Saturday, May 19, 2012




notabili-indigeni-bimaal dir

The Biimaal is a subclan
 of Dir and “the Dir are
 the oldest and least
 cohesive of the Somali
 clans. Their original
 homeland in
 northwestern Somalia
 was the starting point for
 the subsequent
 southward expansion of
 the nomadic Somali clans.
 The Dir comprise four
 sub-clans; the Issa and the
 Gadabursi who still live in
 the northwestern Somalia
 and neighbouring areas
 of Ethiopia and Djibouti,
 the Bimaal on the coast
 of Southern Somalia, and
 the Gadsen subclan of
 bimal along the Jubba
 valley, Ethiopia and
 Kenya.” (Jane’s, 28. Mai
 The Bimaal clan is a major
 clan in what is today
 settle in lower Shabelle,
 lower Jubba, Bakool and
 Gedo. Today they are the
 most numerous ethnic
 group in Somalia, settling
 the most populated area
 from Mogadishu to
 kismayo, and roughly are
 estimated of over 2
 million people. In
 addition, large numbers
 of Biimaal subclans are
 also found in Kenya and
 Ethiopia. Their language,
 is Somali and Hamatic
 language; more
 specifically 80% of their
 language content is
 Arabic, 90 percent of
 biimal can read and write
 Arabic language. The
 Biimaal or (Jamal) has
 three Brothers (1) Isaaq
 Mohamed and (2)
 Bajamal Mohamed and
 (3) Dabrube Mohamed.
 The real name of Bimal is
 JAMAL, but nicknamed as
 ‘Bimal’ meaning ‘being
 handsome’ in Arabic, or
 ‘purified’ in Urdu. The
 Biimaal clan ascends to
 Mohamed known as
 Ahmed in Somaliland, and
 then ascend to Dir ethnic
 group to Aqiel bin-
 abittalib. descendant:
 Mohamed/Ahmed -
 Xiniftire – Mahad – Dir – Aji
 - Irir – Samaale – Hiil -
 Abroone to Aqil – Ttahlib.
 The Biimaal clan has five
 major subclans, whose
 there mnemonics is:
 DHSWW and Uncle
 Dabruube: the bimal
 family tree is as
 The Mathigaan or
 Madigaan is a sub subclan
 of Dabrube, the Subclan
 of Biimaal, and is one of
 the tribes that inhabits in
 Ethiopia and Somaliland.
 Historically, the
 Mathigaan were mainly
 pastoral and farmers who
 separated from other
 Bimal in nearly 400 years
 ago, however, the record
 of written documents and
 inherited information
 from ancestors is well
 reserved in lower
 shabelle. The Dabrube
 tribes lived in different
 parts of somalia and
 Ethiopia, but they each
 had their history and
 blood connected.
 Gaadsan (or Gadsan) is
 one of the subclan of
 Biimal who is mainly
 inhabit in Ethiopia, Kenya
 and Somalia, but largely
 found in Ethiopia. In
 Ethiopia Gaadsan clans
 reside three districts: the
 Af-dher district (Jarrati,
 Waladaya, Doolow and
 Guuredhamole), Godey
 district (Iimey and Boola),
 and Gashamo district
 (Nusdariiq, Marsin,
 Kabtinuur and
 Qabridhare). There is also
 other large group of
 Gaadsan, known as
 Gaadsan-Qalaawileey in
 Shabelle and Jubba
 regions, living with other
 Biimals group. In Kenya
 there is a third division of
 Gaadsan, known as
 Gaadsan-Kenya, found in
 many cities such as
 Bangal, Garseeni, •and
 The History of
 During 1600-1900
 century, the Biimaal
 monarchy was one of the
 most powerful tribe in
 east Africa ruling the cost
 of benadir to keyan
 border and had been
 trading with mascut
 sultanate. During the 18
 century, the geledi clan
 was the second powerful
 clans in Somalia, who
 were ruling large
 territory in southern
 somalia. The port of
 Mogadishu was practically
 autonomous, the
 Zanzibar sultans’
 authority, like their
 customs officials, came
 and went with the
 monsoons. The
 hinterland of Mogadishu
 was controlled by the
 Geledi clan, whose
 sultans contracted
 alliances with many other
 clans in the region
 between the Shebelle and
 juba rivers. Through
 much of the century, the
 geledi alliance dominated
 the ivory trade that ran
 from luk on the upper
 juba to Mogadishu; the
 geledi sultans also
 collected tribute from
 the agricultural clans
 along the Bay and Bakool
 as far south as Bu’alle.
