BOQORTOOYADA AKISHO ALI MADAXWEYNE DIR
Waa boqortooyo hore oo xoogaha aad moodo baryahan danbe in xoogeedi wiiqmay qaar badana ay konfurta, galbeedka, iyo waqooyiga Itoobiya ku kala firdhatay. Qaar kalen galbeedka Somaliya iyo waqooyiga ay u kala kaceen. Beelo fara badan ayaa Akisho ku abtirsada qaar badan xitaa aan Akisho la moodin sida Obo, Guure, iyo beelo kale.
Magaca Akisho waxaa lagu macneeyaa kii cayilnaa oo afka oromada lagu dhaho (Ayisho) waa naaneys, Sida Gurgurahaba uu magaciisu naaneys macnaheedu tahay (Ganacsade) oo af Somaligii hore la dhihi jiray Gurgure sida kalmada (Gorgortanba) ay halkaas ka soo jeedo. Itoobiyana Gurgure waxaa loo yaqaan ganacsatada afafka Harariga/Oromada.
Boqortooyoyinkii hore ee Gurgure-Layiile-Akisho waxaa ay u bax sheen magalada Diraa Dhabe (ama meeshii uu Dir Waranka ku dhuftay(Dhabey) qarnigii 1400. Akishada iyo Gurgurah iyo beelah Madaxweyne Direed waxaa ka dhashay boqortooyoyinkii Ifat--Adulis iyo waliba halyeeygii weynaa ee Axmed Gurey.
Tarikho hore oo tilmamaya ayaa jira in Boqoradii Caraweelo ay aheyd naag Akhisho. Labadii boqol ee sano ee la soo dhafay hase ahaatee boqortoyadii akisho waxaa ku dhacay dib u dhac iyo burbur.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Akisho (var. Akisha, Akishe; also known as Gurre) is a Somali subclan, part of the larger Dir group whose members live in Ethiopia and northern Somalia. The Akisho are a subclan of the Ali Madaxweyn Dir, and they are reputed to be descendants of the eldest sons of the Madaxweyn Dir.
Akisho is one of the oldest clans in the Horn of Africa. According to Somali history, two of the oldest monarchies in the region, the Ifat and Adal Sultanates, were Akisho. However, the inhabitants of the Ethiopian province/kingdom of Ifat spoke a South Semitic language related to Amharic.
The Akisho inhabit both Somaliland and Ethiopia. In Somaliland, Akisho members live in the southern Woqooyi Galbeed Province, Wajaale, Ala’ibaday, and Gabiley. In Ethiopia, where the Akisho are the most widespread Somali group, Akisho members inhabit Jijiga, Baale (Nagelle), Baabule, Fayaanbiiro, Qabri-Bayah, Fiq, Hara-Maaya, Harar, and Dadar.
Akisho members are predominantly adherents of Sunni Islam, though one might find a Christian Akisho in the Shewa area of Ethiopia. Other Akisho groups and their related clans are reputed to have migrated from Somali Ethiopian region all the way up North as far as the country Chad, the Sudan, and Northern Eritrea are said to be inhabited by these lost Dir groups.
The Akisho name is originally derived from "Cayisho" which means in old Somali the (Cayilsan) "Fat One", and in Oromo Akisho. Also the other nickname of the Akisho, Guure, is derived from one who doesn't "hear" because they did not speak the Oromo language when they settled among the Oromo of Bale and Arsi around 1600. Similarly, the Gurgure who are very closely related to the Akisho, use a nickname and were referred to the Oromo and Somalis as the traders or Gurgure from the old Somali and Oromo word "gorgortan" which means one who sales and trades.
According to the folklore historians of the Southern Suure Dir of the Mudug region, the Akisho and the Gurgure madahweyne Dir produced some of the most famous Somali folk heroes like the Somali queen Araweelo who was Warre Miyo. Also the Akisho and Gurgure clans were instrumental in spreading the Muslim faith in the hinterlands of Ethiopia. The Sheikh Abba Hussein in Southern Ethiopia is said to be of Dir, as well as Awbarkadleh and Awbuube who are two major saints of the Somalis.
The Warre prefix in front of many Akisho clans names means "the Clan of" or reer (WaaReer) in proper Somali. For example, the Warre Miyo are referred to Reer Miiyo in Somalia, but Warre Miyo in Ethiopian Somali and Oromo regions. Other clans related to the Aksiho are the Gariire, Warre Dayo,Gurgure, Layiile, and Aw Said's of Lower Jubba.
The Akisho (Gurre) clan consists of 12 major subclans:
Somaliland: The Akisho[Akesho]: whether they live in the town of Gebileh, their relationship with Isaaks and whether they have political representation in the current government
The information in contained in this Response was provided by Matt Bryden, a consultant and Somali specialist now working with the United Nations Institute for Research on Social Development (UNRISD) in Nairobi (16 June 1998). He stated that the Akisho "are related to (if not part of) the Dir clan family, and live mainly between Jigjiga [in Ethiopia] and Hargeysa, where they tend to live in a somewhat subordinate status to the majority clans, although in Somaliland they have been awarded a seat in the constituent assembly. They face no general threat of persecution in any of the areas in which they live." The Research Directorate was unable to corroborate the Akisho's participation in the constituent assembly nor whether they face "persecution."
According to the Ethiopian Review the Akisho may be more numerous in Ethiopia than they are in Somalia (30 Apr. 1996). For additional information on the Dir clan and the Akisho sub clan, please consult Patrick Gilkes' The Price of Peace: Somalia and the United Nations 1991-1994 pages 144-148, and the appendix of Somali clan families.
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum.
Bryden, Matt. UNRISD, Nairobi. 16 June 1998. Letter received by electronic mail.
Gilkes, Patrick. September 1994. The Price of Peace: Somalia and the United Nations 1991-1994. Bedfordshire, UK: Save the Children Fund, UK.
Additional Sources Consulted
Africa Confidential [London]. January - May 1998. Vol. 39. Nos. 1-11.
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