Tuesday, May 10, 2011

Tariikhdii hore ee Awdal iyo Axmed Guurey

Adal Empire
Dir Era
I researched Adal, the Islamic kigndom that existed between Eritrea all the way to Coastal City Berber.

I thought Adal was mostly Afar and Arab kingdom, but I'm suprised Somalis have connection to Adal.

When and where Adal Empire was born:
*It was on the 13th century that came to the light, in Horn of Africa, one of the strongest Empire that existed in East Africa. Adal Empire had its origine in the city of Zeyla, situated until today in the northern region of the former Democratic Republic of Somalia. The father of that State was King Omar D. Ahmed (nicknamed Aw-Barkhadle). The king who had a long live, occupied the throne for many years. When he passed away, he left behind him many children, mainly males. Among them, the successors to the throne who inherited the kingdom. Later, Adal Empire became an Islamic Empire that expanded the religion of Islam with determination, into the entire Horn of Africa. Remarked by its faithful actions, other Islamic States in the world called Adal Empire "Diraasal-Islaam".

During the centuries that followed, Adal Empire was engaged into many wars against the Abysinians (Habasha), where thousands and thousands individuals died. At that time, Adal Empire became the most loved Islamic State among the entire Islamic Nations because of its determination to its cause; its strong judicial system and its faithful expansion of Islam into the territories of Abyssinians and Galas (Oromos). At that period of time, Adal Empire had a strong alliance with the Ottoman Empire of Turkey, while the Portuguese supported the Abyssinians.
Geographical location of Adal Empire:
In order for you to better situate the indications that will be mentioned, you are invited to refer to the Map of Africa in 1808 as well as other maps. Saying that, to the North, Adal Empire was situated up to the region of Danaakil (actually, North of the Republic of Djibouti, populated by Afar people). While to the South, the empire had its border up to the region of Ras-Xaafuun (actually called Hays and Maydh, located in today's Region of Sanaac). From the East, Adal Empire as well as the actual State of Awdal, had the entire code facing the Red Sea while to the West, it was situated up to the Region of Shawa (in Ethiopia), also called Shawa at that time. In fact, Shawa was the base of the Kingdom of Abyssinia and today, it's the home of its descendents leaded by the Ethiopian government, with its capital city of Addis-Ababa.

Composition of Adal Empire:
Adal Empire was composed of seven (7) States. According to the size of their land and the military forces of each state, here is their names: Ifaad, Dawaaro, Araabiini, Hadaya, Sharqa, Baali and Daara, where each of them had its own government. Please refer to the map titled Map of Adal Empire (13th century). The largest and strongest State Ifaad, known from Egypt and "Shaam" as Zeyla's land, became later the dominant and the central one with its capital city of Zeyla. Ifaad will lead the entire Empire and will face many challenges. According to the historians of that period, Ifaad was large as 20 days of walk from North to South and 15 days of walk from East to West. Its military force was composed of 15000 cavaliers and 20000 of infantries.

In his book titled "Masaalikal-Absaar"(this is in Somali spelling), the Egyptian author, Subhul Ahsha mentioned that Zeyla was the nucleus city of Adal Empire. Continuing into the description of this city, he added that Zeyla was "The City of Light", which had many Mosques and many schools, where all kind of subjects were taught. In fact, Mr. Ahsha described Zeylac as "The Place" where one can acquire any kind of knowledge that may be taught in that period of time. The author added in his description that the people were 100% Muslim. Mr. Ahsha said that they were gathering in large number into the Mosques of the city, as faithful believers to Islam. According to this writing, these Mosques could be compared to the municipal libraries that can be found today in big cities of our century. In addition of that, schools were places where people use to enjoy meeting, share knowledge, discuss about social issues and debate intellectually. As a matter of fact, Zeyla was known as the place where the knowledge was at the merci of everyone.

Well, now that you understand the value of Adal Empire, it is reasonable that you ask what did happen to that great Empire, how did it collapse? Who were the people living under the ruling of that great Empire, well known by its strong judicial system? Who were in fact the civilized nation living in that period of time and what did become their descendants? For the time been, I need your patient in order for me to work into the information that I collected. Meaning that you will know for sure what did happen to that great Adal Empire, very soon. Concerning your questions about the people of that nation or what did they become and who are the descendants, I'm inviting you to click on "People" under "About Awdal" category and voila!

The Adal of yesterday is the Awdal of today:
First of all, though the Empire that we mention all along was called Adal Empire, in their mother language (Somali), the people of that nation called "Cadal". Translating the word Cadal into Latin gave Adal. With the time, people changed the word Adal (Cadal) to Awdal and that is how the Awdal of today is referred to the Adal Empire of yesterday.

The State of Awdal borders with Djibouti from the North-West, Ethiopia from the West, the former Democratic Republic of Somalia from the South and, the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea from the North-East through the entire Easter coastal region. The region has an estimated land area of 22,000 sq. km and a 170 km long coastline on the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea. Awdal experiences three distinct climatic seasons; the rainy season which starts in March and ends in July, the dry season which starts in August and lasts until November and a kind of Mediterranean Fall, from December to February. High temperatures of above 35C and 20C are observed along the coastal settlements during the summer and winter months respectively. Average annually rainfall is between 450-500 mm. the State of Awdal consists of four districts: Boroma - with Boroma City as the regional capital city, Zeila, Lughaya and Baki.

As mentioned above, the State of Awdal corresponds to the former Adal Empire, which became Gadabursi Land under the British colonial, in the 19th century. Later, it was called Awdal Region until the disintegration of the dictatorial regime of the former Democratic Republic of Somali, in 1991. the State of Awdal did not officially proclaim yet its status to the rest of the world and it's not recognized yet as an Independent Nation by the United Nations but so far, the Awdalites live in their homeland under the ruling of local authorities, with freedom. After the collapse of the Somali government in 1991, Awdalites continued to maintain a stable existence, despite the economic infrastructure left behind by British and humanitarian organizations assistance programs. The State of Awdal is one of the African's largest source of incense and myrrh, which are forestry products. Also, the Awdal's chief exports include livestock, fish, hides and skins and, petroleum products. Nowadays, as one of the most recently established nation, the State of Awdal presents a new field of study for scholars and investors.

Ahmad Guray was a Dir Somali (his mother was a Harari Ethiopian though...) The Dir are the northernmost of the 6 Somali Clans, They include the Gadabursi of Northwest Somaliland and the Iessa of Djibouti.

The capital of Adal Sultanate was Harrar (which was an Islamic center) and its major ports were Zeila and Sahil (now Berbera) Ahmad the Left-handed's army included alot of recently Islamisized Somalis from the east (like the Ogaden, and Majerteen) and also a lot of Oromo and it also covered almost all of the Afar regions. It was truly the first and only 100% Cushitic Empire.

And man, did he give the Abbysinians a run for their money! He conquered lands as deep into the Ethiopian interior as Lake Tana (the source of the blue Nile) and he was killed in battle there. Only for his wife to carry on the first Jihad in the Horn of Africa.

He was also the first non European to use cannons and muskets in his warfare

Somali Origin
Dir Era
Due to a lack of written evidence of the early history of the Somaal, numerous historical perspectives on the origins of the Somaal have been presented. According to Arab historical sources the ancestors of the Somali people migrated south from the shores of the Red Sea into the Cushitic-speaking Oromo region from approximately the 10 th century, with the Oromos displacing the Bantu-speaking people further south. According to another source based in northern oral history, the Somali are a hybrid group originating in the marriages of two Arab patriarchs to local Dir women, whose descendants migrated from the Gulf of Aden towards Northern Kenya in the tenth century.

