company and in return for the use of the office they may use the
services of the host company. Inside a trading agency, the
relationships between the workers are intricate: some are employees,
but many others have links with the boss that resemble patronage.
11 See Muriel Devey : « Afrique : confidences des hommes d'affaires africains
oeuvrant en Chine »,, 5 April 2008: http://fr. [consulted on June 22nd,
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Some African traders do not bother with the external aspect of
their offices, they work in old and crowded buildings like the Taoci
building in the Xiaobei lu area of Guangzhou. Even D. who enjoys
flourishing activities (see above) only has a 60 meter square office
with cheap furniture. Some others prefer to provide their clients with a
spacious, modern or even luxurious environment. Some of the offices
in Tianxiu building in Guangzhou are larger than 150 m2 with
comfortable sofas and internet. In this kind of offices hundred of
goods are displayed for the buyer (exhibition is no need in Yiwu since
the market is in the city center and open all the year long).
Most of the traders who have been established for a few years
in China are pretty successful in their business even if they would
stress the fact that profits are very irregular. M. with an agency of
about twenty employees, estimates his profit at about 200 to 300,000
RMB by year. D., at the head of one of the biggest agencies in Yiwu,
even refused to give the average amount of the profits, arguing that it
is beyond belief. Its profits are so astronomical that local authorities
would become very suspicious if they ever heard about it. It is said
that through their agency, about 7 million RMB transit every day.
While most of smaller agencies complete the transactions with cash,
the biggest ones who supervise the faster exchanges of money only
work via bank transfers.
Sino-African Business Difficulties
Difficulties encountered by African traders are due as much to African
partners as to the Chinese ones. The pace of transactions is often
fast and the trader finds himself between foreign buyers and Chinese
manufacturers or sellers. Transaction difficulties may come from both
sides: the hesitation of Chinese sellers to bargain or to deliver the
goods before he’s received payment, and efforts by foreign buyers to
delay payment. Traders usually require that payment be made before
the container leaves China. Most of the salesmen follow their goods
from the factory to the warehouse to be certain of what is sent home
and to avoid being misled. It has occurred that traders had to unload
containers when buyers left China without paying.
Most of the lost money is lost in Africa which is the reason
why A., whom we interviewed in Guangzhou, plans to have his
brother take in charge of the office in Guangzhou while he’ll go back
to Côte d’Ivoire to supervise the arrival and distribution of items.12 The
difficulty lies in managing proper distribution channels and debt
recovery. Traders in China would prefer clients that fill up a whole
container and receive it on arrival. When the container is shared by
several clients, it is then necessary to organize the distribution upon
12 Interview conducted in Guangzhou, 5 May 2009.
H. Le Bail/African Entrepreneurs in China
© Ifri
arrival and the trader’s risks increase. Besides, when the buyers
obtains a credit, it is sometimes extremely difficult to sue someone for
unpaid sums of money. The judicial system in many African countries
is still not very efficient and the plaintiff in China is far away. Thus
African entrepreneurs often appeal to their national representatives in
China to solve such problems. African countries usually have only
one Embassy in Beijing. They appoint someone in the community in
other cities to be in charge of consulate affairs. A. holds such an
appointment for Côte d’Ivoire, S. Barry is the representative in
Guangzhou for Guinea, O. Emma is the one for Nigeria, and
Dioncounda Diawara is the President of the Conseil des Maliens in
China. All of them have a trading company, they arrived more than
ten years ago, and now enjoy a settled life. They mainly handle visa
procedures and sort out the residency issues for their compatriots,
but they also can act as an intermediary for unpaid debts or any kind
of dispute within the community.
Another important obstacle is customs clearance. On the
Chinese side, they can discover unexpected fees on the exported
goods, or even some containers can be stopped for unknown
reasons. Good relations with the shipping companies, the dock
administration and the local authorities can obviously facilitate
customs clearance. But for African traders, the customs clearance is
even more complicated at the arrival. Some countries have issued
very restrictive trade policies: high tariffs, a long list of prohibited
import items and specific licensing requirements for restricted
products. Nigeria for one conducts such a policy. High tariff on textile
for instance greatly affects the competitiveness of Chinese
products.13 Furthermore, other charges can also be a real burden on
the importer (inspection fee, port service fee, etc.). In Nigeria,
importers also face long clearance procedures. Due to the 100-
percent–on-arrival inspections, unloading is often delayed for weeks
or even months. In such a context, Chinese importers often complain
that they are the target of arbitrary evaluations by inspection agencies
and that they encounter more obstacles than other traders. In fact,
African traders also complain a great deal about the clearance
procedure on arrival. A. emphasized in his interview how
unpredictable were clearance procedures in Côte d’Ivoire because of
the corruption and embezzlement.
Networks and Family Business
Most of these merchants have their activities based on national
networks. M. mainly works for Senegalese clients; he only has a few
13 See Edwin Daniel-Ikhuoria: “Nigeria-China Trade: Impact on the Nigerian People”,
