Located in the Horn of Africa, adjacent to the Arabian Peninsula, Somalia is
steeped in thousands of years of history. The ancient Egyptians spoke of it as
"God's Land" (the Land of Punt). Chinese merchants frequented the Somali coast
in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and, according to tradition, returned
home with giraffes, leopards, and tortoises. Greek and Roman merchant ships
and Arab dhows plied the Somali coast. For them it formed the eastern fringe
of Bilad al-Sudan, or "the Land of the Blacks". More specifically, medieval Arabs
referred to the Somalis, along with related people, as the Berberi.
Still, it is unclear from this Arab reference who are the Somali people and
where they originated from. Due to a lack of written evidence of the early
history of the Samaal, numerous historical perspectives on their origins have
been presented. According to Arab historical sources, the ancestors of the
Somali people migrated south from the shores of the red sea into the Cushiticspeaking
Oromo region from approximately the tenth century, with the Oromos
displacing the Bantu-speaking people further south.
The expansion into the Somali peninsula as far as the Red Sea and Indian
Ocean put the Somalis in sustained contact with Persian and Arab immigrants
who had established a series of settlements along the coast. From the eighth to
the tenth centuries, Persian and Arab traders were already engaged in lucrative
commerce from enclaves along the Red Sea and Indian Ocean as far south as
the coast of present-day Kenya. The most significant enclave was the renowned
medieval emporium of Saylac on the Gulf of 'Aden. In the sixteenth century,
Saylac became the principal outlet for trade in coffee, gold, ostrich feathers,
civet, and Ethiopian slaves bound for the Middle East, China, and India. Over
time Saylac emerged as the center of Muslim culture and learning, famed for its
schools and mosques. Eventually, it became the capital of the medieval state of
Adal, which in the sixteenth century fought off Christian Ethiopian domination
of the highlands. Between 1560 and 1660, Ethiopian expeditions repeatedly
harried Saylac, which sank into decay. Berbera replaced Saylac as the northern
hub of Islamic influence in the Horn of Africa. By the middle of the sixteenth
century, both Saylac and Berbera had become dependencies of the Sharifs of
Mocha and in the seventeenth century passed to the Ottoman Turks, who
exercised authority over them through locally recruited Somali governors.
The history of commercial and intellectual contact between the inhabitants
of the Arabian and Somali coasts may help explain the Somali connection with
Islam. Early in the Prophet Muhammad's ministry, a band of persecuted Muslims
had, with the Prophet's encouragement, fled across the Red Sea into the Horn
of Africa. There the Muslims were afforded protection by the Ethiopian negus,
or emperor. Thus, Islam may have been introduced into the Horn of Africa
well before the faith took root in its Arabian native soil. .
Islam's penetration of the Somali coast, along with the immigration of Arabian
elements, inspired a second great population movement reversing the flow of
migration from north to south. This massive movement, which ultimately took
the Somalis to the banks of the Tana River and to the fertile plains of Harar,
in Ethiopia, began in the thirteenth century and continued to the nineteenth
In addition to southward migration, a second factor in Somali history from
the fifteenth century onward was the emergence of centralized state systems.
The most important of these in medieval times was the Sultanate of Adal, whose
influence at the height of its power and prosperity in the sixteenth century
extended from Saylac, the capital, through the fertile valleys of the Jijiga and the
Harar plateau to the Ethiopian highlands. The Sultanate of Adal's fame derived
not only from the prosperity and cosmopolitanism of its people, its architectural
sophistication, graceful mosques, and high learning, but also from its conflicts
with the expansionist Ethiopians.
For hundreds of years before the fifteenth century, good relations had existed
between the Muslims and Christian Ethiopia. One tradition holds that Prophet
Muhammad blessed Ethiopia and enjoined his disciples from ever conducting
Jihad (holy war) against the Christian kingdom in gratitude for the protection
early Muslims had received from the Ethiopian emperor. Whereas Muslim
armies rapidly overran the more powerful empires of Persia and Byzantium
soon after the birth of Islam, there was no Jihad conducted against Christian
Ethiopia for centuries.
However, Muslim-Christian relations soured during the reign of the
aggressive Emperor Yeshaq (ruled 1414-29). Forces of his rapidly expanding
empire descended from the highlands to attack Muslim settlements to the east
of the ancient city of Harar. Having branded the Muslims "enemies of the Lord,"
Yeshaq invaded the Muslim Kingdom of Ifat in 1415, killed its king, Sa'ad al-Din
compelled the Muslims to offer tribute, and also ordered his singers to compose
a hymn of thanksgiving for his victory. In the hymn's lyrics, the word Somali
appears for the first time in written record.
By the sixteenth century, the Sultanate of Adal was tributary to the
Ethiopians. By then, the Muslims had recovered sufficiently to break through
from the east into the central Ethiopian highlands. Led by Ahmad ibn Ibrahim
al-Ghazi (1506-43), nicknamed Gragn, or Guray in Somali (the left handed), the
Muslims poured into Ethiopia, using scorched-earth tactics that decimated the
population of the country and brought three-quarters of Ethiopia under the
power of the Sultanate of Adal between the years 1529 – 1543. In desperation,
the Ethiopians were forced to ask for help from the Portuguese, who landed
at the port of Massawa on February 10, 1541, during the reign of the emperor
Gelawdewos (1540 – 1559). Knowing that victory depended on the number of
firearms an army had, the Imam sent to his fellow Muslims for help. Imam
Ahmad received 2000 musketeers from Arabia, and artillery and 900 picked
men from the Ottomans to assist him. Finally, after suffering some defeats, the
joint Ethiopian-Portuguese force, drawing on the Portuguese supplies, attacked
Imam Ahmad on February 21, 1543 in the Battle of Wayna Daga, where their
9,000 troops managed to defeat the 15,000 soldiers under Imam Ahmad, who
was killed by a Portuguese musketeer.
This was the first conflict in the Horn of Africa that pitted Somalia and the
Arab world against Ethiopia and Muslims against Christians. Ethiopia, which
in that period was an island of Christianity encircled by Muslims, had no choice
but to ask for help from the closest Christians at hand, the Portuguese. By then,
the Portuguese ruled the Indian Ocean littoral and tried to dominate the Red
Sea. Imam Ahmad, however, asked for the Ottomans' help. Then, the Ottomans
ruled the Red Sea and struggled with the Portuguese over the domination over
the Indian Ocean and tried to prevent the penetration of the Portuguese into the
Thus, this regional war turned out to be another battlefield between the
Ottomans - who in the sixteenth century advanced in Europe until Vienna
and struggled with the Portuguese on the hegemony over the Red Sea and the
Indian Ocean and seemed to be unstoppable – and the Christian powers, who
tried to block its rapid advance, and, in this case, to prevent the fall of Christian
Ethiopia to the Muslims' hands.
In this sense, this conflict serves to illustrate the strategic location of Somalia
and the Horn of Africa and its growing importance in global affairs as from
the sixteenth century onwards following the expansionist policy of Ethiopia
towards the sea and the arrival of the European powers at the Indian Ocean.
Moreover, it must be mentioned that many modern Somali nationalists consider
Imam Ahmad Guray a national hero and the first great Somali nationalist, who
emerged on the scene just on time in order to defend the country from foreign
invaders like the Christian Ethiopians and the Portuguese.
Later on, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Omanis exercised
a shadowy authority over the Banaadir coast. Omani rule over the Somalis
consisted for the most part of a token annual tribute payment and the presence
of a resident qadi and a handful of askaris (territorial police). Whereas the
Banaadir coast was steadily drawn into the orbit of Zanzibari rulers, the northern
coast, starting in the middle of the eighteenth century, passed under the sharifs
of Mocha, who held their feeble authority on behalf of the declining Ottomans.