Most contemporary scholars however argue that the ancestors of the Somaal came not from Arabia but from an area between southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya and linguists trace Somali to the Cushitic language group. Based on a hybrid of archaeological, anthropological and historical linguistic evidence, it is now widely asserted that the Somaal originated in the lake regions of current day southern Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Malawi, as a sub-group of the Cushitic peoples. In the decades BC, it is believed that the sub-group known as the Omo-Tana moved northwards from the lake highland areas until reaching the Tana river and the Indian Ocean. Some settled along the Lamu peninsula, situated near the northern Kenya and southern Somalia border, while others continued to move northwards into southern Somalia. In southern Somalia patterns of farming and pastoralism provided a mixed economy for the Omo-Tana group that continued to move from the Lamu peninsula into the Somali peninsula. It is here that the initial references to Somaal were asserted. It is believed that by the 1 st Century AD the Somaal, who had continued to migrate northwards, had reached the Red Sea and occupied most of the Horn of Africa. During the 8 th to 10 th Century the movement of Somaal brought them into contact with coastal groups.

It is known that coastal settlements of non-Somali people existed well before the 10 th century. The coastal culture was hybrid, absorbing influences of the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Persians, Greeks, Arabs and Romans who came to trade and to tap frankincense and myrrh along the Gulf of Aden and sometimes also to settle. The market town of Zelia (Saylac) dates back to the 6 th century BC, when merchants there traded goods from the African interior such as hides, leopard and giraffe skins, ostrich feathers, ivory, rhinoceros horns and slaves. Coffee came from the Abyssinian highlands to supply a large local market. Saylac later became the centre of the Islamic culture of the northern region; the capital of the medieval state of Adal.

On the whole urban commerce and Islam was more developed in the south. There, coastal towns came into contact with Swahili trading settlements and ships sailing from the Indian subcontinent, China and southwest Asia. By the 9th century Mogadishu was the most prosperous of these towns.

Between the 11 th and 13 th centuries many Somali converted to Islam. During this time, many of the Prophet’s earliest followers fled the Arabian Peninsula to seek refuge in Africa, where the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia often afforded them protection. This penetration from the peninsula sparked another population shift, this time from the coastal areas into the interior. The political unit that developed in the interior from the 13 th century onward that forms a prototype for contemporary political structures was the diya-paying group. In this system groups belonging to the same clan have a contractual alliance that joins them together in payment and receipt of damages to or from another group. These groups are governed by Heer, a social contract that incorporated elements of Islamic law and common laws determined by consensus among the males of the community. In addition Somali songs and poetry took on the social and political importance they retain today, preserving oral histories of the clan as well as expressing political ideas and military ambitions.

During the 14 th century, goodwill continued to exist between the Ethiopian Christian kingdom and the settled Muslims in the Somalia region, since the highlands made the kingdom largely inaccessible for Islamic conversion campaigns. In the early 15 th century, however, the Ethiopian kind Yeshaq invaded Muslim kingdoms in the Adal region forcing them to relocate to current day Djibouti. During the 15 th and 16 th centuries, centralised state systems emerged within the kingdoms of Ethiopia and Adal, with each of the kingdoms fighting off domination by the other. During the 16 th century, numerous retaliation campaigns were carried out by both kingdoms, and the arrival of the son of Vasco De Gama aided the Ethiopians in routing the Muslim operations. By the mid-16 th century, the repeated Ethiopian excursions into Saylac caused trade and the Islamic cultural centre to shift to Berbera, with both these cities falling under the sphere of power exerted by the sharifs of Mocha (in current day Yemen). By the 17 th century, Saylac and Berbera fell under the flag of the Ottoman empire. The continued fighting in the region, caused the locus of power to shift more inland towards the Ujuuraan State, at the convergence of the Shabeelle and Jubba rivers. The power of Ujuuraan diminished with the arrival of the Portuguese on the East African coast.

From the late 15 th century until the early 17 th century migrations brought clans more or less into the regions they occupy today. In the early 17 th century, “Ahmed the left-handed”, with the help of Ottoman troops, conquered a large part of Abyssinia, establishing his capital at Harar.

Between the 16 th and 18 th centuries trade between the interior and the coast increased and clans struggled to establish control over the caravan routes to the Banaadir coast. Eventually, the Somali clans dislodged the Arab-dominated merchant oligarchies in the coastal towns. An exception was that in the early 19th century, the Banaadir coast was nominally controlled by the Omani Sultanate, then based in Zanzibar.

Trading in slaves became significant during that time. Somali landholders had long made use of the slave labour as farming was considered a humble occupation. Bantu-speaking slaves captured in Malawi and Tanzania harvested grain and cotton in the Shabeelle and Jubba river areas. Oromo women and children were used as domestic slaves and concubines.

The fatuh al Habash mentions the Habar Magadle (Maha Dir) by name as one group which Gureey try to draw into his camp.Nevertheless, the Habar Awal and Habar Yonis joined the Gurey jihaad.

For Example, the Makaahil of the Habar Awal was the son of an Amhara princesse who was broght back to Somali by a Habar Awal worrior. The Amhara princes asked her captor one favour which to name the first son. After she bore the son she named him Makahil "Micheal" the angel. As a matter of fact many Mahe Dir like the Habar xabuush or Habar Jeclo were also named in such a case.

According to the Fatuh Al Habash, "the fierce and rebellious Isaaq, Issas, and Afar clans who lived close to these groups and was know as "Oda Cali" caused Guurey many problems because as soon as the attacked the Habash enemies and gained some booty they would return to their territorie this angered Imam Ahmed who wanted a displined army. Ali and Mataan a brothers in-law of Gurey and Ahmed Nuur a knephew or Gurey, who later married Gurey's wife Batiyo Delwambero(Dawmbiro). It is interesting to not The name Dalwambero. It is no accidental it sounds like Dombiro. The Darood Somali clans under Imam Ahmed Gurey where led by another Garad who was know as Guuray and he was married to Delwambera's sister Mardiya. It was at this period that the Madaxweyn Dir enlisted the Yabbare, Geeri, and Harla, also it was at this juncture of history that the Darood confuse history.

1) The Darood confuse to distinct persons. Namely, Imam Ahmed Ibrahim Ghazali Aragsame the proper Ahmed Guray and the Garad Gurey who led the Darood armies. After centuries they think that their Garad whose name is mentioned in the Fatuh Al Habash as Guray is the same as Ahmed Gurey. So the legacy of Axmed Gurey is not limited to the Gababuursi or Ciisa or Gurgure but as touched all Somalis.

Sheeikh Cabdul Qadir al Jeylaani (Jilani's Biography) Patron Sain of the Somalis.

Boqortoyad Awdal Ancient Gadabuursi civilization Gurrey

As the direct descendants of Awdal (formerly Adal Empire) inhabitants, the Samaroon people, well known as Gadabursi, are the citizens of Awdal. Despite the so-called SomaliLand Administration who wants to govern the North Regions of the former Somalia, the people of Awdal and the local authority are commited to the creation of an autonomous State of Awdal, the Northern region of the former Somalia. The people of Awdal are well known not only by the bravery, discipline and courage of their ancestors who were the rulers and the leaders of the entire East Africa, centuries ago but also, by their civilization and the consciousness of the existence of their Nation. In fact, the name Gadabursi derives from "Gado Birsi", which means expansion of land. From the 13th century up to about the 19th century, before the arrival of the British Empire, the people of Awdal were true freedom fighters. During that period of time, they have been through many conflicts and wars against the Abyssinians, the Galas and they even fought against the Portuguese. Without going into the detail of the history of that period of time in this section, let me briefly highlight one of the well-known freedom fighter who left his mark; Ahmed Guray.

Born in 1506 at Hubat located between Harar and Galdaysa, Ahmed Guray lost his father when he was still a child and, an employee of his father adopted him, treating him as his only son. Many years later, Ahmed married Baati, the daughter of the king of Zeyla, named Mahfud. With the help that he received from king Mahfud, Ahmed Guray formed a strong army to fight against the Kingdom of Harar and defeated King Abubakar of Harar. The first battle of Ahmed Guray was in fact a long waited conflict in order to get back the Region of Harar and to free the Somali people living in that region. After having defeated the throne, the brother of Ahmed Guray had replaced King Abubakar. Indeed, the inhuman ruling of that Kingdom has been changed and the people got back the joy of the live and freedom with justice. During the following years, Ahmed Guray prepared his troop to a more bigger conflict, once again to fight for the freedom of the people of the region. This time Ahmed had to confront the Abyssinians, in order to bring down their taxation ruling and their discriminatory policy against non-Abyssinian. He formed a coalition of Somali (mainly Gadabursi) and Afar people, whom were the most discriminated that the Kingdom of Abyssinia was forcing and imposing unjustifiable taxation rules. In 1535, Ahmed Guray conquered 3/4 of the Abyssinians land and, at the age of 35, he became the Emperor of Abyssinia. At that time Ahmed came back to Harar, where he established his Kingdom and he was nominated the Emperor of Abyssinians, Somali and Afar people and, he created a centralised government and putted in place regional states.