available on the the National Association of Nigerian Traders’s Website at: [consulted on June 3, 2009].
H. Le Bail/African Entrepreneurs in China
© Ifri
clients from Gambia, Gabon or Mali. A. who grew up in Benin but also
has the Ivory Coast nationality, works almost exclusively with this last
country. Abudu, from Morocco, works mainly for Moroccans (in
Morocco but also in European countries like Spain, Italy, Germany),
he also has some other clients from Arab or Muslim countries like
Algeria, Saudi Arabia or Sudan. For the more established and larger
companies, the spectrum of clients is wider. D., who’s from Ethiopia,
has now clients everywhere in the world. The Malians may also work
for a broad range of nationalities, probably because Malian
merchants are traditionally settled in many different African countries.
Very often, the agencies are family businesses. For both the
Chinese and Africans, even though the agencies are mostly
established by individuals, their wives Chinese or African, are very
involved. Moreover, when the business broadens, the entrepreneur
will often invite family-members to join the company. D.’s company
was launched by his older brother. Foregoing his plan to pursue his
studies in New Zealand or in Australia, D. had to join his brother in
China who needed help to manage his company and wanted it to stay
in the hands of the family. Today three of the brothers are involved.
The older one does not work anymore with them but has delegated all
the managerial tasks to his brothers. Still he remains the only owner
of the company. All the living expenses of the brothers are covered by
the company but they do not receive a formal salary or have stakes in
the company. The use of family ties favors an informal type of
governance. In the case of A., he asked his younger brother to come
to China and get trained, and promised after five years that he might
be willing to let him manage the agency in Guangzhou, when he
would go back to the Côte d’Ivoire.
Transformation and Strategies:
Complementarities or Competition
Between Chinese and Africans Merchants?
Most of the Africans started their business in China in textile exports.
Today the range of exported goods is extremely wide: electronic
appliances, DVD, mobile phones. Another sector that flourished lately
is interior decorating and furniture. In that sector, the number of
women buyers is noticeable: at least from the African West Coast,
they are a majority of the short-stay entrants with a business visa.
African traders have also diversified their commercial
strategies in order to meet the Chinese competition. Chinese people
also developed import activities in African countries and the impact of
their business is evident for the African traders in China.
A. at first only exported textiles. Between 2003 and 2004, he
established a joint-venture with a Chinese associate for the Ivory
Coast market; they produced clothes for orders of up to six or seven
H. Le Bail/African Entrepreneurs in China
© Ifri
thousand items. At that time he covered about 90 % of the imported
textile market in Abidjan. In 2005 he opened another company for
bags (producing many counterfeit items, but also some original
models). It was also a joint-venture with 150 employees. In fact most
of the African traders who arrived in the eighties and nineties started
with exports of clothes, bags and shoes. A. explained how he
adapted his business to the new competition. When he experienced a
rapid decrease in profits, he developed a strategy he called “end of
line” (surplus). He started canvassing the factories in Guangdong to
ask if they had some surplus of clothes, shoes, fabrics that remained
from previous orders. He bought these unsold surpluses at very low
prices; since it helped the factories rid themselves of these extra
products. Today the Chinese factories even contact him to offer their
“end-of-line”. On this kind of market, the Chinese salesmen are not
competitive, according to A., because they have difficulty gauging the
tastes of African buyers. Buyers are harder to please than before and
sellers can be stuck with unsold products.
Some other African traders, like Abudu, also feels the Chinese
competition is not that significant because the African traders know
the consumer in their host country better and are able to adapt the
supply to the expectations and tastes of the consumers. Abudu spent
half of his time on the road all across China. He visits all kinds of
factories, sometimes very small ones in the countryside or even home
workshops of craftsmen. He looks for new products and does not
hesitate to buy goods of quality in small amounts when he is sure that
it will be sold abroad. He believes he understands what can be sold
abroad better than the Chinese traders.
However, some traders like M. are much more pessimistic.
For years he enjoyed strong profit margins because he would buy
products directly from the producer in China. Today, the Chinese
sellers established in Senegal also buy directly in China and
sometimes obtain even better prices than him. He believes the
number of African trading agencies in China will decrease due to the
growing presence of Chinese in African countries doing business. For
the researcher A. Bodomo it is not likely that the number of African
traders will decrease as long as commercial exchange develops
between China and Africa even if, beginning last year, the local
government started to tighten their control over African entrepreneurs.
H. Le Bail/African Entrepreneurs in China
© Ifri
Conclusion: African Entrepreneurs
and Chinese Society:
Transformation and Resistance
The African community is still far from well-accepted even if their
Chinese neighbours have become accustomed to their presence. The
Chinese media have spread negative stereotype of the African
residents, associating them with the notion of “three illegal” (三非) :
illegal entry, illegal residence and illegal work (非法入境,