Ibrahim Ahmed Guray imam of Zaylca born in 1506 in the province of Howbât to the current Fiyanbiro a father born in the Tigray and converted to Islam and took to the Imam preceptor Candoleh a Somali Darod clan Berzoud. He is married to Dayl Wanberra the youngest daughter of Imam Osman Ladeh of Zayla Abgal clan. Ahmed Guray was struck in his ascension to Sultant Abu Bakr al Hachem supported by the pastoralist clans of Somali Marehans, whose faction is now Haber Magadleh dorsal spine
conférations the Issaq clan and Gadaboursi, Geri, Gurgura (Hawiyés)
the Jawtire, Bartirés, Bersouds, Mazarr and Harti all Darod clan. The Hawiyés abgal who doné a good part of the clan confération Issas, Harlas now divided between the Issas and the Darood. Shibab Ed Dinne of Harrar we relate this tasty slice of our past.
Madax weynah dalka Chad markii uu joogay magalada Xamar waxa uu u shhegay odeyash Gurgure in uu yahay nin Gurgura dir ah. Hussen Habri oo jamacada Somalia digan jiray markaa oo daganaa Hotel Taleex waxa keexeeyay odayaal Gurgure oo uu hogaminayo Maxamed oo Doolo xadka Ethiopia ayuu soo booqday rag Guurah ka mida. I was in mogadhsho in the 1980's and i met a Somali elders of the Dir clan who were in contact with the President of Chad Hussen Habre who was staying at Taleex Hotel in xamer and the president of Chad had these Dir guys who said they where Gurgura of the Dira Dhawa and i swear the President of Chad said to them that the Gurgura and the Garre where both p
Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi
Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi (c.1507 - February 21, 1543) was a Somali Imam and General who defeated several Ethiopian emperors and wreaked much damage on that nation. He is also known as Ahmad Gragn (or Gurey), "Ahmed the left-handed".
He was born near Zeila, a port city located in northwestern Somalia, and married Bati del Wambara, the daughter of governor Mahfuz of Zeila. When Mahfuz was killed returning from a campaign against the Ethiopian emperor Lebna Dengel in 1517, the Adal sultanate lapsed into anarchy for several years, until Imam Ahmad killed the last of the contenders for power and took control of Harar.
In retaliation for an attack on Adal in 1527-8 by the Ethiopian general Degalhan, Imam Ahmad invaded Ethiopia in 1529. Although his troops were fearful of their opponents, and attempted to desert upon news that the Ethiopian army was approaching, Imam Ahmad relied on his elite company armed with matchlocks, and defeated emperor Lebne Dengel at Shimbra Kure that March.1
Imam Ahmad campaigned again in Ethiopia in 1531, breaking Emperor Lebna Dengel's ability to resist in the Battle of Amba Sel on October 28, then marched north to loot the island monastery of Lake Hayq and the stone churches of Lalibela. When the Imam entered the province of Tigray, he defeated an Ethiopian army that confronted him there, and on reaching Axum destroyed the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion, in which the Ethiopian emperors had been coronated for centuries.
The Ethiopians were forced to ask for help from the Portuguese, who landed at the port of Massawa on February 10, 1541 in the reign of the emperor Gelawdewos. This force was led by Christovão da Gama, and included 400 musketeers and a number of artisans and other non-combatants. Da Gama and Imam Ahmad met on April 1, 1542 at Jarte, which Trimingham has identified with Anasa, between Amba Alagi and Lake Ashenge.2 Here the Portuguese had their first glimpse of Ahmad, as recorded by Castanhoso:
While his camp was being pitched, the king of Zeila [Imam Ahmad] acended a hill with several horse and some foot to examine us: he halted on the top with three hundred horse and three large banners, two white with red moons, and one red with a white moon, which always accompanied him, and which he was recognized.3
After the two unfamiliar armies exchanged messages then stared at each other for a few days, on April 4 da Gama formed his troops into an infantry square, and marched against the Imam's lines, repelling successive waves of attacks with their muskets and cannons. This battle ended when Imam Ahmad was wounded in the leg by a chance shot, and seeing his banners signal retreat, the Portuguese and their Ethiopian allies fell upon the disorganized Muslims, who suffered losses but managed to reform next to the river on the distant side.
Over the next several days, Imam Ahmad was reinforced by new arrivals of troops, and understanding the need to act swiftly on April 16 da Gama again formed a square which he led against Imam Ahmad's camp. Although the Muslims fought with more determination than two weeks before -- their horse almost broke the Portuguese square -- an opportune explosion of some gunpowder tramatized the horses on the Imam's side, and his army fled in disorder. Castanhoso laments that "the victory would have been complete this day had we only one hundred horses to finish it: for the King was carried on men's shoulders in a bed, accompanied by horsemen, and they fled in no order."4
Reinforced by the arrival of the Bahr Negash Yishaq, da Gama marched south after Imam Ahmad's force, reaching sight of him ten days later. However, the onset of the rainy season prevented da Gama from engaging Ahmad a third time, and on the advice of Queen Sabla Wengel made a winter camp at Wafla near Lake Ashenge, within sight of his opponent.5
Knowing that victory lay in the number of firearms an army had, the Imam sent to his fellow Muslims for help. According to Abbé Joachim le Grand, Imam Ahmad received 2000 musketeers from Arabia, and artillery and 900 picked men from the Ottomans to assist him. Meanwhile, due to casualties and other duties, da Gama's force was reduced to 300 musketeers. After the rains ended, Imam Ahmad attacked the Portuguese camp, and through weight of numbers killed all but 140 of da Gama's troops. Da Gama, badly wounded, was captured with ten of his men and, after refusing an offer of converting to Islam in return for his life, was executed.6
The survivors and Galawedos were afterwards able to join forces and, drawing on the Portuguese supplies, they attacked Ahmad on February 21, 1543 in the Battle of Wayna Daga, where their 9,000 troops managed to defeat the 15,000 soldiers under Imam Ahmad. The Imam was killed by a Portuguese musketteer, who was mortally wounded in avenging da Gama's death.
His wife Bati del Wambara managed to escape the battlefield with a remnant of the Turkish soldiers to Harar, where she rallied his followers. She agreed to marry his nephew Nur ibn Mujahid on the condition that Nur would avenge Imam Ahmad's defeat.
"In Ethiopia the damage which [Ahmad] Gragn did has never been forgotten," wrote Paul B. Henze. "Every Christian highlander still hears tales of Gragn in his childhood. Haile Selassie referred to him in his memoirs. I have often had villagers in northern Ethiopia point out sites of towns, forts, churches and monasteries destroyed by Gragn as if these catastrophes had occurred only yesterday."7 While acknowledging that many modern Somali nationalists consider Ahmad a national hero, Henze dismisses their claims, stating that the concept of a Somali nation did not exist during Ahmad's lifetime.
Ahmad's invasion of Ethiopia is described in detail in the Futuh al-habasa ("The Conquest of Ethiopia") written in Arabic by Ahmad's follower Sihab ad-Din Admad ibn 'Abd-al-Qadir, and covers the story up to March 19, 1537. This history was translated into French by René Basset, and Richard Pankhurst has made a partial translation into English.
Primary sources of the Portuguese expedition under Christovão da Gama have been collected and translated by R.S. Whiteway,The Portuguese Expedition to Abyssinia in 1541-1543, 1902 (Nendeln, Liechtenstein: Kraus Reprint Limited, 1967).
1. Futuh al-habasa, translated by Richard K. P. Pankhurst in The Ethiopian Royal Chronicles (Addis Ababa: Oxford University Press,1967), pp. 53f.