As the history teaches us the reality of the past, we can find among the Samaroon people, as we do in other Somali ethics, a lot of great individuals who stood up for the freedom of their people and the dignity of their nation. The Gadabursi are civilized people, who are conform with the practices of their patriotism, respect the environment of their land and follow the changes relative to the time. Saying that, the Samaroon people are well known by their dedication to the education and business. Let me remind you that in the 1800 when the British Empire came to the East Cost of Somalia, they found civilized people who were doing business the way the western countries were doing it, from coast to coast and, from China to Central Africa. Indeed, that people were Samaroon, our ancestors. Soon, the British government sent its own business people in mission to that land, in order to understand and interact with the local people. Dear readers, let me refer you to the *Gadabursy Treaty that the authority based in Zeyla, Awdal at that time, signed with the British Empire, in 1884. In fact, this treaty tells us that the Gadabursi people were not dominated easily by the British but rather, they created a kind of business partnership with the British authority.

Nowadays, a priority for the people and the local authority of Awdal is strengthening the security situation of the northern regions of the former Somalia. Actually, while this people is working hard to keep the peace alive, improve prosperity and revitalise the socio-economic of the region by creating micro-economic business, the so-called SomaliLand Administration is engaged to disrupt the social live of the entire region. In fact, almost a decade after the collapse of the former centralised Somali State, Awdal has become a haven of peace in a conflict ridden the Horn of Africa. Unfortunately, this reality has yet to be recognized by the international communities, wrongly informed by an international media that focuses entirely on the inter-clan militia violence in central and southern areas of Somalia.