非法居留, 非法就业). It is probably amongst Africans that the greater
number of illegal residents and workers can be found, but the
tendency is often to typecast the whole community under that
negative image.
The presence of illegal immigrants has been tolerated for
many years, but in the last year they have become the target of
stricter policies. The toughening of measures to arrest the illegal
residents started six months before the opening of the Olympic
Games and has been maintained since. It not only targets African
people, but any foreigner working or living illegally in China and also
Chinese rural migrants (especially in Beijing), but the case of the
Africans was more mediatised. Last august it was said that 3000
Nigerians were imprisoned, some of them suffered maltreatment, the
number of deaths in the prisons that are covered-up is also
preoccupying. What is widely known is that those African who died
trying to escape the police, did so out of fear of being physically
The involvement of Africans in the drug traffic is also a factor
of stigmatization of the whole black population especially in
Guangzhou. Corruption in the province and the absence of strict laws
have allowed the province to become a hub for the drug traffic in the
south of China. The drug traffic networks in Guangzhou are very
intricate and involve many different nationalities. Apart from the local
Chinese, people from the Middle East and Central Asia (Afghans,
Iranians, Pakistanis), from South America, and from West Africa are
involved. Between December 2007 and June 2008, more than 300
Africans were arrested for narcotic trafficking. They are involved in
14 “Nigeria: 3,000 Nigerians Rot in Chinese Prisons”, Daily Champion, 11 August
2008, on AllAfrica Global Media, available at:
H. Le Bail/African Entrepreneurs in China
© Ifri
the traffic of cannabis from West Africa and South Africa. Lately they
have been confronted with the competition of cheaper cannabis from
Thailand. Some of the African dealers also take part in the traffic of
cocaine from South American. While many recent articles have
described the African dealers, they are usually known as retailers,
working with bigger dealers of other nationalities (Central Asia for the
cannabis or the heroine, Colombia for cocaine or Chinese for
synthetic drugs) (Baudrimont, 2008).
Still, some Chinese academic works provide a more positive
analysis of the African presence in China. They insist on the role of
the African residents in the process of globalization of the Chinese
cities. In fact in Guangzhou or Yiwu, the African and Middle-East
population is quite visible and has changed the landscape of the
streets. The number of mixed marriages is increasing, along with the
number of multi-cultural families living in China. Indeed some of the
African residents are well integrated in the host society. However,
China is still far from promoting the idea of opening itself up to
foreigners and integrating them into society.
H. Le Bail/African Entrepreneurs in China
© Ifri
Baudrimont, Cyrille (2008), “La Chine s’inquiète de la
recrudescence des trafiquants de drogues étrangers sur son
territoire", unpublished.
Bodomo, Adams B. (2008), “An Emerging African-Chinese
Community in Hong Kong: The Case of Tsim Sha Tsui's Chungking
Mansions”, in Kiran Kamal Prasad and Jean-Pierre Angenot (ed.s),
The African Diaspora in Asia, Explorations on a Less Known Fact,
papers presented at the First International Conference on the African
Diaspora in Asia in Panaji, Goa, pp. 445-461.
Bodomo, Adams B. (2009), “The African Presence in
Contemporary China”, The China Monitor, January, n. 36, pp. 4-6.
Bertoncello, Brigitte and Sylvie Bredeloup (2007), “The
Emergence of New African ‘Trading Posts’ in Hong Kong and
Guangzhou”, China Perspectives, n. 1.
Bertoncello, Brigitte and Sylvie Bredeloup (2008), "Les allées
du Centenaire à Dakar, Huanshi Middle Road à Guangzhou : des
rues globales marchandes ?", paper for the Colloque International
ADES, "Où en est la rue face à la globalisation ? Standardisation,
singularisation et régulation", Bordeaux, 27 and 28 November 2008.
Bertoncello, Brigitte and Sylvie Bredeloup (2009), “Chine-
Afrique ou la valse des entrepreneurs migrants”, REMI, vol. 25, n. 1.
Bertoncello, Brigitte (2009), "Les Chungking Mansions à Hong
Kong : ‘tour de Babel’ africaine dans un quartier d'affaires en
rénovation", paper for the seminar "La Chine et l’Afrique : regards
historiques, dynamiques spatiales et mobilités croisées", INALCO,
Paris, 12 June 2009.
Bredeloup, Sylvie (2009), "Le quartier Xiao Bei à Guangzhou :
enclave africaine en Chine ou rue globale marchande ?", paper for
the seminar "La Chine et l’Afrique : regards historiques, dynamiques
spatiales et mobilités croisées", INALCO, Paris, 12 June 2009.
Bourdarias, Françoise (2009), "Migrants chinois au Mali : une
pluralité de mondes sociaux", REMI, vol. 25, n. 1.
H. Le Bail/African Entrepreneurs in China
© Ifri
Ding, Ke (2007), "Domestic Market-Based Industrial Cluster
Development in Modern China," Discussion Papers, n. 88, Tokyo:
Jastrabsky, Eglantine (2006), "Le poids de Guangzhou",
Outre-Terre, n. 15, pp. 161-175.
Kernen, Antoine and Benoît Vulliet (2008), "Les petits
commerçants et entrepreneurs chinois au Mali et au Sénégal",
Sociétés politiques comparées, May.
Li, Zhigang et al. (2006), "Ethnic Enclave of Transnational
Migrants in Guangzhou: A Case Study of Xiaobei”, paper for the
International Conference on China’s Urban Land and Housing in the
21st Century, 13-15 December 2007, Hong Kong, available at:
Lin, Yue (2006), “Yiwu : le carrefour du ‘made in China’,”
Outre-Terre, n. 15, pp. 187-193.
Liu, Haifang (2009), “Hosting Africans: What are China’s
Concerns, If Any?”, The China Monitor, January, n. 36, pp. 7-10.
Park, Yoon Jung (2008), A Matter of Honour, Being Chinese in
South Africa, Auckland, Janaca Media.
Pliez, Olivier (2007), "Des jeans chinois dans les rues du
Caire, ou les espaces discrets de la mondialisation", Mappemonde,
vol. 4, n. 88 , available at:

Chungking Mansions Somali Traders Google Books

Chungking Mansions Kowloon, Hong Kong
The young men with the suitcases are most likely carrying mobile phones. Nadim told me that most of the business he sees is from wholesalers that buy these cheap phones in bulk, and take them back to countries like Kenya, Zambia, and Nigeria. Apparently, one fifth of all of the mobile phones in sub Saharan Africa have passed through the Chungking Mansions at some point - and 70 percent of Kenya's handsets come from here. Serious traders come to the Mansions with money and a destination, and everything else is handled for them.

The mobile phone trade might be cheaper across the border in Guandong, but the trading laws and security of Hong Kong are more appealing to the Nigerians and Pakistanis that can't easily obtain Chinese visas.

Chungking Mansions. The complex of five 17-story towers is home to residential apartments, low-rent guesthouses and offices, money changers, restaurants and shops. Some 5,000 people live here, but the population swells daily by an extra estimated 10,000 multinational visitors, buying and selling everything from secondhand mobile phones to old clothing. According to one estimate, 20% of the mobile phones now in use in sub-Saharan Africa have passed through this high-rise souk. Go to the three-level arcade to see world trade in its rawest form, then finish up with a curry at one of the dozens of South Asian restaurants on the floors above. Brace yourself. (Nearest MTR: Tsim Sha Tsui)

Read more:,31489,1850110_1850124_1852107,00.html#ixzz1lmfHg4Cc

Chinese acupuncture dens, cellphone shops, pirate CD stores, and lots of fake Rolex vendors. There’s also a contingent of Africans wandering around, haggling with wholesalers, bargaining over containers of cheap goods to ship back and resell at a higher price. Others seem to loiter in the corridors all day slapping people on the back with friendly greetings. The upper levels are a mixture of sweatshops, housing for illegal immigrants, and cheap backpacker hostels with closet-sized 4-bed dorms.

In the market for 500 knock-off Tag Heuer watches? A container-load of inexpensive African style clothes? A leather-bound Koran or a Bangladeshi curry? Head to Chungking Mansions, just up the road from the ritzy Peninsula Hotel on Hong Kong's famous Nathan Road.

Shunned by Hong Kongers and unnoticed by most tourists, Chungking Mansions is a meeting place for developing world traders, a clearing house of cheap Chinese goods, and an African and South Asian outpost in the heart of Kowloon.

Read more:

African and South Asian traders - well off in their own countries but poor by Western standards - come to Chungking Mansions to take advantage of Hong Kong's lax immigration laws and porous borders, dreaming of the riches they can make taking cheap Chinese goods to sell in their impoverished and economically backward home towns. Fortunes are made and lost in the long hallways and hidden stalls of Chungking Mansions, where guesthouse rooms go for as little as $US13 a night and competition between the wholesalers on the lower floors is fierce.

Mathews estimates that 20 per cent of the mobile phones currently used in Africa were sold in Chungking Mansions. Large traders use the building to make contacts on the mainland, shipping containers of phones, clothing, watches and even cars directly from factories in Guangzhou to Nairobi or Lahore. Smaller traders carry a few hundred mobile phones in their luggage, hoping to make enough profit to cover their airfare and fund their next trip back to Hong Kong.

Read more:

Hong Kong: migrant lives, landscapes, and journeys
By Caroline Knowles, Douglas A. Harper

Central Kowloon Mosque

*Trades US Dollars in Hong Kong
* Plexiglas Screens
*Boat engines

* There is Direct flight from Guangzhou to Addis Abbaba and many Africans go there for business

*Battery From Shenzhen

Copy Goods

HK $ 10 Seciko emulatating Seiko

Citizen becames Citizien
Smatch From Swiss Swatch

Nokia-Samsung-Iphones copies

Phones HK $450 to 150

Somali Traders Google Books

Guangzhou Africans

Guangzhou Africans over 100,000 many live in Guangdong city doing Business in Large scale China AFrica Commerce malls

Guangzhou's Daily Newspaper

Guangzhou's Guinean community, ...

Chinese-made products popular among Somali traders

MOGADISHU, Sept. 15 (Xinhua) — Chinese-made products are growing in popularity in markets throughout Somalia, particularly in Mogadishu’s main Bakara market, the largest in the whole of the horn of Africa nation.

Many business people at the Bakara market say they have office sand agents in China who coordinate their imports mainly through the United Arab Emirates, where smaller ships that can risk Somalia’s pirate-infested waters are available.

The popularity of Chinese products with traders is very visible in most Somali markets where almost all the construction materials, electronics, telecommunications equipment and textiles are imported from the east Asian economic giant.

Osman Haji, a trader in Bakara, says most of the products in the market and his shop are imported from China.

“Generally most of the products at this market are imported from China and in my shop here I have many of them including this shampoo, battery brand White Elephant, these flip-flops, these gums and also these plastic bags and these padlocks, are also imported from China” Osman told Xinhua.

Traders at the market say they sell mainly Chinese-made products of various kinds because that is just what their costumers want.

A toy trader in Bakara market says they like to sell what the people want and that is Chinese-made products.

“This toy helicopter is from China. There are also toy guns, toy mobiles, balloons. We sell Chinese made products because of their low price and good quality,” said the trader.

Abdi Sheikh Abdule, owner of Tawakal Electronics, the largest electronics seller in the market, says facilities provided to businesses in Somalia by the Chinese government makes it also easy for traders to import products from China.

“We import almost all our goods from China where I regularly travel. We import from China mainly because first there is good access to the country as we can get visas in the shortest possible time. Secondly, the price of the products are affordable for most people here. And thirdly, the quality of the Chinese products are, unlike before, very excellent,” Abdule said.

Somali government on Monday hailed its trade ties with China and invited Chinese companies to invest in the country once peace and security is established.

However, the Somali government acknowledges that the trade between the two countries is currently “one-way,” while Somalia, which has been through nearly two decades of chaos, exports practically nothing to China.