2. J. Spencer Trimingham, Islam in Ethiopia (Oxford: Geoffrey Cumberlege for the University Press, 1952), p. 173.
3. Translated in Whiteway,The Portuguese Expedition, p. 41.
4. Whiteway, The Portuguese Expedition, p. 51.
5. Whiteway, The Portuguese Expedition, p. 53.
6. Described in terms worthy of a saint's life by Jeronimo Lobo, who based his account on the testimony of an eye witness. (The Itinerário of Jerónimo Lobo, translated by Donald M. Lockhart [London: Hakluyt Society, 1984], pp. 201-217).
7. Paul B. Henze, Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia (New York: Palgrave, 2000), p. 90.
translation of the Arabic account on the campaigns of Imam Ahmad b. Ibrahim al-Ghazi (popularly known as Gran) as written by the Yemeni jurist, Shihab al-din Ahmad b. Abd al-Qadir b. Salim b. Uthman (also known as Arab Faqih)... it is a welcome addition to the rich corpus of Arabic literary and historical sources relevant to the sixteenth-century Ethiopia and the Horn. It is particularly useful for English-speaking researchers and established scholars who cannot read either the Arabic text or the authoritative French translation prepared by Rene Basset...both Stenhouse and Pankhurst, and the publisher, deserve high commendation, respectively, for producing such a valuable work that represents a major contribution to the history of Ethiopia and the Horn, and for making it available to the wider English-speaking readership and scholarship.
This was, however, far from the end of the story. The Imam was killed in battle on February 21, 1543, whereupon his army almost immediately disintegrated.
I.M Lewis, "The Somali Conquest of Horn of Africa," The Journal of African History, Vol. 1, No. 2. Cambridge University Press, 1960, pàgina 223.
A Pastoral Democracy
IM Lewis - 1999 - books.google.com
... Page 30. List of Maps List of Figures Map 1. Distribution of Somali clan-families
and conti- guous peoples. 9 Map 2. Topographical zones of Northern Somaliland. ...
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The triangle afare and united by their in Islam and their willingness to provide Africa all the attributes of modernity. The history of this Nation therefore boils down to this battle Shimbera Korey which takes place on March 17, 1529 near Addis and whose stake is the hégémonnie for dominance of the Horn of Africa.
The central hero of this event is Ibrahim Ahmed Guray imam of Zaylca born in 1506 in the province of Howbât to the current Fiyanbiro a father born in the Tigray and converted to Islam and took to the Imam preceptor Candoleh a Somali Darod clan Berzoud. He is married to Dayl Wanberra the youngest daughter of Imam Osman Ladeh of Zayla Abgal clan. Ahmed Guray was struck in his ascension to Sultant Abu Bakr al Hachem supported by the pastoralist clans of Somali Marehans, whose faction is now Haber Magadleh dorsal spine
conférations the Issaq clan and Gadaboursi, Geri, Gurgura (Hawiyés)
the Jawtire, Bartirés, Bersouds, Mazarr and Harti all Darod clan. The Hawiyés abgal who doné a good part of the clan confération Issas, Harlas now divided between the Issas and the Darood. Shibab Ed Dinne of Harrar we relate this tasty slice of our past.
"Abyssinians instructed as one man the right wing Muslims, who they bore the shock. Similarly, the right wing of the polytheists instructed the left wing of the Muslim compound tribes Somalies (then somali meant nomad) . Contingents from Tigray, vile patrices rushed to the centre where the imam had Guray. He and his companions were with the hearts and islamiqes energy Muslim. S'entrechoquèrent armies, swords were drawn, elongated spears, flags and banners made, the green banners of Islam floating in the wind, the dead s'entrechoquaient, horses hennissaient, dust was soulévée in abandance, sweat flowed on the chest warriors because of fracassants clash swords on shields and helmets in the two armies. The town crier was heard this proclammation: NATION of MOHAMED, a little patience! You will get much, Houris the black eyes are in the shadow of your swords. .. Patience! War deployed so that the dust grew, the Muslim does not recognize
plus his companion, nor the infidel's own, the brother did more brother ... the earth was covered with corpses ... the fight lasted from midmorning until the prayer of the Asr . And this was the dénoumlent grandiose. "
This victory left the exangue Ethiopia and partiquement defenceless. In fact, two years after that victory Guray excécution set the ambitious project to annex to Somalia in Ethiopia as a whole and its Islamization by fire and sword. that's what the members different Sufi brotherhoods called the "Great Idea" that of a Horn of Africa pacified by Somalis under the banner of Islam. The irony of fate willed that less than a century after the disastrous invasion of Awfat by troops ZARA JACOP and martyr to that population is Christians who in turn suffer the yoke of fierce ' Islam. The main stages of this epic were the Islamic uivantes: 1530 conquest by the Mujahidin of the Holocaust and Gondare and pacificifcation Amhara and the 1531 conquest of Tigray and the incident at the Cathedral of Aksum that Ethiopians still cry ' where their natural animosity towards Somalis and nomads.
That is the glorious history which postulates Djibouti at the dawn of the 21 st century. To develop our country, to spearhead the reunification of Somalia and the liberation of all communities musulmannes from the yoke of infidèles.Pour achieve Great Idea Nation of Mohamed, which was forged in fire and blood of the resistance Ethiopian crusades and finally defeated the old country needs all these gifted children capabilities, regardless of their clan or family.
AXMED GUREY MA DIRBUU AHAA MISE DAAROOD ?
Daaroodka waxa ay bilaabeen xiligii xukuumada Maxammed Siyaad Barre in ay sheegtaan Sheekh Axmed Ibraahim Geesi ama Axmed Gurey. Dhowr beelood oo ay ka mid yihiin beesha Mareexaan iyo Bartire oo ah beel Absame ayaa isku kalifay in ay sheegtaan Axmed Gurey. Hadaba Ma run baa arinkaasi ?
Mudane Dirsame Jawaab
Horta Somalidu waa dad faan jecel, Daroodkuna waa ugu sii xag jiraa. Laakin waa been iyo buuhu buuhaa ay fidsheen Daroodka arinta ah Axmed Gurey waa nin Darood ah. Sababtoo ah Daroodku wexey sheegteen in la yiraahdo Reer Darood Ismaaciil Jabarti oo uu dhalay sheekha caanka ah ee Ismaail Jabarti ee ku aasan Magaalada Zubeyda ee dalka Yaman oo dhintay qarnigii 1647.
Maadaama ay Daroodkoo dhami isku raacsanyihiin in uu dhalay carabkii Sheekhi Ismaaciil Jabarti ee dhintay 1647 taasi wexey kuu cadeyneysaa in uu Axmed Gureey noqon karin nin Darooda sababtoo ah xiligii uu dagaalka ku qaaday xabashida wexey ahayd 1549kii boqol sano ka hore intuunsan dhalan Isaaciil Jabarti
Daroodka waxbaa ka khaldan, Axmed Gurey wuxuu noolaa boqol sano ka hor intuunsan dhalan awoowgood Isaaciil Jabarti oo haddii aad cawa tagto magaalada Zubeyda waxaa ku yaala Misajidkuu ku asanyahay iyo qabrigii Isaaciil Jabarti oo tariikhduu dhashay oo aha 1593 wuxuuna dhintay 1647.
Waxa kale oo jirta taarikhda Axmed Gurey maaha tariikh la marin habaabinkaro oo habar walaboo Mareexaan ama Darood iska sheegan karto waxaa jira buug dhan oo Tariikhda Axmed Gurey ka hadlaya oo la Yiraahdo ” Fatuuh al Habash The Ethiopian Conquest”, buugan waxaa lagu qoray afka Carabiga waxaan qoruhu xaadir ka ahaa Dagaalki Axmed Ibraahim Gurey isagoo goobihii dagaalka oo dhan soo taagna ayuu wuxuu qoray buugan oo Faransis iyo afka Ingiriiskaba lagu durjubaanay oo mantana aad ka dalban karto Amazon.Com.