# posted by Dir Era @ 3:44 AM 0 comments links to this post

How Islam Reached Ethiopia through Zeila Somali
Ethiopia:The Haven of the First Hijra (Migration): An African Nation is the Muslims’ first refuge by Najib Mohammed In Islamic history and tradition, Ethiopia (Abyssinia or Al-Habasha) is known as the "Haven of the First Migration or Hijra." For Muslims, Ethiopia is synonymous with freedom from persecution and emancipation from fear. Ethiopia was a land where its king, Negus or Al-Najashi, was a person renowned for justice and in whose land human rights were cherished. The meaning and the significance of "Hijra" is embodied in the Islamic calendar. Since its inception, the Islamic calendar represents a history of perpetual struggle between truth and falsehood, faith and blasphemy, freedom and oppression, light and darkness, and between peace and war. The first migration [Hijra] of the Companions and relatives of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) to Ethiopia celebrates the birth of freedom of expression and beliefs, whereas, the Second Migration of the Prophet Muhammad to the Madinah celebrates the end of oppression. "And dispute you not with the People of the Book, except with means better, unless it be with those of them who inflict wrong; But say, we believe in the Revelation which has come down to us and in that which came down to you: Our God and your God is one; and it is to Him we bow in Islam: (Quran 29:46). History has shown that the first migration to Ethiopia and the second migration to Madinah have indeed laid down the foundation on which Islam, as a universal religion, was built. Ever since that experience, the Muslim community, wherever they settled, shifted from the positive of minority to majority, from weakness to permanent strength, from tribalism to universal brotherhood that knows no defined political boundaries. The Quran says: "O mankind! We created you from a single soul, male and female, and made you into nations and tribes, so that you may come to know one another. Truly the most honored of you in God’s sight is the greatest of you in piety. God is All-Knowing, All-Aware (Quran 49:13). With this spirit in mind, Bilal ibn Rabah, an Ethiopian slave living in Makkah, became a leading companion of the Prophet Muhammad. It was not a coincidence that his native land, Ethiopia, was the country chosen by the Prophet when his followers needed protection and freedom form oppression. Muhammad Haykal, author of the "Life of Muhammad" said that the Prophet Muhammad trusted that his followers and relatives would be better off if they migrated to a country whose religion was Christianity-a scriptural religion whose Prophet was Jesus son of Mary. He was not afraid that his followers would convert and give up their faith in favor of any other established religion. He was more convinced that Islam would be more protected in its infancy in a fertile and prosperous land ruled by the Scripture than among the ignominious pagans of Arabia. The companions and relatives of the Prophet were prepared to sacrifice and suffer all sorts of hardship and alienation rather than give up their own conviction and freedom. The Prophet gave his companions the following letter to give the king when they reached Ethiopia. "In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, Most Gracious, From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah to the Negus Al-Asham, king of Abyssinia. Peace, I praise Allah to you, the King, the Holy, the Peace, the Faithful, the Watcher, and I bear witness that Jesus, son of Mary, is the Spirit of Allah and His Word, Which He cast to Mary the virgin, the good, the pure, so that she conceived Jesus. Allah created him from His Spirit and His Breathing as He created Adam by His Hand and His Breathing. I call you to Allah, the Unique without partner, and to His obedience, and to follow me and believe in that which came to me, for I am the Messenger of Allah. I have sent to you my cousin Jafar with a number of Muslims, and when they come, entertain them without haughtiness, for I invite you and your armies to Allah. I have accomplished my work and my admonition, so receive my advice. Peace upon all those that follow True Guidance." In view of this determination, the Ethiopian king, Negus As’ha’mah, undoubtedly recognized the significance of the Prophet Muhammad as a Messenger of Allah, and the need to treat the Muslims with kindness and dignity. The Christian church leaders who listened to the debate between the Muslims learned the truth about Islam. Thus, they accepted the universality of the message of the Prophet based on the truthful similarity with the Scripture which prophesied the advent of Muhammad as a Prophet. The Quran describes their belief in these words: "And when they listen to revelation received by the Messenger, you will see their eyes overflowing with tears, for they recognize the Truth. They pray: ‘Our Lord! we believe; write us among the witnesses" (Quran 5:83). In the sixth year of the Hijra, the Prophet wrote letters to different rulers of the world inviting them to Islam. Among the first leaders to receive the letter was the King of Ethiopia (Abyssinia). This second letter was sent with Amir ibn Umayya and reads as follows: In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, Most Gracious. From Muhammad,t the Messenger of Allah, to the Negus Al-Asham, king of Abyssinia, Peace is for the one who follows the right guidance and believes in Allah and His Messenger. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah. He is one and has no partners. He has neither wife nor child. And Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger. I call you to Islam for I am His Messenger. Accept Islam and you will be safe. O people of the Book! Come to something which is common between us and you, that we worship none by Allah; nor associate anything with Him; nor make any other our Lord besides Allah. If they turn away, then tell them we are obedient to Allah. If you deny it, the burden of the Christians, your people, will fall upon you." The seal of Muhammad, the Messenger. The king received the envoy of the Prophet with great respect and showed him all the honor he deserved, and accepted Islam despite the objection of his family and the Church. The king wrote back saying"...I testify that you are the Messenger of Allah, true and confirming those before you. I have given my allegiance to you and to your nephew and I have surrendered myself through him to the Lord of the Worlds." In recognition of his kindness and when it was revealed to the Prophet that the Ethiopian king whom he had never met in person passed away, the Prophet offered the first funeral prayer in absentia in Islam (Salatul Ghaib) for the king who was named Ahmed Al-Najashi after he reverted to Islam. Even though the family of the Ethiopian king, joined by the church, revolted against him because of his acceptance of Islam, and tried to stop the spreading of Islam, Islam rapidly and peacefully spread south of the Anunite kingdom. By the fourteenth century, there were seven Islamic Sultanates [kingdoms]. The Sultanate of Yifat, Dawaro, Arbabini, Hadiya, Shakara, Bali, and Dara survived as Muslim enclaves until the northern Christian, with the help of European colonial powers, mainly from Portugal, expanded by force and by the late 18th century, formed "Ethiopia" as we know it today. Based on the Europe World Year Book 1991 and UNICEF/ETHIOPIA the estimated number of Ethiopian Muslims, which ranges between 23.9 million to 27.7 million (45 percent-52 percent), ranks as the third largest Muslim population in Africa after Nigeria and Egypt. Overall, it is three times as large as Somalia, Guinea or Niger, 1.2 times as large as the Sudan’s Muslim population; twice as large as Yemen or Saudi Arabia or Syria; six times as large as Libya; 1.5 times as large as Iraq; 1.1 times as large as Algeria or Morocco. Yet, despite the scale of abuses and suffering of the Muslim people of Ethiopia, their agony was largely ignored by the world community, especially by the Muslim world. According to Ethiopian Muslims’ estimate, their number is between 65 and 70 percent of the total population. Government after succeeding government made the effort to portray Ethiopia as an island of Christianity by minimizing the number of Ethiopian Muslims. For centuries, the policy of fear and distrust forced the monarchy, which was overthrown in 1974, and the church to espouse an oppressive posture in relation to the Muslim populace, a majority in Ethiopia, consisting of ethnically diverse groups largely living in rural areas. Moreover, their distrustful policy towards the surrounding neighbors led to centuries of unwarranted isolation from the rest of the world. The monarchs, with the blessing of the Church, committed unparalleled genocide against the Muslims of Ethiopia in order to create a one-religion and, if possible, a one-ethnic empire. In their effort to uproot Islam from the country, they have employed the services of western missionary groups who relentlessly devoted their time and financial resources for the main purpose of converting Muslims, especially orphan children of famine and drought victims, to Christianity. By contrast, any religious, educational, cultural or trade access to the Ethiopian Muslims from the surrounding neighbors used to provoke the anxiety of the isolationists who dominated the traditional political power structure over 700 years. Very often when the Ethiopian Muslims performed Hajj or Umra pilgrimages in large numbers, it is considered as a sudden rise of "Islamic Fundamentalism" in spite of the fact that the annual pilgrimage to Mecca is one of the sacred pillars of Islam for those who can financially afford it. To build Islamic schools was out of question. Yet Muslims were forced to financially contribute for church buildings, and in most cases their fertile lands were confiscated and handed over to the church. Prior to 1974, the church owned a third of the fertile lands in the country. To build their mosques, Muslims had to obtain building permits from the church, and in most cases they are denied. The injustices committed against the Muslims of Ethiopia are so enormous that it is impossible to fully detail them here. It is indeed Divine intervention from Allah that Islam not only survived but also flourished in Ethiopia. The struggle of Ethiopian Muslims to save their religion and protect their basic God-given human rights went unnoticed by the outside world. A few among the most honored Muslim leaders in Ethiopia who struggled hard to save Islam by traveling throughout the country and teaching the religion are Sheikh Abadir of Harar, Sheikh Nur Hussein of Bale, Sheich Aba Budelah who is known as Aba Ramuz of Abret in Chancho, and Sheikh Tola and Sheikh Muhammad Sani Habib of Wollo. These Muslim legends, with the help and Mercy of Allah, left behind a legacy of true dedication and struggle for us to emulate. There are thousands of their students who are following their footsteps. Among the well-known Ulemas nowadays is Sheikh Muhammad Wale of Darra. He has been incarcerated since February 1995 for no reason other than trying to teach Islam and advocate the human rights of the Muslims. Of late, it has been observed that the Ethiopian government-in conjunction with the Eritrean government and with the financial support of the American and Israeli governments, has revived a dormant Muslim phobia anchored in isolationist mentality and historically engendered feuds with neighbors across the Red Sea, and neighboring countries in East and Northeast Africa such as Somalia and the Sudan. This act is a source of threat to the political and economic stability of the region. The coordination of anti-Islamic and anti-Muslim policies of the Ethiopian and Eritrean governments started with the subjugation of their own Muslim communities. The Ethiopian government has fallen into the trap of the false beliefs of the New World Order. Espousing any policy that undermines freedom and is injurious to the self-image of Muslims is considered in the interest of the stability of the region from the so-called invaders or what euphemistically is known in the modern parlance of the political and religious opposition as fundamentalists. This fabricated paternalistic insult to the Muslim is certainly detrimental to dialogue, peace and stability. Since the peaceful December 1994 demonstration of Ethiopian Muslims demanding justice and equality, the government has taken drastic actions to suppress the Muslims. community leaders elected to run the day to day affairs of the Muslim community are still languishing in the main prison of Addis Ababa. Quranic schools were closed and all governmental and non-governmental Islamic humanitarian organizations were ordered to close and leave the country. Tens of thousands of imported written materials about Islam are sitting in the custom warehouses and are ordered to be burned. Yet again, the Ethiopian government has deliberately failed to refrain from direct involvement in the internal affairs of the Muslim people by conducting an election for the Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs and having its cronies control the Council. Most of the so-called elected are not religiously qualified to run the affairs of the Muslims. The Council’s first action taken was to pass a ruling that any volunteer who teaches Quran in mosques or any individual who wants to participate in Dawa work must obtain a license. This procedure is used as a control mechanism. By contrast, there are over 100 church groups freely roaming the country teaching their religion. There are 96 different weekly and monthly Christian magazines and booklets flooding the country by the millions. Their primary target, as one official of the World Council of Churches stated, is to Christianize the entire population of Ethiopia. It is irrefutable and historically true that the Muslim majority in Ethiopia have been the victims of horrific persecution for a long time under Ethiopian Christian rulers who are sustained by European powers. The Ethiopian rulers, from the time right after Ahmed Al-Najashi all the way down to the present regime, have developed a deep-rooted hatred for Islam. Religious persecution and cultural domination, characterized by the destruction of mosques and Islamic schools, detention and even execution of local Imams, religious leaders, Sheikhs, and the burning of the copies of the Quran and other religious books was rampant under the Christian rulers of Ethiopia. It is time for Muslims around the world to open their eyes and see what is happening to their brothers and sisters in Ethiopia. The land of the first Hijra is being groomed once again by the enemies of equality, justice and human rights to be the bastion of Christianity in East Africa. This i the New World Order in practice. Insha Allah, they will fail miserably. Allah reminds us in the Quran: "Remember how the unbelievers plotted against thee, to keep thee in bonds, or slay thee, or get thee out of our home. Thy plot and plan. And Allah too plans, but the best of planners is Allah" (Quran 8:30). Allah’s Apostle said: A Muslim is a brother of another Muslim, so he should not oppress him, nor should he hand him over to an oppressor. Whoever fulfilled the needs of his brother, Allah will fulfill his needs; whoever brought his Muslim brother out of discomfort, Allah will bring him out of the discomforts of the Day of Resurrection, and whoever screened a Muslim, Allah will screen him on the Day of Resurrection (narrated by Abdullah bin Umar) When this article was first published, Najib Mohammed was the President of the Washington, D.C.-based Federation of Ethiopian Muslims in North America (FEMNA).