 Only the powerful bimal
 clan, situated in the
 hinterland of merka,
 succeeded in resisting the
 geledi hegemony and
 overthrowing their rulers
 in Mogadishu and. The
 sultans of Zanzibar, in the
 meantime, were forced
 to respect the authority
 of the Bimal rulers.
 (Africa in the nineteenth
 century until the 1880)
 From 18th to 19th
 centuries, the Biimaal
 kingdom played a major
 role in Somali History.
 Under Italian colony,the
 Biimaal people opposed
 against the occupation of
 Italian regime, and
 severely fought against
 them. During that time,
 thousands of Biimal
 warriors lost their lives to
 stop the invaders to
 reach somali soil. The
 Biimaal Kingdom built
 large castles in the cost
 of Benadir, lower
 shabelle and juba to
 protect somali shores
 and for trading strategy.
 In 1895-1902, the Italian
 leaders tried many times
 to negotiate a land deal
 with Bimal king. In 1903,
 about 2000 Bimalis and
 800 Italian soldiers were
 killed when they
 attempted to destroy
 these obstacles against
 Italian interests which also
 caused many Italian lives.
 Though many biimalis
 armies got killed, but
 they still insisted to
 protect Somali shore.
 After long bloody battles,
 the Italian leader sleeked
 alliance with other Somali
 tribes which finally
 destroyed Bimalis forces.
 According Muslim
 Brotherhoods in
 Africa, Cambridge
 University Press
 (Martin, 1977)”’ , the
 bimal clan were living
 between the port of
 marka and the Webi
 shebelli. The bimal had
 long resisted the Italians,
 largely because the
 Italians had abolished
 slavery in their district.
 The bimal used many
 slaves to cultivate their
 lands along the webi
 shebelli, another point of
 conflict was continuing
 Italian penetration, which
 the bimal had opposed
 since 1896. They had also
 besieged an Italian
 garrison at marka 1904
 and ambushed and
 attacked their enemies
 repeatedly. From 1903
 on, there was contact
 between the sayyid and
 the bimal, moreover, the
 salihia had a sufi center in
 bimal territory headed by
 a Shaykh abdi gafle, who
 could through the evil
 eye, transform men into
 animals, or change bullet
 into water, the sayiid sent
 advice and guidance to
 the bimal and problarbly
 weapons as well . Even
 so, the bimal clan was
 finally overcome by the
 Italians 1908, when a
 number of bimal chiefs
 had to go to Mogadishu
 to make their submission
 to the tialian governor.
 The guidance sent by the
 was the risalat al bimal,
 which is a s statement of
 the sayyid’s ideas of jihad,
 relations with the
 unbelievers, and other
 points which will be
 discuss below. The timing
 and the content of the
 risalah also show very
 clearly that the sayyid saw
 the illig convention as
 tactical maneuver. Later
 he would take up and
 lead the jihad again. His
 advice to the bimal on
 the necessity and
 significance of jihad
 follow these lines.
 The Biimaal and Benadiri
 in Merka, Lower Shabelle
 According to Danish
 Refuge council, the
 predicament of Oday
 (2006).The old sultanate
 of the Biimaal around
 Merka has all but
 disappeared. Since their
 defeatto the Italians, the
 lineage of the
 Biimaal Suldaan has lived
 a quiet existence.