Hadaba haddii uu yahay Axmed Gurey Darood oo uu waliba ka sii yahay Mareexaan maxaa dhacay oo xukuumadii Siyad Barre ay u turjumi weyday ? Maxaa looga baqaa in Buugan la turjum siiba beesha Darood ay uga baqatay in Fatuh Al Habash ay u turjumaan?
Buugan waxaa ku qoron sir weyn oo ay beesha Mareexan ka baqatay oo ah xiligii Axmed Gurey beesha Mareexan wexey aheyd Dir!!! Haa beesha Mareexan waxaa ku qoran in ay Kamid ahayd beelweynta Habar Magaadle ama Isaaqa. Habar Magaadle waxaa laysku oran jiray (Garxajis iyo Habar Awal).
Mida kale buugu waxaa ku cad in Axmed Gurey yahay Madaxeyne Dir ama beeleynta Mandaluug Dir ( Gadabuursi).
Mudan Dirsame Ma waxaad hadaleedahay Mareexaan Sade Darood wexey ahayeen Habar Awal 1560 ?
Haa Mareexan wuxuu ahaa Habar Awal sida ku qoran buuga” Fatuuh al Habash” Daroodkuna afka Kaliya ayay ka sheegtaan in Axmed Gurey uu ahaa Darood. Hase ahaatee haddii ay dhabtahay wexey turjumi lahayeen Daroodku buugan laakin wexey ka baqaan ceebaha soo bixi kara.
Mudane Dirsame: anigu Galgaduud ayaan ka soo jeedaa waagii Dirka Waqooyi la xasuuqi jiray ayaan abtiyaashey waxaan ka maqli jiray Gadabuursigu waxay ka guureen Gobolka Gedo oo Gadabuursi wexey ka timid ” Gedo-biirsay”. Ah Haaa Haaa (qosal)
Mudane Dirsame: Jawaab
Walahay Mareexankaa ka tagay Boorame oo ka mid ahaa Gadabuursiga abtiyashood Habar Awal, Marka arintaas ayay xasuustaan mindhaa.
Fathul Habash (conquest of Abyssinia)
Futuh Al-Habasa: The Conquest of Abyssinia
Click to enlargeby Sihab ad-Din Ahmad bin Abd al-Qader bin Salem bin Utman
Translated by Paul Lester Stenhouse with annotations by Richard Pankhurst
Format: paperback; 417pp; map
About the Book
Sihab ad-Din Ahmad bin ‘Abd al-Qader’s account of the early sixteenth century Jihad, or holywar, in Ethiopia, of Imam Ahmad bin Ibrahim, better known as Ahmad Gran, or the Left handed, is an historical classic. The Yamani author was an eyewitness of several of the battles he describes, and is an invaluable source. His book, which is full of human, and at times tragic, drama, makes a major contribution to our knowledge of a crucially important period in the hisoty of Ethiopia and Horn of Africa.
‘Futuh al-Habasa,’ or ‘Conquest of Abyssinia’ – which undoubtedly reflects the situation as it seemed to its Yamani author at the time of its composition. The forces of Imam Ahmad bin Ibrahim had occupied the greater part of Ethiopia. The resistance of Emperor Lebna Dengel had virtually come to an end, and many Christians had chosen to convert to Islam. The victorious Imam’s regime seemed there to stay.
This was, however, far from the end of the story. The Imam was killed in battle on February 21, 1543, whereupon his army almost immediately disintegrated. Those of his soldiers who could do so made their way back to the East. Not a few Muslim converts reverted to their former faith.
The Futuh thus refers to a relatively short, though crucially important, period in Ethiopia’s long history. The book is nevertheless valuable, in that its author was an eye-witness of many of the events he describes, and writes, as far as we can judge, with a degree of objectivity rare for his time.
…. What people are saying about this book …
This book is the first ever complete English translation of the Arabic account on the campaigns of Imam Ahmad b. Ibrahim al-Ghazi (popularly known as Gran) as written by the Yemeni jurist, Shihab al-din Ahmad b. Abd al-Qadir b. Salim b. Uthman (also known as Arab Faqih)… it is a welcome addition to the rich corpus of Arabic literary and historical sources relevant to the sixteenth-century Ethiopia and the Horn. It is particularly useful for English-speaking researchers and established scholars who cannot read either the Arabic text or the authoritative French translation prepared by Rene Basset…both Stenhouse and Pankhurst, and the publisher, deserve high commendation, respectively, for producing such a valuable work that represents a major contribution to the history of Ethiopia and the Horn, and for making it available to the wider English-speaking readership and scholarship.
– Hussein Ahmed. Hussein, the leading historian of Islam in Ethiopia, is a full professor of history in Addis Ababa University.
“In the history of conflict in Africa and beyond, “few stories of drama and human tragedy equal” Imama Ahmad’s conquest of the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia (1529-1543). His short lived spectacular victories and determination to replace Christianity by Islam and the remarkable survival of Christianity in Ethiopia” is a story of epic proportions” which still generates strong emotion among both the Christian and the Muslim population of Ethiopia. In other words, Imam Ahmad’s jihadic war besides being legendary was a major turning point…
Ali madaxweyn Boqorka direed.
Qarnigii 1300 boqortoyada Ifat, Moora iyo Adulis waxaa asasay Gurgure Ali oo dhamaan axmed Guray,Axmed nuur,iyo Gidaarka harar ku wareegsan dhisay.
Magalada Dira Dhabe waxa loogu bixiyay “Dir baa Dhabay” ama meeshi uu Dir waranka ka Taagay kolkii ay Gurguraha ka kacsheen Gaaloda.
Generalka Gurgure Axmed Ibrahim waaqoyiga Somalia markii uu cidan ka soo doontay 1434 tii isaga oo ay hogaminayaan Garad Sacid Somaroone oo garadka Gadabuursi ah waxa ay u yimaadeen Isaqa oo barigaa ahaa Magadle Dir.
Wadanka qebihiisa koonfurta iyo waqooyigaba dadkii Gurgure ee xukumi jiray xiligaa wali dirta koonfur iyo kuwa waqooyiba wa laga helaa hatan. Nabidoorka iyo Baciidad Gurgure oo dalka Habar Jeclo xukumi jiray asasayna wali magacyadaa ayaa loo yaqaana.
Koonfurta Reer aw sacid, Layiile, Sure, Gure,Gariire, dhamaan waxay ka soo jeedan dhankaa. Suldaanka Ali madax weeyne waxaa ku Abtirsada oo kale Xawad laha iyo Qabiilka Jiidad ee Qoryooley dagan.
Afarta sheekh ee Waqooyiga somaliya keenay Awbare,Sh. Yusuf Kawnin, iyo Aw Buube waxa lagu sheega in ay Harar ka soo tageen 1300 oo ay dinta ku fafsheen ilaa Gobalka Bale ilaa hada Abe xuseenka Bale reerka Guure oo Gurgure/Akisho la dhashay oo Gure dhammole nageele agteed daga ayaa sheegta sheikh Xuseen.
Nasiib daro tariikh badan ayaa la aasay manta. Barsuuga dir, Madigaan, Magadle(ceerigaabo), Boqortoyada Biyamaal of Talyaniga baabiyay, Bajimaal, Suure Cadalle iyo Qubeys(Mudug), Jiido, Guure,Gariire,Gadsan,iyo dhamaan intayada waqooyi galbeed( Isaaq,Ciise iyo Gadabuursi) isku ab baan nahay.