# posted by Dir Era @ 3:36 AM 0 comments links to this post

History Of Islam in Somalia from Prophet Mohamed's era
Shortly after the Hijra (670's) the Quraish or prophet's tribe started persucuting muslims and hundreds of the prophets followers fled across the Indian Ocean to present day Zaila and through Erithrea. It was in this period that the Somalis and their cousines the Afar-Oromo-Harararis and other nations of the horn of Africa converted to Islam. According to most Historians the people of Zaila who were of Dir origin and Issas-Gadabursi-Isaaq origins, Islam became well established by 800 A.D. By the 1300 century the whole horn of Africa up to Kenya and Zanziber we have Muslim cities flourishing and Muslim sulltanes like Ifat and Adal all over Somali. As a matter of fact, it was in 1300's that the ancient Somali saint Sheikh Yusuf Alkownin (Aw Barkadle) innvented the Alif-La-Kordhabee or Somali way of reading and learning to read the Quran scriptures. And around this time, another Sheikh by the name of Sheikh Hussein Al Bale of the Bale Oromo Arsi region left Northren Somali and Islam was well established in Southren Ethiopia all the way to northren Ethiopia. So the Islam of Somalia dates back to the time of the Hijra and many Somalis became muslims even before the Prophet Islamized the Arabs and Islam succeded in Arabia. Later in he 1400 AD, the Qadiriya Sufi order of Sheikh Cabdul Qadir Al-Jilani spread to Somalia and Ethiopia revitalizing the ancient faith and further incorporating more Kushitics. By 1456 AD, he Muslim Kings of Ifat, led by a Somali worrior, Imam by the name Imam Axmed Gurey (Left-Handed) was fighting Ethiopian Christian Habasha kings who tried to conquer Somalilands.

