General Information on the Jido
Culture-specific information on the Jido of Somalia (various spellings include Jiido, Jiddo, Jiiduu) was sparse among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within time constraints. According to the Global IDP [Internally Displaced Peoples] Project, the Jido are a sub-clan of the Digil clan, one of the six major clans in Somalia (2003). Other groups belonging to the Digil clan, according to the Global IDP Project, are the Geledi, Shanta Aleen, Bagadi, Garre, Tuni, and Dabarend (2003). An author specializing in world languages indicated that, in 1998, there were approximately 20,000 people belonging to the Jiiddu ethnic group in Somalia (approximately 0.2 per cent of the national population), whose mother tongue is Jiiddu (Leclerc 7 Aug. 2004). Sources also indicated that the Jido have a sultan (Ayaamaha 28 Mar. 2002; ibid. 22 May 2000).
Inter- and Intra-Clan Relations
Various sources reported on tense relations between the Jido and Gare clans in the summer of 2000 (Xog-Ogaal 19 June 2000; ibid. 24 June 2000; Qaran' 29 June 2000) and again in the winter of 2002 (AFP 23 Jan. 2002). While one source indicated that the "Garre" were a sub-clan of the same Digil clan as the Jido (Global IDP Project 2003). Aence France-Presse (AFP) stated that the Jido are a subgroup of the Dir clan, whereas the "Garre" form a part of the greater Hawiye clan (23 Jan. 2002). Clashes between the Jido and the Gare which began in 2000, after allegations of stolen cattle, resulted in 16 deaths as well as the apparent murder of a Jido man (Xog-Ogaal 19 June 2000). Further fighting resulted in the death of at least 30 people from both groups (ibid.). All the fighting took place in the Qoryooley District of southern Somalia (Project Ploughshares 24 June 2000; Xog-Ogaal 24 June 2000).
By 29 June 2000, the two groups had signed a cease-fire agreement after encouragement from Islamic courts (Qaran' 29 June 2000). A commission charged with overseeing the cease-fire between the Jido and Gare groups aided the repatriation of 150 families to their dwellings after they had fled the earlier clashes (Xog-Ogaal 13 Jul. 2000). However, three days later, a Somali newspaper reported that the cease-fire seemed to be collapsing as renewed hostilities, in the form of looting, followed the theft of 800 cattle and 200 camels (Qaran' 16 July 2000). The hostilities forced residents of several villages to flee their homes in search of safety (ibid.).
In October 2000, the Somali newspaper Xog-Ogaal reported that 11 people had died when members of the Jido group "ambushed a group of farmers from various clans, including the Abgal, Habargedir, Bagadi, Gaalje'el and Mirifle," again in the Qoryooley District (23 Oct. 2000). According to the Global IDP Project, the Abgal, Habargedir, and Gaalje'el all belong to the Hawiye clan (2003). The fighting between the two sides, purportedly over land ownership, involved "gun-mounted [pick-up] vehicles" (Xog-Ogaal 23 Oct. 2000).
According to one source, between 12 and 24 people were killed and between 27 and 37 were injured in an armed conflict that took place in January 2002 between the Jido and Gare (AFP 27 Jan. 2002). Another report mentioned a fight that involved the Jido and the Rer Shabelle (IRIN 24 Jan. 2002). While all reports seemed to be referring to the same conflict, it was unclear if the Gare and the Rer Shabelle were the same group. The flare-up between the Jido and Gare happened after Gare cattle strayed on to Jido land (AFP 23 Jan. 2002). Sources indicated that at least five children (AFP 23 Jan. 2002) and two women drowned in the Shabelle River while trying to escape the fighting (ibid. 27 Jan. 2002; IRIN 24 Jan. 2002). One source indicated that "the villages of Bandar (Rer Shabelle) and Dharshinley (Jido) were burned" and that the resulting smoke could be seen from "seven kilometres away" (IRIN 24 Jan. 2002).
A report summarizing the results of a joint Danish, Finnish, Norwegian, and British fact-finding mission to Nairobi in January 2004, published by the Danish Immigration service in March 2004, contained the following information:
Dr. Osman Kamula Mofi, chairman of the Somali International Organization for Human Rights and a human rights lawyer in Somalia, expressed deep concern over the security and human rights situation in Lower Shabelle. Mofi described a November 2003 incident in the Qoryooley District of southern Somalia in which armed members of the Abgal and Haber Gedir (whom the Global IDP Project had identified in 2003 as belonging to the Hawiye clan) took control of an area belonging to the Jido. Mofi indicated that the Jido were used as "forced labour" by the Habr Gedir (Habargedir, Haber Gedir) and Abgal, to whom Jido had to give up their land. Mofi also stated that these farmers had no access to legal measures to regain their land. Additional sources corroborating the findings of this report could not be found within time constraints.
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
Agence France-Presse (AFP). 27 January 2002. "Inter-Clan Violence Leaves 24 Dead in Somalia." (Dialog)
_____. 23 January 2002. "Inter-clan Fighting Kills 16 in Somalia." (Dialog)
Ayaamaha [Mogadishu, in Somali]. 22 May 2000. "Somalia: Southern Clans Disagree on Representation in Djibouti Conference." (BBC Monitoring/Dialog)
_____. 28 March 2002. "Somalia: Red Cross Donates Relief Supplies to Victims of Inter-Clan Fighting" (BBC Monitoring/Dialog)
Denmark. March 2004. Immigration Service. Human Rights and Security in Central and Southern Somalia: Joint Danish, Finish, Norwegian and British Fact-finding Mission to Nairobi, Kenya 7-21 January 2004.
Global IDP Project of Norwegian Refugee Council [Geneva]. 2003. "Lineage Identity is Central Organizing Force in Somalia."
Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN). 24 January 2002. "Somalia: 12 Killed in Southern Clashes."
Leclerc, Jacques. 7 August 2004. L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde. "Somalie."
Project Ploughshares. November 2004. Armed Conflict Report 2004 – Somalia.
Qaran' [Mogadishu, in Somali]. 16 July 2000. "Somalia: Villagers Fleeing Southern Districts in Fear of Renewed Clan Fighting." (BBC Monitoring/Dialog)
_____. 29 June 2000. "Somalia: Warring Clans in Southcentral District Sign Cease-Fire Agreement." (BBC Monitoring/NEXIS)
Xog-Ogaal [Mogadishu, in Somali]. 23 October 2000. "Somalia: Eleven People Die in Clashes Over Farms in the South." (BBC International Reports/Dialog)
_____. 13 July 2000. "Somalia: Some 150 Families Displaced by Fighting in South-Central Resettled." (BBC Monitoring/Dialog)
_____. 24 June 2000. "Somalia: Over 30 Somalis Killed in New Inter-Clan Fighting – Paper." (BBC Monitoring/Dialog)
_____. 19 June 2000. "Sixteen Killed in Somali Clashes." (BBC Monitoring/Dialog)
Additional Sources Consulted
Horn Relief Kenya did not respond to requests for information within time constraints.
Internet sites, including: Amnesty International (AI), Arabic News, European Country of Origin Information Network (ECOI), Freedom House, Horn Relief, Human Rights Watch (HRW), International Crisis Group (ICG), The Somaliland Times, Somalinet.com, Somali Press Online, United States Department of State, World News Connection (WNC).
Publications: Ethnic Groups Worldwide, Minority Ethnic Groups in Somalia, World Directory of Minorities.