Dir Aji ! Madaxweyn Dir
(1) Gurgure, Guure, Akisho, Jiido,Gariire, Layiile,Aw sacid I.W.M Madoobe (2)ciise (wardiiq,howgati) Mahe (Biyamaal,Gadsan,suure,dabruube, Barsuuq,magadle, Quranyow-Gare iwm) Mandaluug dir(Gadabuuris iyo Mandaluug sure la daga) Qaldho dir( Noole iyo qar kale Afrata qol)
SECOND PART SENT
AXMED GUREEY MA DAROOD BUU AHAA ?
AXMED IBRAAHIM GHAZI OO GUUREY LOO YAGAANO MUU AHEYN DAROOD IYO WAX LA MIDA. GENERAAL AXMED GUUREY WUXUU AHAA MUJAAHID KA SOO JEEDA BOQORTOOYADA ADAL IYO IFAT OO CASIMADOODU AHAYD ZAYLAC. BOQORKII AXMED GUREYNA WUXUU AHAA SALAH DIIN WAA NIN WALI AH OO KU AASAN JAZIIRADA 300 BOQOL EE MITIR U JIRTA ZAILAC. SALAH DIIN WAXAA DILAY BOQORKII KRISTAANKA AHAA EE AMDA SIYOON WAXAANA LAGU AASAY SALAHA DIIN OO AHAA BOQORKII ADAL ( AWDAL) JASIIRADAAS OO ILAA MANTA LAGU ZIYAARTAA.
XABASHIDA WAAGAS MARKII AY MUSLIMINTA JABIYEEN WEXEY DUDUMIYEEN GOBOLKA AWDAL EE AH GOBOLKA GADABUURSIGU DAGO MANTA. WAXAA DHACDAY IN LA DUDUMIYA MAGAALADA CAMUUD (AMUUD) OO AHEYD CASIMAD WEYN OO QABUURAHEEDA KALIYA WAXAA KU AASAN 250,000 DHISMO YAAL QADIIMANA WAA KU YAALAN.
MARKA DAROOD DALKAA MA DAGAAN DHULKU WAA XUDUNTII BEESHA DIREED SIIBA GADABURSI OO AH MADALUUG DIR IYO CIISE MADOOBE DIR IYO MADAXWEYNE DIREED.
WAXA DHACDAY IN WAAGAAS UU BOQORKII AWDAL MARKII LA DILAY UU XUKUNKA LA WAREEGAY UMAR UL DIIN OO AHAA SALAH DIINKA ZAILAC KU AASAN WALALKII HADANA WUU BAXSADAY UMAR UL DIIN OO DOON AYUU U RAACAY DALKA YAMAN. WAXA QABSADAY XUKUUMADII NIN AY ILMO ADEER YIHIIN OO ABUBAKAR LA YIDHAHDO OO HOOSTANA KALA SAAXIIBAY XABASHIDA ISAGOO SIIYA GIBIRKA ( CANSHUURTA).
HADABA YUU AHAA AXMED GUREY ? AXMED IBRAAHIM GUUREY WAXAA ADEER U AHAA UMAR IYO BOQORKII LA DILAY SALAH DIIN.
AXMED GUREEY WUXUU AHAA NIN DIREED OO MADALUUG AMA MADAX WEYN DIREED AH WUXUUNA GUURSADAY GABAR LA DHAHO BATI DELWAMBARO OO LA YIRI WAXAA DHALAY ABUKAR MAXAMMED NINKII DHAXLAY LABADII BOQOR UMAR UL DIIN IYO SALAHA DIIN EE RAACIGA ( DABADHILFKAN U NOQDAY XABASHIDA BOQORKOODI AMADA SIYON)
MARKII ARIN HALKAA MARAYSAY AYUU MUJAAHID AXMED GUREY DILAY ABUBAKAR MAXAMMED SODOGIISI DHALAYNA GABADHII UU AXMED GUREY QABAY BATI DEL WAMBARO — WAA SIDUU U QORAY TAARIKHDA KITAABKII ” FATUUXAL XABASHA” THE CONQUEST OF THE ETHIOPIAN CHRISTIANS. MUJAAHID AXMED GUREY WUXUU KA SAARAY DALKII XABASHIDII ILAA TIGRAAY ( DHUL WAQOOYIGA KA XIGA) CASIMADA ITOOBIYE EE ADDIS ABBAB AYUU GAARAY 1527-1559.
GEESIGAAN DIREED WUXUU ISKU URUURIYAY SOMALIDA QABAAILKOODA, CAAFARTA, IYO ADARIDA IYO QOMIYADO KALE.
DAROODKA WAXAA FATUUXUL XABASH UU SHEEGAYAA IN AY DAGAALKA KAGA JIREEN BARTIRE, GARI, IYO YABARE WAA BEELO ABSAME AH OO DAGAN JIG JIGA AGAGAARKOODA.
FATUUXUL XABASH WAXA KALE UU SHEEGAYAA IN AY XAASKA AXMED GUREY YAHAY BATI DELWAMARO. 1559 KII BUURTUQIISKA ( PORTAGAL) IYO KRISTAANKA MASAR EE COPTIGA ( COPTICS) AYAA U SOO GURMADAY KRISTAANKA AMXAARADA AH. BUUGU WAXA KALE UU KA HADLAYAA SIDA AY GEESIYASH DIREED OO AY KA MID YIHIIN GADABUURSI, GURGURE IYO ISAAQ OO LOO YAQAAN MARKAA HABAR MAGAADLE IYO BARSUUGA- AKISHO IYO HOOLGAATI OO AH QEYB CIISAHA KA MIDA U DAGALAMEEN. NIN LA YIRAAHDO SAMAROON SACIIDNA WUXUU KA CIYAARAY DOOR WEYN OO AH MEESHU MAGACA SAMAROON KA YIMID.
SHEEKHYADA WAAWEYN EE AWBARE IYO SH YUSUF AL KOWNIIN ( AWBARKHADLE) SHEEKHI HINDISAY ” HIGAADA ALIF LA KOR DHABE- HABKA SOMAALIGA XILIGAAS AYAY JIREEN
BEESHA MAREEXANA WAAGAAS WAXA AY AHAYEEN LAF AMA JUFO KA MIDA HABAR MAGAADLE. WAA SIDUU SHEEGAYO FATUUX AL XABASH THE CONQUEST OF THE ETHIOPIANS. EE WAANA SABABTA AY DAROODKA UGA BAQAAN IN AY TURJUMAN BUUGAS WAAYO MAREEXAN WAA HABAR MAGAADLE HARTIGUNA WAAGAS WEXEY HOOS TAGAYEEN GURGURE ( ILAA MANTA WAX GURGURAH SHEEGTA LAF LA DHAHO HARTI GAAB OO HARTI AH KUNA DHAFAN GURGURE IYO CIISE MADOOBE DIR.
QORAAGA IM LEWIS IYO BUUGA KALE OO DHAWAAN LA QORAY AYAA IYAGUNA DAAROODKA KU EEDEEYAY FOLJARI SABABTOO AH:
1) HADII DAROODKU DHALAY SHEIKH ISMAAIL JABARTI OO KU AASAN YAMAN ZIBEYD ( ZUBEYDA) DHINTAYNA 1646 SIDEEY KU DHACDAY IN AY BEELAH DAROOD EEN KOR KU XUSNAY EE OO SHAHIDKA KA AHAA QORAAGA ” FATUUXAL XABASH 1520KII AY UGA QEYB GALEEN DAGAALKII AXMED GUREY
MACQUUL MIYAA ABAAHAA OO DHINTAY 1646 OO YAMAN LAGU AASAY IN AAD ITOBIYA DHEX BARTANKEED AY WILASHIISI BARTIRE YABARE GARI KA DAGAALAMAN ITOOBIYA DHEX BARTANKEED 1527KII . THIS IS IMPOSSIBLE.!!!!!!