# posted by Dir Era @ 2:57 AM 0 comments links to this post

Debate: Dood Dirta waqooyi ay ka yeelatay tarikhda direed
ASALAMA CALEYKUM WALAALAHEYGA DIREED WAXAN JECLEYSTAY IN AN IDIN LA WADAAGO 2000 BARIGII SHIRKII CARTA DOOD AAN DIRKA KAGA DOODNAY ANAGOO AH DIRTA WAQOOYI. AADNA WAXAN UGU FARXAY GARAADKA IYO DHIIRIDA IYO MASKAXDA AY QOLDIINAN DIREED AAD KU DOODAN. MAHADSANID OGAADA DADKIINU WEY IDIIN HAN WEYN YIHIIN WAQOOYIGA. ARR QALDHO IYO AGON TARIIKHI IYO RUUXAN IYO WIIL Q ,SURAHA WAXAYAABO FARA BADAN AYAAD NOOG KORDHISEEN. WAXA YAABO BADAN OON KA GUURIYAY SHEEKADINAN WAAN DAABICI. GUUULEYSO DIREEY This ancient shiekh was a Somali - prof. Andreski (the famous linguist) interviewed his descendant in Merca - the head of the main mosque is a direct descendant. Merca is a Somali town on the Indian Ocean (inhabited the Somali Dir clan). The custodians of the shrine/tomb of shiekh Hussein are Somalis - the tradional custodians have always been Somali. Again the role of Somalis in propergating Islam has never been recognised by Western Scholar? Why? Even the Maldive Islands off India rembere how the Somali Sheikh (13th century) called Shiekh. Awbarkhadle came and converted them - he is remembered in Somalia - and also appears in Arabic/Ethiopic MSS. in associating with the Walsama Dynasty (Muslim Dynasty eastern Shoa/Hawas - old Somali-Afar Sultans of Awfat/Adal) - Waqooyi Galbeed Holy shrine of Shiekh Hussein is an extremely impotant Islamic > centre - This ancient shiekh was a Somali - prof. Andreski (the famous > linguist) interviewed his descendant in Merca - the head of the main mosque is > a direct descendant. Merca is a Somali town on the Indian Ocean (inhabited the > Somali Dir clan). The custodians of the shrine/tomb of shiekh Hussein are > Somalis - the tradional custodians have always been Somali. Again the role of > Somalis in propergating Islam has never been recognised by Western Scholar? > Why? > - yes > the Somalis are many things and our unique origins has yet to give up its > secrets. Both African and Arab - the Somalis are unique. { } > Qadair - prof. of Somali History - University of Western Somalia (to be built > one day!) Somali Galbed. First the Harala were not Semitic speaker, the Harala were Somalis > who built who are remebered in the Jigiga area as having built numerous wells > and other ruins. The Harla have now become absorbed by various Esa (Isa) Somali > groups and other have become part of the surrounding Darod and Dir clans. The > Harla appear as one of tribes of Adal and from their nomadic lifestyle and > nature they are included as one of those tribes that fought against Amda Seyon > when he invaded Adal. Qadair - prof. of Somali History - University of Western Somalia (to be built one day!) Somali Galbed. Tusaale kale anigoo ah reer Boorama ayaan waxaan xaqiiqsanahay in aniga iyo Ciise iyo reer Diri-dhabe(madaxweyne Dir) wada dhalaney ahna rag direed oo aaminsan in aanan aheyn (carab origin) laakinse nahay somali (origin).....waxaan u maleynayaa hadii aad booqatey Djibouti ama Ethiopia in aadan sinaba u kala saari karin hab dhaqan ahaaneed, luuqad iyo muuqaalba who is who qabiilada Dirka ah (Gurguraha, Akishaha, jaarsada, Ciisaha, Gadubiirsega iyo Isaaqaba oo aad ku tilmaamtey (carab origin). Simply you cannot completely differ anyone from the other unless they tell you their clan name. Hadaba sheekooyinka caruurta habeenkii lagu seexiyo ha la iman golahan. Please next time spare the school yard talk and use good arguments which definitely has a very very logical consistence. Ps. Kala reeb Isaaq iyo Darood meel ma wada galaane, hadii aad Darood tahay daliilso naftaada. Shoodhe yare. In article Ha u hadlin sidii hablihii waanan ogahay in aadan aniga ila hadli karin waayo somali dadku kala taqaan balse waxaan ka dhashey qabiil dawlado leh oo calamo u taagan yihiin qawmiyadoodana ixtiraama iyagana la tuugsado oo macaawinooyinka baxsha.... For examble...Djibouti Republic(Madoobe Dir), Somaliland Republic(Mahad Dir), Ethiopia (Madaxweyne/Mahad Dir)Region Five[somali national region] and South Somalia(Mahad Dir). How about you? ...let me say Puntland (althougt there are many non-Darood living too)what else....maybe half of Gedo...just tell me where else you're dominated or granted in whole horn of Africa. Sorry you get trap...no way out!!! We are in 2000 waxaadan aheyna ha is moodin waatii shaley dhibka kugu dhigtaye oo iska ilaali in aad ku noolaato waxa loo yaqaan "been isku sheegida" waa waano intaa. byee now and don't mention my name. Nobody suddenly here misses your name to mention as it has no original form at all(you happen to claim someone(arab) who never recognized/accepted your existence as you have no brotherhood/family circle in somali origin of IRIR SAMAALE). Somali waxey kala tahay dad somali asal ah iyo somali la dhaqan is moodey somali ee sidaa ula soco. Simple answer to your senseless claim. Eritrea & Ethiopia look much alike somalis, but never have Arab origin. Do their shape entitles them to claim arab(origin) father?....huh huhu...gax gax gax gax. what a senseless hoax claim!!! Ps: Ha sheegan been oo ha is masabidan sidii hablihii ee u yeel doodahaaga daliil cad. Galbeede First of all, it's Daroods who would love to call Isaaqs for Arab since late 1950s as they looked for a partner to beg Arab grant/charity as HADRAAWI mentioned. So no wonder you still keep saying "it is known among us to claim arab". Well sometime it's your joke, but we are now talking a real serious thing! If you're from Las-Anood surely you don't like this brotherhood between Hargeisa & Borama as you already cleared your stand by siding Puntland to interfere sovereign Somaliland affairs. Isaaqs/Gadubiirse don't understand why some people get mad and panic whenever they re-evaluate their Dir kins and work together. This probably isn't a new subject to rise like politically manipulated (Harti) group, but only refreshing a long disappeared brotherhood of (Dir)ism between Hargeisa, Borama, south somalia & Djibouti. Don't blame shoodhe yare for recognising where he stands today. He said what he has to, like it or not every somali knows his kin much better than 1990. So, Don't pretend like you know Borama people better than us(their brothers) because that is t Idoor WaaDiree Waryaahee muxumud ama malax, miyaadan ogeyn in iminka Darood iska daayeen sheegashadii carabta kolkey ku badbaadi kari waayeen oo ay iminka sheegtaan ethiopian(quti). secondaly, adeer afkaaga ka daa Isaaq hana isbarbar dhigin Isaaq iyo qoladaada waayo Isaaq waa qabiil asal iyo raad ku leh somalinamada dhabta ah laguna yaqaan in ay yihiin dir----irir. Ma sheekadii faqashtaad noola timi oo aad ku kala saar saareyseen umado walaalo ah si aad u badbaadaan. dee iminka siyaasadiinii cigaal baa kashifayoo generationkayaga waa ay og yihiin cidii ay ka yihiin somali. Xagee jirtey markuu awoowahaa qaamaan bulxan ku gabyayey [idoor dir weeye haduu duullaan soo bixiyana horta yaa la da'ah weyla yaabe dooyadaad xuliye...] Aawey midkii kale (cali dhuux) markuu ku gabyayey [cid ka dawladsan Dir iyo Darood ma lahee] hadaba anigu sidii baan dawlad u ahayee adigu meeday dawladnimaadii. walle hawiyoow waad kaga cabaajiseen dhabayacadan. From: khad...@my-deja.com soc.culture.somalia Maxamadow anigu nin Habar Awalan ahay ,garana maayo waxan U.N iyo gaalo iyo muslinba Dirtaa noo hayso. Horta qudo 1942 reran Isaaq barigaasa ugu danseuse Dirnimada. SOMALIA: 'Minority' groups reach consensus SOMALIA: 'Minority' groups reach consensus copyright (c) UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs 1999-2000.] Jijiga Region ------------------ Without going into detail about all the clans in Somali Galbed - it is sufficient to say that if we divided Somali Galbed into 4 areas we will find that each area is heterogenous and consists of groups who have lived with each other for centuries For the supporters of the ONLF - I ask of them a task; draw a circle around Jijiga and list the number of tribes that live in this area - allow the circle to have 60 miles radius. Let me answer that one for you. In the northern and eastern parts a traveller would find the Habr Awal Dir(Bah Gob, Jibril Abokr, etc.) and the Gadabursi [Samarone Dir} - both these tribes also live in the area I call Waqoyi (I include Borama and Burao in my definition). But these tribes do not support the ONLF; the Ishaq use to be under the SNM [Somali National Movement] and the Gadabursi had their own 'liberation front' - both groups were on different sides in the civil war (Said Barre regime) - but these differences have been put aside, and the certainly now live peacefully with each other as part of the new Somali-land Republic. If we travel a little further around Jijiga region,we find the settled Oromo speakers - the Jarso, Babile, etc. who inhabit a significant area. Now although they speak Oromo, the have a great deal of Somali blood [just look at their tribal names - e.g. Warra Bursuk (= people of Bursuk Dir; or Warra Geri (= people of Geri Darod) etc] - thus this group although heterogenous now speaks Oromo and are generally cultivators. This brings them into disputes with the neighbouring Somali clans, especially the Ogadeni clans. I cannot see these calns [Jarso, Babile, etc] joining the ONLF or any other military organistaion based on clans. Then as we travel south we have the Ania and Ala Oromo who inhabit vast areas; then we cross the Irrer river and we find first the Malingur {Ogadeni Darod} who in generally have tended to raid the Ala and Ania Oromo. Then we have another groups called the Hawiya, which consists of the Karanleh and Gungundabe branches. The latter tribes are identical to the Hawiya trbes of southern Somalia. And everyone knows that at this moment in time, the Hawiya and Darod are currently involved in a power struggle over Somalia [see Said Barre regime - Ogaden - Marehan - alliance and the affects on Inter-clan relationships]. As we pass southwards we come across the Aulihan, and then across the Ganale we find more Hawiya clans - the Dagodia, Garre, Ajuran, etc.. Now with the Ogaden clans, they inhabit the areas from the Malingur regions south of Jijiga to the Galadi in the east where the Makahil Ogadenis borders the Marehan [Darod Somalis]. But if we analize the area in the west and south we find that things are not clear cut. With the Malingur, their neighbours are - the Hawiya Gungundabe and Ania Oromo to the west; the Babile [Somali-Abo] to the north; in the north east the Malingur border with the Habr Awal Ishaq (along the Fafan rivers region); and then finally in the east we have borders with other Ogadeni clans such as the Rer Ugas Koshin, Rer Ali, Rer Harun, etc. Thus separating these clans under the banner of ONLF or SNM or SALF or any other clan based military organisation would result in another "Bosnia". Thus let me ask who are we separating from; The Babile, Jarso, Ania, Arussi, Ala, Hawiya, Ogaden, Geri, Abbaskul, Gadabursi, Ishaq, Bursuk, etc are all Muslim, they all speak either Oromo or Somali or both [also we have the Adari and Argobba groups who have their own language) - but how can we separate from each other when for centuries we have mixed with each other. So my conclusion is we need less borders, and more local rule or local goverment. A form of government that is localised, and a form of law that applies to that specific region. I will discuss this point later in this article. Another mysterious clan that is increasingly appearing in the list of Neo-Dir clans which is called Suures( alternatively Sure) also inhabits in the Shaygoosha and all over the Haud Kenya [NFD, and northern regions] --------------------------------------------------- The northern regions of Kenya, from Lamu to lake Turkana, are inhabited by nomadic clans; manily : 1) Somali Harti and Ogaden in the south; i.e all the areas south of Wajir, and up to the coast where the Somali speaking Aweera [Boni] tribes dwell. 2) North of Wajir, and to the west, we have numerous Hawiya [Dir] clans, namley the Ajuran, Dagodia, Garre, and some others. 3) Surrounding these clans we have the Borana clans [Warday, Dir] - these clans are closely related to the Somalis, but the main religion of the Borana and Orma here is "Waq" worship. Some of these Oromo clans have adopted Islam, but over-all most Oromo nomads in this region worship "Waq" 4) The Rendille - a tribe that inhabits a large area of northern Kenya - they speak a Somali language; and strickly speaking they are Somali, but they do not adhere to Islam - they worship "Waq". But from the genealogy stand-point they are direct descendants of "Soomale". 5) Next we have Samburi nomads, and Turkana nomads. 6) The Gabbra Oromos, who in fact are more Somali than Oromo - but most vestiges of Islam are absent among them - there are some Somali tribes who live among this group - they are found in both Kenya and Southern Ethiopia. 