But Somalia says things could change once the war-torn country is stable and peaceful when the Somali business community would be able to export all the country’s produce, mainly fishery and agriculture products to China.


Source: XINHUA

C-Link cell Phone company set assembly facility in Kigali China link

Sinopharm Medicine Holding Co.Ltd Guangzhou Co

Li & Fung on A Roll 44 offices in 30 countries Sporting Goods toys Fashion etc
International business
By A Aswathappa

China in Africa
By Chris Alden, International African Institute, Royal African Society

China Medical and Pharmaceutical Industry Handbook Volume.1 Strategic ...
By Usa Ibp Usa

In Guangzhou, there are about 200,000 Africans, increasing 30-40% every year.

first stop being Canaan clothing market [Clothes Trading Center].

In Xiaobei, not far from the trading market, is Guangzhou’s largest African neighborhood.

The expansion of the African’s export business has also spawned African restaurants, African logistics, African intermediaries and other supporting businesses. African businessmen have also brought African laborers and African service staff. Photo is of locals who are no longer unused to seeing Africans.

A pair of blue jeans can be had for as little as 15 Chinese yuan, the equivalent of $2.45, he says. These he can sell right here at his stall for 28 yuan, or about $4.60.

But back home they can fetch as much as 45 yuan or $7.35, maybe even more.


Tigmax generator Chines made used in Africa

Kenya Kirloskar of India Made Power Generators produce 20-Kilowatt generator costing $7000 or 1/2 million K.Shiling

Kirloskar Cummins
Kirloskar brothers Pumps LTD and Mysore Kirloskar LTD machine tools

Egypt Water Pumps Dominated by Italian Co. Calpeda home use water pumps 100,000 pumps 7 million
Web: Calpeda SpA Via Roggia di Mezzo 39 I-36050 Montorso Vicentino -Vicenza Italy Tel: 0444 476476 Fax: ... Web: Caprari SpA Via Emilia Ovest 900 1-41100 Modena Italy Tel: 059 897611 Fax: 059 ...

Kirloskar builds water pumps also Kirloskar Kenya Limited

Motors to Drive Maize mills in kenya and Centrifugal pumps for Irrigation is about $10 million

-Handbook of pumps and pumping
By Brian Nesbitt

-India's industrialists, Volume 1
By Margaret Herdeck, Gita Piramal

Water purification and Mineral Water


Ponds facial producs
National Star TV Africa

Anti mosquito Doom netting, Mosqi chips, odourless Doom
Fair and Lovely

Auto Parts
Wholesalers -Trade Companies-Manufactures
Custom Clearence

Tetra Brik Aseptic Equipment To make Juice

AFrica Novartis, Unilever, and Dangote

Aliko Dangote, President / CEO
Dangote Sugar
Dangote Salt
Petit Tomato Paste
Dangote Cement
Dangote Sacks
Dangote Macaroni
Mowa Water
Dangote Flour
Dangote Spaghetti
Ziza Milk
Dansa Juice
Dangote Noodles

------------------------------------------------------- (Indian Market)

EMS electronic manufacturing service providers

*Printed circuitboards for larger industries

-Kaynes Technology
- Celestica
Indian Pharma Companies
Dr Reddy's Laboratories
USV Limited
Low cost Generic Medicines
Reliance Industries

-Federations of Indian Exporters

-Indian Electronic Manufactures like Su-Kam, Microtek and Luminous

Wells Diary
Warburg Pincus
Tanishq Jeweler
-Wholesalers of Spices
-Reliance Retailer
-Niraj Rohtagi Textil wholesaler
-Orchard 24FE Farm Tractor

-TMA International Shoes and Handicrafts

-Morabad India Bike and Steel Industries (aluminum)

-CL Exports Moradabad artefacts

-Ludhiana India's Bicyle Capital

Culture and economy in the Indian diaspora By Bhikhu C. Parekh, Gurharpal Singh, Steven Vertovec

Ajanta Pharma
MEDIA Industrial Building
Tel : (230) 283 0334 , 283 6591 , 283 2169
Fax : (230) 283 1172
e-mail :

Quality that heals. This is the core of any APML product that meets the world class standard. It is this quality that makes physicians across Africa recommend our product and has helped us establish ourselves in various therapeutic segments.

Our core therapeutic segments include Anti-malarials, Antibiotics, Anti-HIV, Antibiotics/Anti-bacterials, Anti-tubercular, and Ortho-Rheumatologic range. The range covers not only a particular disease, but also the entire therapy management. Besides existing products, research and development is in full swing to evolve Novel Drug Delivery Systems (NDDS) and Novel fixed Dose formulations in various therapeutic segments.

In a world driven by knowledge economy, our winning formula is the route of patents, which adds to our advantage. Our proactive approach and creativity has resulted in grant of 6 International patents for our products with another 17 in the pipeline. Our prime shift has been from business orientation to brand marketing. The uniqueness of the formulations coupled with innovative marketing strategies assured ready acceptance.

Brands like Cetazone, Tyflox, Combimal and Apdyl-H have gained instant acceptance in markets across the countries of West and Central Africa.

Our innovation is not restricted to product differentiation alone, but it extends to the overall quality of the product, including attractive and durable packaging. What's more, our recent breakthroughs have been in the category of NDDS formulations in the untapped areas enabling us to launch products for the first time in the world.