QORAAGA I M LEWIS IYO BUUGA ” THE INVENTION OF SOMALIA” WAXA AY DAROODKA KU EEDEEYEEN IN WAX WEYN KA KHALDAN YIHIIN
WAXA KALE OO AY KU CAMABAAREEYEN DAROOD IN UUSAN DHALI KARIN ISMAIL JABARTI HADII UU DHALAYNA AYSAN JOOGI KARIN XILIGII AXMED GUREY 1520′S
WAXA KALE UU THE INVENTION OF SOMALIA QORAAGISU KU EEDEYAY IN AY DAARODKU BEEN TAHAY SHEGASHADA AXMED GUREY AY SHEEGTEEN. OO WALIBA IN NAAGTAN DIREED EE DOONBIRO MAGACEEDA AY KA SOO QAATEEN XAASKII AXMED GUREY OO LA ORAN JIRAY BATI DELWAMBARO SOO MAGAC U EG MAAH DOONBIRO– YAA HUUNO
KITAABKA THE INVENTION OF SOMALIA AYAA SI TOOS AH UGU EEDENAYA IN DAROOD CARAB AHAYN OO SHEEKADA DOON BAAN KA SOO DAGAY OO ANOO GEED KU DHUMANAYA AYAAN GABAR DOONBIRO LA YIRAAHDO HELAY OO AAN CEEL U QODAY MARKII DANBENA ABEHEE OO DIR AH I SII YAY IN AY BEEN QURAAFAD AH OO AY Darood SAMEEYEN 1900 TAHAY. QORAAGA THE INVENTION OF SOMALI WUXUU SHEEGAYAA IN SHEEKADAN DAAROOD AY KA SOO GUURIYEN QISADA QUURANKA KU QORAN EE KU SAABSANEYD NABI MUUSE ( CALYHI WAS SALAAM) UU ISAGOO SOO DILAY NIN FIRCOONIYA U U SOO CAARAY DHULKA SAHARAH EE SIINAY ( SAINA) OO UU HALKAA MALIN ISAGOO NABI MUUSE GEED SAARAN UU ARKAY GABAR XOOLO WADATA ARI AH OO UU DHALAY NABI SHUCEYB OO AHAA QOMKII REER BENU MADYAN. WAXAA UU YIRI DAROODKA WAXA AY SAMEYEEN SHEEKADII DHEX MARTAY NABI SHUCEYB OO REER BANU MADYAN IYO NABI MUUSE OO NIN FIRCOONIYA SOO DILAY IN DAROODKU AY SHUCEYBNA ( DIR) KA DHIGEEN NACAM NABI MUUSE ( S.A.W) UU DAROOD YAHAY GABADHII UU GURSADAYNA INA SHUCEYB AY AHEYD ( DOONBIRO) AY KA DHIGEEN.
MARKA DAROODKA WAA CEBEYSAN YIHIIN OO MARNA CARAB HA ISKA DHIGAN MARNA QURANKII ILAAHEY INTEY SHEEKO KA SOO SARAAN DUSH HA NAGALA SOO KORAAN.
DAROODKU HADII AY CARAB YIHIIN MA CARABAA LOO BAXSHAA KOOMBE KABLALAX- MISE CARAB BAA LA BAXI LAHAA TAGAAL WAAQ– WAAQ WA ILAHEYGII CAWANKA GAALADA EE OROMADA BOORANTA CABUDAANE. DAROODKA WAA WADA WAAQLE -SIWAAQ ROON -TAGAL WAAQ- JID WAAQ- CABUD WAAQ IYO KOOBE IYO WAXA AAN LA AQOON.
MARKA GAALADA WESTERNKA MAXAAY DAROODKU IYAGOO SHARIF SHARIF ISKAGA DHIGAYA UG SHEEKEYAAN ANAGU ASHARAAF MASALE BIIBAYA SAARAN AYAANU AHEY OO DALKA CAWAAN DIR IYO HAWIYE IYO RAXANWEYN AYAAN UGU NIMID– MARNA U SHEEGANAYAAN IN UU AXMED GUREY DAROOD AHAA HADANA AY UGA DHIGAYAAN XASKIISI DALWEBERO HOYADOOD.
DAROOD ABTIYAAL WAAN IDIN JECELNAHAY ABTI NIMO IYO DARISNIMO WAAN KUU OGOLAHAY LAKIIN BEEN ANIGA IIMA SHEEGI KARTID- HADAN GAAL IYO FARANJI BAA KU KASHIFAY.
BUUGA CEEBTIINI KU TAALO GOOGLE.COM AYAAD KA HELEYSAA ANIGU KUMAAN CAYIN WAXA KU CAYAY GALADII AAD KU LEHEY AANA SHARIIF WA DIRUL CAWAAN. AKHRISO BUUGA
Sunday, September 12, 2010
ADAL A DIR KINGDOM RULED BY SALAH DIIN IS IN AWDAL ZAILA GADABURIS CIISE DIR COUNTRY
I researched Adal, the Islamic kigndom that existed between Eritrea all the way to Coastal City Berber.
I thought Adal was mostly Afar and Arab kingdom, but I’m suprised Somalis have connection to Adal.
When and where Adal Empire was born:
*It was on the 13th century that came to the light, in Horn of Africa, one of the strongest Empire that existed in East Africa. Adal Empire had its origine in the city of Zeyla, situated until today in the northern region of the former Democratic Republic of Somalia. The father of that State was King Omar D. Ahmed (nicknamed Aw-Barkhadle). The king who had a long live, occupied the throne for many years. When he passed away, he left behind him many children, mainly males. Among them, the successors to the throne who inherited the kingdom. Later, Adal Empire became an Islamic Empire that expanded the religion of Islam with determination, into the entire Horn of Africa. Remarked by its faithful actions, other Islamic States in the world called Adal Empire “Diraasal-Islaam”.
During the centuries that followed, Adal Empire was engaged into many wars against the Abysinians (Habasha), where thousands and thousands individuals died. At that time, Adal Empire became the most loved Islamic State among the entire Islamic Nations because of its determination to its cause; its strong judicial system and its faithful expansion of Islam into the territories of Abyssinians and Galas (Oromos). At that period of time, Adal Empire had a strong alliance with the Ottoman Empire of Turkey, while the Portuguese supported the Abyssinians.
Geographical location of Adal Empire:
In order for you to better situate the indications that will be mentioned, you are invited to refer to the Map of Africa in 1808 as well as other maps. Saying that, to the North, Adal Empire was situated up to the region of Danaakil (actually, North of the Republic of Djibouti, populated by Afar people). While to the South, the empire had its border up to the region of Ras-Xaafuun (actually called Hays and Maydh, located in today’s Region of Sanaac). From the East, Adal Empire as well as the actual State of Awdal, had the entire code facing the Red Sea while to the West, it was situated up to the Region of Shawa (in Ethiopia), also called Shawa at that time. In fact, Shawa was the base of the Kingdom of Abyssinia and today, it’s the home of its descendents leaded by the Ethiopian government, with its capital city of Addis-Ababa.
Composition of Adal Empire:
Adal Empire was composed of seven (7) States. According to the size of their land and the military forces of each state, here is their names: Ifaad, Dawaaro, Araabiini, Hadaya, Sharqa, Baali and Daara, where each of them had its own government. Please refer to the map titled Map of Adal Empire (13th century). The largest and strongest State Ifaad, known from Egypt and “Shaam” as Zeyla’s land, became later the dominant and the central one with its capital city of Zeyla. Ifaad will lead the entire Empire and will face many challenges. According to the historians of that period, Ifaad was large as 20 days of walk from North to South and 15 days of walk from East to West. Its military force was composed of 15000 cavaliers and 20000 of infantries.