7) Scattered Somalis - these groups of Muslim Somalis scattered deep inside south west Ethiopia- as far as the Sudan/Ethiopia border has been neglected by the so-called Nationalists -[mainly because Nationalists are usually concerned only with their own specific clan]. But remnants of Muslim Somali tribes are found among the south-western Karayu Borana, and even beyond -as far as the southern lakes of Turkana andChamo. [look up these lakes on a map and see how far west these places are]. There are also Somali groups deep inside Arussi, and as far west as the Abaya lake region in central Ethiopia. The point I am trying to make here is simple; the distribution of Somalis and Oromos tells us that separating these two ethnic groups or nations, will be very difficult, if not imposible. There are even Somalis in Eritrea [see Hawakil islands on a map - which is a Somali and Afar island]. The same can be said for other groups in Ethiopia - in Tigre we have settled Oromo clans - the Azebo and Raya both Muslim. Also there are Oromo groups in North-west Ethiopia, both Muslim and Chrisitian; and add to this the numerous Cushitic speaking tribes which are scattered all over the Horn - each with their own culture and language - even 60 miles from Addis Ababa you can find Somali nomads grazing their herd side by side with the Afar. Conclusion The Distribution of Clans and Tribes in The Horn --------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract: THE ETHIOPIAN SOMALI POLITICAL PARTIES ETHIOPIAN SOMALI DEMOCRATIC LEAGUE The ESDL was set up in February 1994 by merging some dozen Somali political and clan groups, including DAL (Democratic Action League) led by Mohamed Shek Ibrahim, representing Ethiopian Issas Dir; EGDO (Ethiopian Gaboyye Democratic Organization), founded by Ahmed Abdi Jeeh; ESDM (Ethiopian Somali Democratic Movement), close to the SNM (Somali National Movement) of Somaliland and very divided; GLF (Gurgura Liberation Front) led by Abdelasis Ahmed(Dir); HDP (Horiyal Democratic Party), from the WSLF (Western Somali Liberation Front), led by Abdi Ismail and representing the Gadabursi; the IGLF (Issa and Gurgura Liberation Front), headed by Riyaale Ahmed, which, since a split in 1991, only defends Issa interests (essentially the control of the Djibouti-Ethiopian railway line). The pro-government ESDL which hope to become part of the EPRDF is headed by current Transport minister Abdulmejid Hussein (Issa Habar Awal). It has 76 of the 139 seats in the Regional Council and 15 of the Somali Region's 23 seats in the House of Peoples' Representatives, as well as the two seats for the autonomous city of Dire Dawa. Though it has little support among the Ogaden, the ESDL is backed by the northern clans, the Issaq, Dir (Issa, Gadabursi, Gurgure) and the non-Ogaden Darod (Bartire, Yabare, Mejertein, Dhulbahante). Some southern Hawiye/Dir clans (Garre, Digoodiya,Gadsan,Bajimal,F.Muhumad,andGuuras) also support the ESDL. In January 1997, the president of the ESDL said an accord had been reached with the ONLF (Ogaden National Liberation Front, in fact the movement's so-called internal faction) to form a joint movement against the Moslem fundamentalists of Al-Itihad Al-Islam. Let me give you an example of how futile it is. According to the drafted national charter, each of the Two major Qabiils,( Daroord, hawiye) and the coalition groups( Dir(1), and Digil and Mirefleh)got 44 seats out of 225. That is about 20% of the total. What this mean, (Forget the highly contested posts, such as presidency and Ambasodorial post(2)) for instance, is Darood should have 20% set aside for every public postion, from driver and policeman to the head of ministery. And oh yeah, Darood should have to agree among themselves how many marehan or majerteen drivers or who will be the next director general of Wasaardda caafimaadka, which could only be filled by darood according to the predetermined charter. What a nightmere.!! Ina Geeleh had to opprotunity to steer away from the pitfall of Qabbil, yet he headed with full speed into the abyss. All indications are he panicked and reverted to qabiil system, after he realized the envitable failure of the outcome . But, he has only himself and his mentor, David Stephen to blame. The confernce in Djibouti should never have been billed as 1) the last ditch effort and 2) estabalshing fully functional Somali government with merely 2000 of self invited people. Never bite more than you can chew. It should have been only a fact finding and buliding block for future negotiations. Now that he had conored himself, he has no choice but to carry on the charade as long as he could, even if it means into next year, which really isn't that far fetched. Footnote 1) Could somone expalin what Dir is? Does it mean Samaron, Issa, Isaq and Dir of South has common lineage, or is it mambo jumbo political exploit. If the case is latter doesn't mean that creating more confusion. 2)Rumor has it the most sought after post is Ambasodor. i guess that says a lot of the participants. These idiots want to exploit the somalis from the comfort of the distance. Yeah, why not be in Rome or Riyadh and by supported by the old lady suffering in qoryoley or Buurhakabo. Carrabay. From: carra...@my-deja.com Date: 2000/08/08 Tolkeen oo la Qabsaday 2000 The history of the great port city of Merka sultanate does sure belongs to the Honorable Dir sub-clan of Biyomaals as they were the only powerful opponent to the late Italian colonialism. Now they are fully controll of their homeland and collaporated with their understandable brothers of Salbalaar Alliance as they are SSNM faction. The state Mayor & Governer goes to them, they collect taxes and fully dominant of the port. Simply nothing comes into the town from the outside world without paying their shares to them. I witness what I'm saying after my visit late April this year in Somalia. For your Information I'm not Biyomaal . Since your freedom is denied you have rigth to regain but never ever call Merka one of your land as it is the land of your Kingdoms and Sultanates of Biyomaal. You're the one whose land were distroyed, dismissed and faced diminishment of assets. Regards Kalafo anaa Islale xagaan Dir baa lagu sheegay ee la tab dheh Cabdow The Hawiya and the associated Rer Bare in Kallafo district The Hawiya and associated Rer Bare in Kallafo wereda are probably the prototype peasant community in the Shabelle Valley on the Ethiopian side of the border. Their social composition is distinct from that of recently settled Somali farming clans which still retain the pervasive kinship-organised political culture. These farming communities in Kallafo district are composed of an association made of two diverse social groups who show distinct physical characteristics. One section of this association, the Rer Bare, have Bantu features similar to those of the minority farming communities in southern Somalia, while the other section are actually sedentarised, and mainly Hawiya groups. The mixed Hawiya and Rer Bare agricultural groups are segmented like the Somali social clans. Each farming associated mixed segment functions as an independent unit in relation to similar cultivating units and also in opposition to the predominantly powerful pastoral Somali clans. Nevertheless, the unifying forces that claim common ancestors and ties to a fixed territory have not produced any significant intermingling between the mixed Hawiya and Rer Bare groups. The institution of marriage maintains this social distinction, for Somalis do not allow intermarriage with their Bantu allies who have more pronounced African features. The Hawiya and associated Rer Bare farming groups distinguish themselves into two social categories, known in Somali as bah iyo boqor. This literally translates to "subjects" and "kings". This clear distinction which falls along ethnic lines defines the differentiated hierarchical status of the Somalis (mainly Hawiya) and the Rer Bare division. The latter are classified as "subjects" or "commoners", while the Somali are acknowledged as "aristocrats" or the "ruling group". Thus, it is no wonder that many of the ancestors of the Rer Bare belong to the Hawiya "aristocrats". Another idiom, hair texture, is also commonly used to differentiate between the two associated settled groups. The "noble" Somalis are known as those with the soft hair (jileyc), while their Rer Bare associates are described as those with thick hair (jareer) Each of these two associated groups is further sub-divided into three important sections that are further segmented into small lineages. Except two sub-divisions of the Badbedan, Ali Mad and Dagine, who are largely composed of Rer Bare, these mixed settled communities usually consist of a mixture of mainly Hawiya and Rer Bare. Because of internal discord in the past, the Ali Mad and Dagine seem to have formed independent and exclusive Rer Bare groups. The Bajimal contains a large number of Dir, while Rer Gedow, Rer Ise, and Gasar contain a large number of Hawiya groups, most importantly the Ajuran. It is important to bear in mind that ethnic labelling in the socially mixed farming communities of Gode zone, and particularly in Kallafo district, is very sensitive. It is also very flexible. The primarily pastoral groups in the zone tend to despise these settled agricultural groups, who themselves despise nomads. Although the Rer Bare generally acknowledge the "aristocratic" status of the Hawiya, they also tend to assert their independence as a separate entity and demand equality with their Somali associates. From: carra Date: 2000/08/08 Isaaqow anagu Dirnimaan dooranay COPY OF AN OPEN LETTER TO THE SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE UNITED NATIONS: AWDAL REPUBLIC DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE Proud to be the direct descendants of the Awdal (Adel) empire inhabitants, we are happy to announce that from now on we will revive our civilization and bring it back to the track from which it was derailed by the foreign forces. The Awdal Republic that will soon emerge will be democratic, compassionate and civilized. Certaintly when we achieve our goal, gone will be the days when the Awdalians were the naked needles that sewed other people's clothes; gone will be the days when our destiny was in unfriendly hands and gone will be the days when we believed blindly in Somali nationalism. We believe strongly that a nation is a nation when the basic right of every individual is guaranteed but when the state in whose bosom the individual is supposed to feel secure is turned into a clannish spear to tear the flesh of the former rival clans, then it becomes the responsibility of every group to protect its citizens. Awdalians are no exceptions. By breaching the terms of the treaties with the Awdalians, the British derailed our state and played poker with our territory. The remaining parts of Awdal joined voluntarily to Somalia on 1st July 1960. The only fruits of independence became a nightmare: the loss of sovereignty, denial of basic rights of the individual, naked nepotism, intentional underdevelopment by taxing the people without ever spending a penny for the Awdalian welfare. The sandy beaches of Mogadishu sucked and absorbed that revenue. " We cann't fill the bag whose bottom lies at Mogadishu and whose rim touches Loyi'ado - a distance of two thousand kilometers-!", an Awdalian complained once. Awdal became the true stepchild of Somalia. A single project was not carried out in Awdal since independence. The virtual nonexistence of any infrastructure in Awdal, its neglected landscape that was denuded of both flora and fauna, and the abject poverty of its citizens speaks poetically for the kind of union that we were duped into. In addition, the Awdalian carried the brunt of the wars against the dictatorial regimes of ex-Ethiopia. As a result the ex-regime's troops shelled, bombed and strafed all towns and villages in Awdal. On 31st January 1984, the Mengistu planes killed in twenty seconds eighty-four civilians, including thirty-five children, at Borama. While all this was going on, most Somalis were ignorant of the plight of these people and no one reported their continuous suffereng. Moreover, the Awdalians shared with the rest of the country the brutal oppression of dictator Said Barre. It goes down in history that the first innocent civilian killed by Barre's firing squads in Hargiesa in 1970 was from Awdal. On top of all these calmities, the SNM, spearheading an entire division of Mengistu's troops, slaughtered five hundred fifty innocent people in Borama, Dila and Zeila on February 4th, 1991. And when the SNM had occupied, with the "generous" assistance of these troops and had inherited the ammunation dumps in the north of somalia, the first step they took was a deliberate clan-cleansing of the non-Isack clans from their homes at Gebiley, Hargeisa, Arabsiyo, Eiragavo and Ainabo. To humilate further the clans in the north, they hijacked their elders and took them first to Harar (Ethiopia) in April 1991 and later to Burao where they were intimidated to sign a "compulsary declaration of independence" that has been concocted directly by "Mengistu Haila Miriam". Two ex-Ethiopian generals, violating directly the sovereignty of the Somali state, were directing that so-called conference at Burao. Thus, by carrying out these repugnant deeds that are contrary to whatever values or culture we shared as Somlis since the millennium, the SNM dealt a mortal blow to any bonds of brotherhood and sisterhood we shared. Now, if Somalia disintegrates, the Awdalians, who has been the victims of the Somali nationalism, cannot be blamed. History is our testimony that we have persevered in spite of all kinds of oppression and that we have striven to keep Somalia together but that earned us only scron and a threat to our very survival. We can't be aprt of a nation guided by the whims of crazy clannish zealots; nor shall we be part of a nation kept together by coercion, and we will never accept again to be the underdogs waiting for the offal. We understand fully that the decisions we have taken are not light but God has not ordained that we become the guardians of the Somali nation. after seeing half a million of its people starved to death and millions of others obliged to go through all kinds of humiliation, Somalia is not the same any more. Therefore, by solemnly declaring our independence, we are confident that the Somali people will support us for they understand fully the conditions and circumstances that abliged us to undertake this historic decision. Henceforth, we are the Awdal Republic - the heart of the DIR clan (GADABOURSI and ISSA) - and our boundaries are those of the 19th century Awdal. Signed by the people of Awdal Republic. WAR OGADEENKAN OGADEENYA LA SOO TAGAN BAL KA DHADHICI QOMKAN DIREED ans...@ccs.neu.edu
The 9th century Islamic writers Al- Masudi and Yaqut Ibn Abudllah Al-Hamawi wrote in their book Aqeeliyoon( a book that describes the lives and lineages of the descendants of the prophet Mohammed's young cousin Aqeel Ibn Abu Talib) that several Quraish sub-clans moved to to the city of Jabarta and the Zeila region around the ninth century A.D. Some key sub-clans include Banu Shams, Banu Abd Manaf and Banu Hashim. From the Banu Hashim, many Aquiline settlers lived in Jabarta such as Ahmed Ibn Husein Ibn Ali Al-Jabarti, Ahmed Ibn Omar Al-Zayli and most importantly he mentions the sufi Qadiriyah sheik Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Abdisamad Al-Aqeeyli Al-Zayli who is considered a Sufi saint in Yemen, the father of Darod(Abdirahman) the man most modern Darood claim have descended from. This sufi sheikh also had other sons -who all carry the surname "Jabarti"- where their tribes can be found in Southern Yemen, Eriteria, and parts of Saudi Arabia.