 Furthermore,the Biimaal
 people suffered a heavy
 set-back during the civil
 war as much of their
 land wastaken over by
 non-resident Hawiye
 coming from northern
 regions, and many
 Biimaal either fled or
 was killed. Today, the
 Suldaan is still the highest
 rank for the Biimaal in
 and aroundMerka, and in
 Jaamame, where many
 Biimaal also reside.After
 the civil war the Biimaal
 revived their xeer
 system. For example, the
 first attempt tocreate
 more peace and security
 in Merka area involved a
 meeting of traditional
 elders whoestablished
 the first new xeer
 between them. Each
 district then established a
 committee of elders and
 intellectuals with the
 purpose of overseeing
 the peace on one hand,
 and tointerlocute with
 humanitarian agencies on
 the other in order to
 addresssocial welfare
 issues. However, they did
 not have military or
 strong policing power,
 whichmeant that they
 could not handle the
 armed freelance militias
 who erected
 extortiveroadblocks and
 who were outside the
 control of the traditional
 leaders. Prior to the
 civilwar, all Biimaal paid
 mag together. However,
 after the complexities of
 the civil war, eachsub-
 clan formed its own mag
 -paying group! This is
 perceived as a good
 development, be-cause it
 gives more pressure to
 the most immediate
 family to control its
 members as mag
 becomes more
 expensive when it is a
 smaller group that has to
 pay it. The migration of
 the Biimaal is thought to
 have begun some 700
 years ago due to
 conflicts with the Danakil
 (in the present area of
 Djibouti). The migration
 process towards the
 south took some five
 centuries. Now the
 Biimaal has resided in the
 present area for the last
 2-300 centuries
 According to The Price of
 Peace: Somalia and the
 United Nations
 1991-1994, the Biyamal
 are the majority clan in
 the Lower Shebelle
 (Gilkes 1994, 144). Gilkes
 distinguishes between the
 northern Dir and the
 southern Dir and notes
 that although the Biyamal
 were known for their
 struggle against the
 Italians, as a southern Dir
 group, they “were
 ignored.” (144). Gilkes
 states that the Dir and
 particularly the Biyamal,
 supported the Southern
 Somali National
 Movement (SSNM), but
 adds that the SSNM had
 split. “Early in 1993 its
 chairman, Colonel Abdi
 Warsame, broke with
 General Aydeed and took
 part of the SSNM with
 him when he aligned
 himself with Ali
 Mahdi” (147). For
 additional information on
 the Biyomal and the
 SSNM please consult
 Responses to Information
 Rquests SOM24908 of 4
 September 1994 and
 SOM18537.E of 4
 October 1994, which are
 available at Regional
 Documentation Centres.
 „In Lower Shabelle, the
 Habr Gedir clan rivals the
 (Dir) Bimaal. The
 competing claims of
 territorial ownership
 between ‘Mudulod’ and
 Habr Gedir over
 Mogadishu, and Bimaal
 and Habr Gedir over the
 Lower Shabelle, are
 played out over
 significant populations
 who have stronger claims
 to ‘autochthony’ but little
 military or political
 might.“ (RDCI/UNHCR,
 August 2007, S. 11)
 The Darod tribes had
 migrated down to lower
 jubba in the middle of 19
 century for better life as
 prolonged lack of rain
 caused their regions
 largely dry. By that time,
 the Biimaal tribes
 provided all their
 hospitalities, generosity
 to the Darod clan and
 granted to stay
 temproraly as guest
 expecting them to move
 out. From 1960 to 1991
 the Darood regimes of
 Sharmarke and Barre had
 unfairly treated with
 Bimal clan and promoted
 thier clans to dominate
 and torture the local
 people as bimal clan was
 previously dismantled by
 the colonial power during
 the long time of war.
 After 1991, the
 Habargidir clan had also
 made a master plan by
 occupying the lower
 shabelle and mugged
 farms of residents, used
 by force displacement,
 looted properties by
 displacing and killing
 hundreds of local biimaal.