Our marketing policies dictate that every business associate and every customer, regardless of the size of the transaction, is important to us. At Ajanta Pharma, a Contended Customer is a priceless asset for tomorrow.

Asian Paints
Arvind Overseas Ltd (denim fabrics)
Crains Technologies
Pentafour International
Indian oil

1)Shopping Trends Neilson

2)Directory of United States importers

A List of U.S. importers and the products they import. The main company listing is geographic by state while products are listed by Harmonized Commodity Codes. There are also alphabetical company and product indexes.

The Canton Fair in Guangzhou, Guangdong is Largest China Trade Fair

Chines Torch Program
Chines Companies
CSMC Corporation
TCL Corp purchase IBM Micro Comp
Lenovo Group Thomson Group TV

China 5 Largest auto parts exporter
Visteon Corp
Asimco Tech LTD
Haier Group leading goods Manufacturer refrigerators Telecom equip with 3Com U.S

Garment Trader Nanjing, in Jiangsu Province Also Fujian

TV makers Konka Electronics, Skyworth, Changhong Electronics and

TCL Thompson France also sell as RCA-associated Schneider Electronics

Konka Electronics India Co. LTd Joint with Indian Co. Hotline
Qiangjiang Group Largest Motorcyle manufacturer owns now italian Benelli

Volkswagen China success with Santana (bulk of taxis are Santanas-joint-venture with Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive

Volkswagen ( Santana)
Volkswagen ( Polo, Touareg, Tiguan, Bora, Golf, Jetta, Sagitar, Magotan)

Thermax India boilers maker
China Mobile
P&G China
byd batttery rechargeable for mobiles
Motorola China
Sichuan Changhong Electric group


Carrefour china

Tigmax generator

Langsha Group Largest Sock maker in China Walmart Supplier

TCL largest TV Supplier to Walmart

Guangdong Korean Companies-Shenzhen

The rise of China and India: what's in it for Africa? By Andrea E. Goldstein, Helmut Reisen, Organisation for conomic Co-operation and Development. Development Centre


Dr Reddy's Laboratories
Ranbaxy 11th largest in the World

Ajanta Pharma opened a Plant in Mauritius
Uganda Chines antimalaria Pharm and supply treated bed nets

South African companies Sappia, Iscor Naspers, ABSA, POLIFIN

----------------------------------------------- connects buyers with Factories in china

Africa rising: how 900 million African consumers offer more than you think
By Vijay Mahajan

E-Store is an international trade enabler based in Hong Kong. Our objective is to be the pre-eminent provider of comprehensive on-line and off-line integrated marketing solutions and management automation services to assist SMEs. That way, they can generate and transform trade leads into transactions in a cost-effective, timely and efficient manner.

In addition to its headquarters in Hong Kong, E-Store currently has 9 offices in the PRC with a total staff of 500. Existing offices include Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Fuzhou, Dongguan, Jiangmen, Xiamen, Beijing and Qingdao.

E-Store generates over 30,000 inquiries each month, with a buyer community of over 350,000 from over 200 countries. Using our proprietary e-IMS messaging system, our sellers dispatched over 400,000 e-catalogues and newsletters a month. More than 4,000 buyers and sellers meet in our offices face to face to examine product samples, negotiate contracts and carry out business deals, making us the trade enabler of first choice in the region.

About the E-Store
E-Store is the largest b2b search engine marketing Platform. E-Store helps the global buyers to source qualified products & suppliers, and also helps the global suppliers to find the buyers and buying leads.E-Store aimed at helpling purchaser to reduce the risk of sreening potential partners, avoid purchasing risk and accelerate the selection of top suppliers in a fast and precise manner.

China company Information

See Ali Baba too.

How are E-Store work?
First, we verify through manual work that manufacturers listed are reliable. Then, we will use our CR evaluation system in combination of sales records to rank them. The final ranking will be determined by factors such as products’verification certificate and the richness of relevant information.

E-Store's Mission
E-Store has been sparing no efforts in becoming the most reliable B2B enterprise search platform for Chinese suppliers and international pruchasers in international trade.

Active Participation
E-Store is open to all the companies looking for global business. It allows members to directly manage their online product catalogs composed of up-to-date product information. The number of inquiries exchanged is over 30,000 cases per month, and lots of trade deals are concluded everyday.

Comprehensive and Powerful System

Based on our experiences in the field of internet trade since 1996, E-Store understands exactly what suppliers and buyers want. With its user-friendly system and powerful features, E-Store provides effective tools to lead your companies to success in global business.

Massive Number of Users

E-Store currently holds hundreds of thousands of suppliers and buyers from 240 countries as its members, and the number of members is rapidly growing. More than 1million business people are visiting E-Store Web site every month to find their business partners.

A combination of technology and human endeavors results in effective international trade.

The "Pre-emptive Strikes" and "Thorough Follow-through" approaches are all about human contact - essentials to any business activity. Since 1996, we have been actively creating opportunities for direct contact between buyers and sellers via various services at exhibitions and procurement meetings to embrace our concept.

Today, a great number of sellers follow E-Store's business philosophy and have accordingly grown in step with E-Store over the years. We consider it our responsibility to stay abreast of trends in international trade, stay ahead of the game and pass on our know-how to our partners.

Company Profile

Amoi Technology Co.,Ltd was set up by Sichuan Jiuzhou Electronics Group Co., Ltd, CASREV fund and elite management team. We hold "Amoi" trademark, patent, 95% stake of Xiamen Amoi Mobile Communications Co., Ltd, software and management system from original Amoi Electronics and the production and testing equipment associated with the mobile phone business.