In his book titled “Masaalikal-Absaar”(this is in Somali spelling), the Egyptian author, Subhul Ahsha mentioned that Zeyla was the nucleus city of Adal Empire. Continuing into the description of this city, he added that Zeyla was “The City of Light”, which had many Mosques and many schools, where all kind of subjects were taught. In fact, Mr. Ahsha described Zeylac as “The Place” where one can acquire any kind of knowledge that may be taught in that period of time. The author added in his description that the people were 100% Muslim. Mr. Ahsha said that they were gathering in large number into the Mosques of the city, as faithful believers to Islam. According to this writing, these Mosques could be compared to the municipal libraries that can be found today in big cities of our century. In addition of that, schools were places where people use to enjoy meeting, share knowledge, discuss about social issues and debate intellectually. As a matter of fact, Zeyla was known as the place where the knowledge was at the merci of everyone.
Well, now that you understand the value of Adal Empire, it is reasonable that you ask what did happen to that great Empire, how did it collapse? Who were the people living under the ruling of that great Empire, well known by its strong judicial system? Who were in fact the civilized nation living in that period of time and what did become their descendants? For the time been, I need your patient in order for me to work into the information that I collected. Meaning that you will know for sure what did happen to that great Adal Empire, very soon. Concerning your questions about the people of that nation or what did they become and who are the descendants, I’m inviting you to click on “People” under “About Awdal” category and voila!
The Adal of yesterday is the Awdal of today:
First of all, though the Empire that we mention all along was called Adal Empire, in their mother language (Somali), the people of that nation called “Cadal”. Translating the word Cadal into Latin gave Adal. With the time, people changed the word Adal (Cadal) to Awdal and that is how the Awdal of today is referred to the Adal Empire of yesterday.
The State of Awdal borders with Djibouti from the North-West, Ethiopia from the West, the former Democratic Republic of Somalia from the South and, the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea from the North-East through the entire Easter coastal region. The region has an estimated land area of 22,000 sq. km and a 170 km long coastline on the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea. Awdal experiences three distinct climatic seasons; the rainy season which starts in March and ends in July, the dry season which starts in August and lasts until November and a kind of Mediterranean Fall, from December to February. High temperatures of above 35C and 20C are observed along the coastal settlements during the summer and winter months respectively. Average annually rainfall is between 450-500 mm. the State of Awdal consists of four districts: Boroma – with Boroma City as the regional capital city, Zeila, Lughaya and Baki.
As mentioned above, the State of Awdal corresponds to the former Adal Empire, which became Gadabursi Land under the British colonial, in the 19th century. Later, it was called Awdal Region until the disintegration of the dictatorial regime of the former Democratic Republic of Somali, in 1991. the State of Awdal did not officially proclaim yet its status to the rest of the world and it’s not recognized yet as an Independent Nation by the United Nations but so far, the Awdalites live in their homeland under the ruling of local authorities, with freedom. After the collapse of the Somali government in 1991, Awdalites continued to maintain a stable existence, despite the economic infrastructure left behind by British and humanitarian organizations assistance programs. The State of Awdal is one of the African’s largest source of incense and myrrh, which are forestry products. Also, the Awdal’s chief exports include livestock, fish, hides and skins and, petroleum products. Nowadays, as one of the most recently established nation, the State of Awdal presents a new field of study for scholars and investors.
Ahmad Guray was a Dir Somali (his mother was a Harari Ethiopian though…) The Dir are the northernmost of the 6 Somali Clans, They include the Gadabursi of Northwest Somaliland and the Iessa of Djibouti.
The capital of Adal Sultanate was Harrar (which was an Islamic center) and its major ports were Zeila and Sahil (now Berbera) Ahmad the Left-handed’s army included alot of recently Islamisized Somalis from the east (like the Ogaden, and Majerteen) and also a lot of Oromo and it also covered almost all of the Afar regions. It was truly the first and only 100% Cushitic Empire.
And man, did he give the Abbysinians a run for their money! He conquered lands as deep into the Ethiopian interior as Lake Tana (the source of the blue Nile) and he was killed in battle there. Only for his wife to carry on the first Jihad in the Horn of Africa.
He was also the first non European to use cannons and muskets in his warfare
but according to ancient medieval history of ethiopia the christian highland kingdom and muslim lowland the main cause was comercial rivalry ahmed gragn his wife batidelwanbwera and wife of lebnedengel king christian highland kingom wife seblewengel ahmed gragn was defeated and labnedengel at the batle of shimbirakure around 1529 while gelawdios the son of labnedengel took the power and kiiled ahmed grang at the battle of weinadega 1543 that some medival .
MAXAAD KA OGTAHAY TAARIIQDA QOOMIYADA CAWS-LAFIL ( DIR ) by abroone
HORDHAC : qoomiyada caws-lafil ( dir ) waxaa lagu tiriyaa inay ka mid tahay kuwooga ugu taariiqda fog. deegaanka geeska afrika. haday noqon lahayd xaga hogaanka, siyaasada, xadaarada, waxaana ka soo jeeda runtii hogaamiyaashii diimeed ku wooga ugu caansan gayiga soomaaliyeed mana aha mid qoraal lagu soo koobi karayo muhiimada ay inoo leeyihiin geesiyaashaasi oo ahaa hormuudka saldanadihii aanu cadceedu ka dhici jidhin;
waxaanu qaybtaan maanta ku soo qaadanaynaa qabiilka Gurgure Dir