 Prominent figures
 Political/social activist
  President of Udubland:
 Professor Ibrahim
 Cabdulahi Adow
  Abdullahi Sheikh Ismail,
 Former Somali
 Ambassador to Russian
 federation and EU,
 Former foreign minister
 1990 and 2004 – 2006,
 Deputy prime minister
 and minister of
 constitutional affairs of
 TFG 2006.
  Abdirahman Adan Ibbi,
 former minister of
 fishery and marine
 resources of TNG 2000 -
 2004, state minister 2004
 - 2006
  Abdi Aluuq, senior
 general, Officer in
 Charge, Has the highest
 C.E.O has descended
 from the Gadsan tribe.
 His name is referred to
 ABDI ALUUQ (abdi the
  Abdi Warsame Isaq, one
 of Somali Socialist
 Supreme Council and
 positioned different
 ministerial posts during
 Bare’s regime, one of
 influential founders of
 USC and chairman of
 SSNM, MP TFG 2004 -
  Ahmed Hussein Tifow
 worked differnt Lower
 shabelle 1960 – 1970,
 Speaker ssnm and
  Cornel Abdi Ali Jamame.
 High ranking Cornel in
 former Somali Armed
  Professor Ahmed Omar
 Abdi, former WSLF leader
  Mana Haji, prominent
 peace activist.
  Elmi Abdulle Hussein,
 prominent peace activist
  Isse Sheikh Ismail,
 prominent peace activist
  Mohamed Amin Addow,
 Senior journalist
  Mohamed Fowsi,
 promising leader.
 Descendant of previous
 Chief General Abdi Aluuq
 also referred to Abdi
 Religious and
 Traditional leaders
  Sheekh Abdurahman
 Mubarak, one of the
 most famous schollars in
  Sheekh Xassan Yusuf,
 one of the famous Somali
 cleric, educated
 thousands scholars.
  Sheekh Macalin Shiikheey
 one of the famous Somali
 cleric, educated
  Sheik Mohammed
 Kulale, Islamic teacher
 and cleric
  Sheikana Shamsa
 Mohamed Fowsi ,
 teaching Arabic
 (beginner)to the younger
  Suldan Abdiwali Sh.
 Abdirahman Sul. Mubarak
 Biimaal are the majorty
 clan of lower shabelle
 and lower juba, but there
 are some other tribes
 such as Digil in lower
 shabelle and shikhal,
 Galjecel and Darood in
 lower juba. Lower
 Shabele is bordered with
 Banaadir, Middle Shabele,
 Bay and Middle Juba and
 the Indian Ocean. this is
 the most populated
 region in somalia .
 Districts • Afgoi • Barawe
 • Janale • Kurtunwarey •
 Marka (Merca) •
 Qoriyoley • Sablale •
 Walaweyn • Lambar
 Clans in Lower
 Biimaals tribes form
 about 55% of the
 • Sa’ad
 • daadow
 • Ismiin
 • Gamaase
 • Gaadsan
 • Dabruube (Garweyn
 and Garsis)
 Digil clan about 40%
 Other clans form about
 30% of the regions
 population: • Reer Marka
 • Reer Baraawe • Reer
 Shabelle •
 Biimaal are the majorty
 clan of lower shabelle
 and lower juba, but there
 are some other tribes
 such as Digil in lower
 shabelle and shikhal,
 Galjecel and Darood in
 lower juba. Lower
 Shabele is bordered with
 Banaadir, Middle Shabele,
 Bay and Middle Juba and
 the Indian Ocean. this is
 the most populated
 region in somalia .
 • Afgoi • Barawe • Janale
 • Kurtunwarey • Marka
 (Merca) • Qoriyoley •
 Sablale • Walaweyn •
 Lambar konton
 Rahanwein (Digil &
 Mirifle) clans form about
 40% of the population: •
 Geledi • Goobroon •
 Bagedi • Tunni • Jiiddo •
 Garre •
 Shantacaleemood (e.g
 Reer Daafeed, Barbaaro)
 • Dabarre • Boqolhore •
 Catherine Lowe
 Besteman, (1999)
 Unraveling Somalia : race,
 violence, and the legacy
 of slavery

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