Established in August 1981, Amoi has been dedicated to integrate the most cutting-edge wireless technology into fashion phones since our initial establishment. Right from 2002, we have synchronized to follow up the three major 3G standards (WCDMA, EVDO and TD-SCDMA), and continue to invest R&D resources to a vast area of 3G research and development accumulation. Amoi has 145 patents and 45 software copyrights, living in a leading position of research and development capabilities in Chinese mobile phone industry. Our brand value has been ranking in the forefront of "500 most valuable brands in China,"

Amoi technology will be adhering to the "Pioneering, innovative, faith and sharing" business philosophy, focusing on the 3G mobile product development and brand marketing, and provide consumers with fashion mobile terminal products with high technology. In the future, Amoi technology will also have selective access to the relevant consumer electronics, striving to become the leader in the field of consumer electronics along with mobile communications industry prosperity!

ntroduction of Ningbo Bird Company

Ningbo Bird is a high technology company established in October 1992, recognized by the State Ministry of Science & Technology and by Chinese Academy of Sciences, headquartered in Fenghua, Zhejiang Province. Bird is listed on the stock market exchange in China. As one of the largest mobile phone companies, Bird produces primarily mobile phones, palm computers and system equipments.

Bird has a total of 30 branches, 400 site offices and 15,000 sales agencies, with 2400 repair centers to cover all over the provinces, cities, counties and towns of China.

Bird has established five research centers in the city of Hangzhou, Chongqing and Ningbo, supported by a strong research team of 600 post PhDs, PhDs and masters. Every year, Bird uses 6% of the revenue for developing the outstanding advanced technology mobile communication products. In 2005, Bird first integrated the advanced technology to introduce the MP4 series of mobile phones, combining the entertainment technologies of cameras, videos, music playing and movies viewing functions, which are one more massive upgrade in design after the MP3 series.

About the quality assurance, Bird has established a high quality assurance system and passed the ISO9001 in 1999, acquired the 2000 version of ISO9001 quality certificate in July 2002. At the mean time, Bird is working on the ISO14000 environment system certification. There are many awards given to Bird such as “Customer Satisfied Brand Name Award”, “Customer Satisfied Appearance Design Award” and “Customer Satisfied Functional Innovation Award”. In 2005, Bird won the four CCID major mobile phone awards of “Customer Satisfied Brand Name”, Customer Satisfied”, “Customer Satisfied quality” and “Customer Satisfied Mobile phone Entertaining”

While Bird is the leading mobile phone manufacturer in China, Bird is also exporting to the international markets for 60 countries including: France, Italy, Europe countries, Russia, India, Mexico and Brazil and more. In 2005, Bird has won the “Oversea Market Developing Achievement Award” from the sixth CCID Chinese consumer product survey.

In 2005, Bird reached the total number of 13.93 million mobile phones sales and won the sixth consecutive year of highest products selling award, the exporting 6.11 million mobile phones, equivalent to over 60% of the total country mobile phones export quantities.

Bird maintains and persists to recruit talentedpeople with ambition to produce mobile phones with advanced technologies and outstanding design concepts to serve the aggressive appetite of the market place. In its mission of “Gathering worldwide talents in the exploration of the mobile communications market while developinginnovative products and services to rise as the first class international brand of the world”, and, giving full play to its advantages in marketing, production and management, etc., Bird strives to establish as the top-ranking communications device manufacturer in the world, becoming the “communication elite serving for the perfect ever communication among people of a new age”.

Company Name :

Guangzhou Lijing Electronics Technology Co., Ltd.

Country/Region :

China (Mainland)

Province :


City :


Address :

Room 218, No. 298, Xian Lie East Road, Tianhe District

Phone :


Fax :


Mobile :


Website :

Mobile phones & accessories: supplier capability in mainland China and Taiwan
By Global Sources (Firm


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Factory Locations



BenQ Corporations subcompanies

1)soho phone system

2)Digital Media

3) Imaging Network

BenQ (M.E.) FZE
P.O. Box 115281
Dubai – United Arab Emirates

Location Address :

Office # 511, 5th Floor, Building # East 3 (E3)
Dubai Airport Free Zone
Al Ghusais, Dubai

Contact Details:

Tel # +971 4 2991000
Fax # +971 4 2990808
Toll free # 800 2367 (BenQ)

website :

Email :

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Economy of Nigeria
[edit] References1.^ "The World's Billionaires #51 Aliko Dangote". 3, March 2011. Retrieved 2010-04-11.
2.^ "Aliko Dangote: The Ultimate Volume Player". Newswatch (Lagos). 29 June 1998. Retrieved 2010-03-02.
3.^ Dangote Group's Cement Operations Spans Six African Countries
4.^ Forbes Names Dangote Richest African, This Day March 7, 2008
5.^ Serafin, Tatiana. Forbes.
6.^ Aliko Dangote Poised To Buy Stake In English Soccer Club
7.^ "Nigerian plays down Arsenal link". BBC News. 2010-05-24.
[edit] External linksNigerian wealth fails to trickle down
Dangote Sugar, Most Capitalised Company
Aliko Dangote: The Ultimate Volume Player

Minolta Co., Ltd.'s
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Leica (17)
Rovershot (16)
Agfaphoto (14)
Minox (14)
Hasselblad (13)

***Asia's star brands
By Paul Temporal

Hewlett Packard, VAIO, Gateway, Dell, Toshiba, Asus, and Samsung


Ningbo Bird Co., Ltd. was established in 1992 as a specialized manufacturer of mobile telephones, handheld computers, and repeaters. For the last decade, Bird has been the paradigm of innovation and determination within the Chinese mobile telecommunication industry. We have grown to become the leading domestic brand by achieving astonishing sales results, surpassing all foreign brands in 2003 to become the top mobile phone supplier to the Chinese market.