The Somali ethnic component in Djibouti is mainly composed of the Issas, who form the majority and the Gadabuursi and Isaaq, all of whom are closely related as Dir subclans. The Issas form part of the ciise Madoobe Dir, while the Gadabuursi and Isaaq are part of the Mahe Dir, Mohammed Hiniftire. The Issa Madoobe Dir are divided into two groups:the Abgaal and Dalool which are further divided into seven sub-clans:Howlgati and Walaaldoon (Makahir, Mahamuud, Iidleh)Uurweeyne (Fiqi and Abdalle), Wardiiq, Hooroone (Habar Walaala and Geelwalaal), Howleh, Fuurlabe (Mahdle, Saahib) and Ceeleeye (Mamaasan and Muuse)
Maqaal iyo Maanso: maxaakiimta iyo Sh. mahamed Sh. Ismaaciil ......iyo waliba maanso kale oo ku socota Sh. Mohamed Sh. Ismail W/T:C/nuur Mahamud Cilmi (talokeen)
Posted to the MOL October 7, 2006, 6:26 pm

Ramadaan kariim dhammaantiin ummadda soomaaliyeed, waxaan halkaan idiin ku soo gudbinayaa tixdaan yar oo maansada ah. Waxaa waxa laga naxa ah, inaan maqlay sheeko iga yaabisay taasi oo uu ii sheegay nin uu adeer u yahay Sh. mahamed sh. ismaciil oo ah ninka aad wada aragteen sawirkiisa ee magaalada Hargaysa lagu jir dilayo.

Wuxuu ii sheegay in magaalada muqdisho laga diyaariyey maalmihii lasoo dhaafay bannaan bax looga soo horjeeday shiikhaas lagu haysto hargaysa, waxaana qaban qaabiyey bannaan baxa maxaakiimta Islaamka ee Muqdisho ayuu igu yiri, nasiib xumo waxaa maxaakiimtii lagaarsiiyey waraaq uga timid xaggaa iyo hargaysa taas oo loogu sheegayey in ninkaan uu yahay nin DAAROOD ah oo HABISGUUL ah oo uu san ahayn sidii awal hore ay u malaynayeen ee ahayd in shiikhu uu yahay nin AKIISHE ah. sidaa aawadeed ayuuna ku baaqday bannaan baxii (Innaa lillaahi wa innaa ilayhi raajicuun ).

Taasi islaamnimo maaha waan aaminey ninkaan warka ii sheegayey oo ahaa nin wayn (ilaahbaa wayne ) oo war gal ah. Haddaba ninkaan sh.mahamed sh.Ismaciil waa nin ay eeddo run ah u tahay hoobaladdii BAXSAN oo ah nin AKIISHE ah, hase yeeshee maxaa qof Islaam ah oo ilaahay dartiis loo ciqaabayo ay maxaakiimta islaamku ugu kala qiimaynayaan qolada aabbihiis ka dhashay?.
Culumada maxaakiimtu waa inay iska ilaalilayaan arrimahaan oo kale oo waliba ay afkooda kaga hadlaan inay jirto iyo inkale waayo dadka aniga oo kale ah runtii aad ayaan uga qalbi jabay maxaakiimta. Marka aniga oo maansadaan kaga hadlaya hadday wadaaddo dhab ah yihiin in ilaahay khayrkooda nagu beego ayaan waxaan tixdii maansada ahayd ku iri sidaan :

maxaakiim lilaalihiya dadkana labo ka qoofaynin

oo sidii shacabku libinta ugu suray lagu abaal mariyey

nin laciif ah mooyee qof kale kama lug jiideene

labac-labacda iyagaa wadiyo laxanka hoostaahe

wax lacayrshey been lugo lehbaa ugu lixaad darane

leebka culumadaan haysatee qoriga laacaysa

lingaxana afkuu xiran yahaye luuqa kuu taagan

haddii khayr uu laabta ugu jiro eebbow nagu laasin.

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