Tan iyointii u dhaxaysay Qarnigii 10 aad ilaa Qarnigii 11aad waxaa isa soo tarayay colaadaha iyo dagaalada ee u dhaxayay qabaa’ilada Direed iyo Amhara . dagaaladaas oo ku saleysanaa laba qaab mid diineed iyo mid dhuleed oo ay markaas Amhara ku doonaysay in ay ku dhul ballaarsato iyo iyadoo markaas ugu jirtey in ay soo ceshadaan dhulkii la isku odhan jirey A bisiiniya ,, Balse sida lawada ogsoonyahay waxa jireyd sadex saldanadood oo ah saladanadaha ugu caanasanaa ee markaas ka jireyd bariga iyo bartamaha Ethiopia’ waxeyna kala ahaayeen ( 1) AWFAT’ waxaana deganaa Gurgure Dir waxeyna ku aadaneyd Halka uu maanta Gurgure Dir daganyahay Sida Awaash , Bardoode, Mataahara Ilaa Erer, Hadaba sida uu ( Ibnu saciid 1214-74 ) ku sheegay in ay aheyd saladanada Gurgure Dir mid Horumarsan oo ka Duwaneyd dhamaan saladanadihii markaas ku wareegsana Awfat waxaana kamid ahaa Degmooyinka saladanada Awfaat ‘cabdille oo ay Daganaayeen Jilibka cabdille ee ( Kundhibe ) ‘ Gurrale oo ayana ay daganaayeen ( Reer Wali Asmac ) Waa Reerka dhaxalka Boqortooyada Gurgure Dir u lahaa Naaneysata loo Yaqaanana waxay ahayd ( Gufaatiile ) Waxaana Jirta Maahmaaah Waqtiyadaas loo Baxshey Reer Wali Asmac ( Guffi iyo Gufaatiile Midna Yey Habeen Kuu Gabban ) oo waxey ahaayeen kuwa Maamulkoodu iyi sidaayasdoodu ay aad u darneyd…sidoo kale waxaa kamidaa magaalooyinka ay daganaayeen Gurgure Dir ‘ Seenja Oo Loo Malaynayo Iyana in ay Daganaayeen Jilibka ( Saanjeele Waxaa kaloo Kamida deegaanada Gurgure Dir Garba luki iyo Garba cadeey
Waxey ahaayeen Jilibyada Gurgure ilaa 12 Dab kuwaasoo u kala kaca ,jilibka warjeex oo kamid ahaa jilibyada (liibaane) ayna wada dhasheen (saanjeex ) oo Saanjeele ah ayaa waxa uu Daganaa aagga Manze ee W / Shawa ..Hadaba abbaarihii 1128 aya awaxa ka dhax qarxey Dagaalkii ugu horeeyey ee dhax mara Gurgure iyo Amhara dagaalku waxuu ahaa mid labada Dhinacba mid Cudud iyo Cataadba leh.. Mid Qaatey Bilooyin la’ isaga soo Qeyla dhaansadey meel walba waxaase Warjeex’ ku waheliyey laba Jilib oo Gurgure Dir ooy kala Ahayeen ( Gacal ) oon u Haysano ‘Gacalwaaq inuu ahaa iyo Nibidoor’ oo asna aaggaas deganaa ..Dagaalkaasi Libintiis waxaa lahaa gurgure ,,, waxaana Horkacaayey Garaad Cabdille,,,Hadaba Saanjeele oo ahaa kan ugu deegaaan shisheeyo Gurgure Dir waqtigaaas ayaaa waxa uu Billaabey in uu aaaggiisa xoojiyo ..waxeyna Gargaarka ka heli jireen Xukuumaddii (Awfat) ka dhisneyd ee markaas Gurgure ku mideysnaaa Awfat, Taariikhda gurgure waa mid Buux dhaafisey Buugaan aad u fara badan iyo Taariikhda Direedba …waxey aheyd Barta ay DIR ta Walaalaha ay ku Walaaloobeyn meesha la Yidhaahdo ( walaalaha ) oo 50 mayl WB ka Xigta Addis Ababa Waana Halka ay Dagaalka Ballan ku Galeen kuna Walaaloobeen:
Ku dhawaad Sanado Badan kadib ayaa waxa soo kala Dhexgalay khilaaaf Saladanada Awfat khilaafkaas oo ahaa mid ku Saleysan Maamulka Saladanada Awfat iyo Cidda Dhaxaltooyada u leh ( Wali Asmac ) oo ahaa Reerka Boqortooyada Gurgure Dir uleh ayaa Markaas Hayey Saladanda Awfat waxeyna ahaayeen kuwa Markaas Aagga Awfat iyo Intiisa kale looga Yaqiin Magaca ( Wali asmac _ Iyo Reer Wali Awbarre) Iyo Magaca ‘Gufaatiile’ Taasoo ugu baxeday Goob Dagaal Waa Sida Rag Al Maqriizi ay kamid Yihiin ay Qoreene… waxaana Qoraa kale oo uu ka mid yahay sida ( Ibnu saciid ay Aaggaas ku Sheegeen Jilibka ( Kole ) Oon u Haysano in ay Ahaayeen Jilbka Reer Kore ee Biciidaha”’ Intaa kadib isla waqtigaas ayaa waxa soo kala dhaxgaley khilaaaf Maamulkii Reer Wali Waxaana so Fara Galiyey Cumer’ Sidii uu wax uga Qaban lahaa inta uu khilaafkaasi kor isu Shareerin markay Taasi dhacdey ( Dul_Marax ) oo Xukunka Shawa Hayey Qabeyna Gabadh ( Duriyada Reer Wali ) waa Reer Awbarre ayaa la soo Wariyey in uuu Xadhiidh Qarsoodiya la Yeeshay Boqorkii Xabashida, Waxaana Markaaas Dusha loo Saaraey Eedeymo ka Dhan ah Maamulkii uu Hayay Taasoo ah Khayaaano Qaran iyo mid Diimeed,, Muddo Kolkii Ay Kasoo Wareegtay Ayaa waxaa Lagu Qabtey Waa Cumare Dagaal uu Abbaanduule ka ahaa Halkaasaana lagu Diley uuna ku Geeriyoodey ,,Xiligaas ayaa Waxaa La Bilaabay in Dhaqanka Gurgure Dir la Adkeeyo oo Reerka Boqorka Xeer Gooniyaa loo Dhigo Gabdhaha Reer Boqorna aan loo Dhisin Cidii ka Baxsan Maamaulka Reer Boqor.. Taasaina Waxey Keentay in Dagaal Hor leh ay Cumar iyo Wiilkiisii Cali ay ku Qaadaan Amiiradii Reer Makhzuum ee Saladana Shawa Ayagooo Dhawraya Sumacada Boqortooyada Gurgure Dir waxeyna ka Takahluseen Dhamaan aaamiradii Reer Makhzuum oo ay Laayeen 1285eeg ( Huntigford 1965 ;55.109,9 ):
Hadaba Kadib Markii Labada Walaalo ( Cumer iyo Cali ) ay Guluf ku Qaadeen Saladanada Shawa ayaa Misna waxa Bilawdey Dagaalo Aad u Culus in Ay Ka Dhax-Qarxaan Saladanada Gurgure Dir ee Awfat’ iyo Amaxaaro Waqtigaas waxaa Caynaanka u Hayey Gurgure Dir Suldaaan Xaqqudiin oo ahaa SAuldaanka 14-aad ee Beesha Sanadkuna waxuu ahaa ’1321′ Kadib Taariikhda Dhalasaha Nabi Ciise’ Waxaana Mudda Yar uun kadib Hadana Hogaaanka Beesha Gurgure Dir u Qabtey oo la Caleemo Saartey Suldaaan Sabrudiin Waxaana Dhacey Mudadaii la Caleemo Saarey Suldaan Sabrudiin Ka Dib Dagaalkii ugu Darnaa ee Dhaxmara Gurgure iyo Gaalada,, Dagaalkuna waxuu Socdeyd Bilooyin Wuxuuna Doonayay Suldaan Sabrudiin in uu ku Qaado Weeraro Lagu Cidhib-Tirayo Gaalada ,,,Waxuuna Ahaa suldaankii 15-aad ee Saladanada Awfat Hadaba waxaa Haleeshey Suldaan Sabrudiin Awood Yari Taasoo U Keenatey in uu Ka Gurto Ciidamadiisa Gabi-ahaan Goobihii Difaaca Hore ee Saladana Awfat, Waxaa Gaaalada Horkacayey Dagaalkaas ( Camdu Siyoon ) Wuxuuna ka soo Hooyey Guula Lataaban karo oo Muhiim ah Ayna Kamid Ahaayeen in uu W/Shawa Gacanta Kudhigo Nasiib Daro Waxaa Soo Shaac Baxdey Waqtigaas oo la isla Dhaxmaraayey in Camdu Siyuun uu Ka Taageerey ( Jamaaludiin ) Sidii uu ula Wareegi lahaa Maamulka Awfat,,,, Jamaaludiin oo asagu ahaa Boqorka 16-aad ee Soo Mara Jamaahiirta Gurgure Dir Balse waxey Isku Maan-dhaafeen Jamaaludiin iyo Camdu-Siyoon Waxyaabo Qaarkood oo Tanaasulaad ah Waana uu Ku Gacmo-Saydhay Talooyinkii Markaa uu Wateyd Camdu-Siyoon Hadaba Wuxuu Kolkii Danbe la Heshiiyey Nasrudiin oo Walaakood ahaa in uu Boqro Balse Mujtamaca Gurgure Ma uusan Aamin-saneyn Boqortooyada uu Iskii U Xulayo Camdu-Siyoon eeg ( Tamrat1972; 125 .8.5),,
Lasoco Qaybaha xiga ee Taariiqda Qoomiyada Caws-lafil ( Dir )
Waxaa Soo Diyaarshay Suxufi Abroone
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