In the past 12 years, Bird has adopted a two-fold, technical development strategy in order to improve research and development. First, we have set up research operations with such manufacturers as Siemens, Broadcom, Motorola, and Philips. Second, a joint venture R&D institute with Sagem of France has also been initiated. Currently, our annual R&D budget is over 6% of total turnover. We maintain five research institutes located throughout China, supported by a team of over 500 staff, including Ph.D and Masters recipients, as well as foreign experts. Since the third quarter of 2002, two thirds of all our products have been independently designed by Bird.

We at Bird firmly believe that the quality of our products is the foundation for future development and growth. Our company maintains six departments under the independent, quality management committee which oversees quality control in R&D, raw material purchasing, production, and after-sales service. In 1999, Bird received ISO9001 certification and recently obtained ISO14001 environmental management system authentication. As proof of our commitment to quality, in 2003 Bird was awarded the prestigious honor of "Famous Chinese Brand of 2003".

We welcome all companies to contact us for business negotiations and look forward to working with you in the near future.


Established in 1999, Guangzhou Ludan Leather Co., Ltd. is a manufacturer of mobile phone cases.

Located in the city of Guangzhou, we own a medium scale manufacturing facility covering 8,000 square meters, where we employ nearly 800 employees including 100 professional technicians.

Accordingly, we have a monthly production of 1,000,000 mobile phone cases per year. Additionally, we are a preferred manufacturer of cases for many well-known mobile phone companies, such as Nokia, TCL and Panasonic.

Adhering to the principle of "quality and customer first", we are committed to delivering high-quality products, world-class customer service and competitive prices. As a result, we export approximately 80% of our mobile phone cases overseas to Europe, America, the Middle East and Southeast Asia.

Therefore, if high quality mobile phone cases and first-class designs are what you are looking for, then we are ready to fulfill all your OEM and ODM needs. We sincerely invite all interested companies both at home and abroad to contact us for more information.

About Us

Ningbo Bird Co., Ltd. was established in 1992 as a specialized manufacturer of mobile telephones, handheld computers, and repeaters. For the last decade, Bird has been the paradigm of innovation and determination within the Chinese mobile telecommunication industry. We have grown to become the leading domestic brand by achieving astonishing sales results, surpassing all foreign brands in 2003 to become the top mobile phone supplier to the Chinese market.

In the past 12 years, Bird has adopted a two-fold, technical development strategy in order to improve research and development. First, we have set up research operations with such manufacturers as Siemens, Broadcom, Motorola, and Philips. Second, a joint venture R&D institute with Sagem of France has also been initiated. Currently, our annual R&D budget is over 6% of total turnover. We maintain five research institutes located throughout China, supported by a team of over 500 staff, including Ph.D and Masters recipients, as well as foreign experts. Since the third quarter of 2002, two thirds of all our products have been independently designed by Bird.

We at Bird firmly believe that the quality of our products is the foundation for future development and growth. Our company maintains six departments under the independent, quality management committee which oversees quality control in R&D, raw material purchasing, production, and after-sales service. In 1999, Bird received ISO9001 certification and recently obtained ISO14001 environmental management system authentication. As proof of our commitment to quality, in 2003 Bird was awarded the prestigious honor of "Famous Chinese Brand of 2003".

We welcome all companies to contact us for business negotiations and look forward to working with you in the near future.

Foreign Suppliers

1)Trade Publications and Magazines that Target Import & Exporters to find Suppliers and Manufacturers

2)Local Development Councils and Corporations

3) American Association of Exporters and Importer and likes of American Importers Association.

4) Professional Association of Exporters and Importers

5) Customs Broker

USA Trade

The US Internationa Trade in Goods and Services Report

Interational Trade Adminstration

USA Small Business Adminstration

USA dept of Commerce

Shenzhen Zhongben Security Electronic Co.,Ltd

3.0" TFT 12MP Digital Camcorder with Solar Panel Black DVT90

China's electronics industry: the definitive guide for companies and policy ...
By Michael Pech

Sanyo is also producing stereos in Ghana, Nigeria, Canada, the Philipines, Malaysia and Kenya. Sony since autumn last year has been producing stereo components and players at its plant in San Diego, Calif. As of March this year, ...

Ghana Lever Brothers

Nestle Co

Pfizer in

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International Group est. by Sanyo to handle sales and marketing Sanyo Sales and Marketing Co LTD


Onyx Dragon Android

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Vivistar 3.6 Inch
Soma - 3G Android
Condor - Android

BOE Technology Hydis LCD manufacturer

legend Group LimitdLenovo Legend Brand Personal Computer
As most of us already know Lenovo is a China-based multinational computer technology corporation. Formally known as Legend, Lenovo acquired the former IBM PC Division in the year 2005. This acquisition marked as the official start point for the company’s global expansion.
Yue-Sai Cosmetics
L'oreal China

Import/Export For Dummies
By John J. Capela

Guangdong Hong Kong

Fujian (Xiamen) area
Heritage Link Brands

Sanyo Electronics Co.


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