Geomancy (from Greek geōmanteia< geo, "earth" + manteia, "divination"), from the eponymous ilm al-raml ("the science of sand"), is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground, or how handfuls of soil, dirt or sand land when someone tosses them. The Arabic tradition consists of sketching sixteen random lines of dots in sand.
In Africa one traditional form of geomancy consists of throwing handfuls of dirt in the air and observing how the dirt falls. It can also involve a mouse as the agent of the earth spirit. Ifá, one of the oldest forms of geomancy, originated in West Africa. In China, the diviner may enter a trance and make markings on the ground that are interpreted by an associate (often a young boy).
Boolimoog mountains in Bari "which is said that
Care with ritual dances. " six types of treatment
asking sacrifices and ritual dances. Two of these
Families will be studied in detail: Mingis and Boorane (see
The genres Mingis and Boorane meet throughout
genres Xayaad, Luumbi and Beebe are more
Specific to regions of rivers (Shabeelle and Juba)
The Luumbi are spiritss that we soothes with a
musician playing the zither (Shareero) and a drum-singer.
The leader of the band holds a whip with which he
knocks the legs of (the) possédéïe), whenever he (she)
passes in front of the group after describing a circle dancing.
Sometimes, dancing, the person possessed captures embers
red and keeps them in his hands without feeling pain because
it is in a trance. It also flows from the ashes on his head.
The assistance, which consists of former patients have
by Luumbi, stands around the circle, sing, dance,
After the songs and dances, an animal is sacrificed and eaten.
The lyrics of songs Luumbi are difficult to understand: they
seem an amalgam of swahili, somali and Arabic. The
Bantus are practically the only ones to sing them. Until
1972-74, these rhythms were played in the district Anzaloti
of Mogadishu; today, you can hear them in Afgooye,
. Iannaale, Jamaame, Jilib, Jowhar and Belet Weyn.
The Shixir is especially danced by women in
Arab circles or Arabists. Again, the patient enters into
trances. This technique would exorcist from the city of
Shihir Arabia to the south.
The Mingis: This name could come from min (house) and geyn
(bring), it then mean "bring home"
Bari and Boolimoog are two areas in the region of Bari (east end of Horn).
21. Cismaan Bogor was the last king of the region of Bari, it ruled, said, with the assistance of spirits. When deprived rut, these spirits, being more satisfied, spread it across Somalia. At its me, it is it also became a spirit.
"Another hypothesis that would be derived from Mingis
"Mingiste": state government in Amharic.
The spirits Mingis are numerous and are classified into three categories:
Each category is divided in bidde (slaves) and Nasab (noble)
Some spirits Mingis could not be placed in one of these three categories:
1. Jeeraar, Karoohooye, Miraaf, Daanjiko, Ashkir, Baahilow,
Gaal Waaliye, Sargaatiye, etc..
The analysis of their names shows that some of these spirits
tOloliye are Somali, Salaliye, Saloolweyne, warkaasiiye,
Geesi, Mareer, ... ),
2. Other Cushitic (Awaaqoow -- Waaq beings), or sémito-Cushitic (Alwaaq just Alla waaq: the god Waaq) ...
3. Finally, some of these names appear Foreigners in the region, as Yoose, Loome, Akhuunbush, Ashkuuni, Akhaalom, Yoose Yahaal Mataa, Yoole, appear especially in the branches hidde. Should we bring Yoole of the Greek god Aeolus, or yoo-"which has a goal," language Somalia?
4. A etymological study and linguistic Akhaalom, Akhuunbush,
Yabaal Mataa, Loome, and so on. perhaps help to determine their meaning and their place of origin.
By legends and especially the songs, you can reach
known, some of them, the region where they are
from some Ming is ïOgaadeen claim, and more
particularly regions Di) and Doollo:
Many have spread from the end north-east of the Somali Peninsula:
"Rukooy, reera hayagii
Rag iyo Geel BAA ufadhiyay
Rabaableyka cabbayeen 00
Rucle iyo orod lagumagaaro "
The Maame lie further north:
Waxaan ahay Yooseyaal
Amiir Maamiyo Marecrs
Tan iyo raasilii Casayr
fiinki fiiqley fadhiyey. "
We sommesdes Maame,
We are Yoose,
Moi, Marcer, I'm the king of Maame
I am a fierce lion,
I am invisible
The Maame are all-powerful
Since those of Raas Casayr
Jusqu'auxJiin of Jiiqlcy "
Thus, Maame have a vast area stretching Casayr from Cape (Cape Gardafui) until Jiiqley, southern city, close to Be / and Weyn.
Some bidde just Boollmoog like spiritss
"Bareeda iyo Boolimoog
Biyahabeerbaan Ka imid
Bidoodkii Boolimoog iyo
Aniga Roomaa idhalay "
"I viensde the sourcede Beer
The spirits Jeeraar, Miraaf and Daannaba, they are
of the sea, whether they live there, either because they cross:
"Jeeraar BAA la'idhahaa
NinkaanJeeniga the hclo
22. The Ruko are part of Mingis that we could not classify. Rabaabley
is a well of the Nugaal region earlier.
Habaas baa hooyadiis ah. "
"Waxaan ahayDaannabay 00
Waxaan ahay duulkii Saar
Dalkana doonyaan Ku nimid
Waxaan ahayduulilaah "
Daannaba is both a spirit of the sky and the sea But
as he used a boat to arrive in Somalia, without a doubt
Is it originating in another region of the world. This is the case for
Jumburo and Cilmi, originating in the Arabian Peninsula: Jumburo
was established in the Shaam, ie a vast region
corresponding to Syria, Lebanon and Palestine today.
"Yaa Jumburo Ila yaqaan
Golaha Shaam yaafadhiyey
00 burshaan biyo loogu shubay? "
"Waa saarcarabeed Cilmiile
Cadan hu ka yimid Ci / miile
Xamaruu wataa Cilmiile
Yaanala Xarbiya Ci / miile
Duud iyo duryaal Cilmiiie. "
"This is a saar Arabic, Ci / mi
He has just Aden, Ci / mi
He has a red horse, Cilmi
Who we sought quarrel, Cilmi
Father and children together, Ci / mi. "
The poems above show that the spirits who Mingis
sometimes take possession of certain individuals are not
necessarily from the Somali Peninsula: some are
from regions located overseas, as Jumburo and Ci / mid and
By cons, the spirits of the indigenous peninsula
somalia are for the most part from the extreme east of the
Horn, mountains and highlands of this region.
Some explain the multitude of spirits originating Mingis
of Bari (north-east of the peninsula) by the following legend:
23. Some spiritss may have parents: It is abaas's mother
Miraaf, Roomaaest's father quelquesbidde.
"The kings of Bari, like all other kings, could not
govern alone: they were assisted by spirits. In
exchange for their services, their kings offered
sacrifices regularly. A king bequeathed the spirits which he
was the master to his successor, whether it be his son or
not, at the same time he bequeathed his powers. Both
that depended spiritss of kings and that they
continued to honour them, they left people
quiet. But the last king of Bari, Boqor Cismaan,
was disqualified at the beginning of this century and left without a successor. The spirits are no longer obliged to respect, abandoned
invaded their region and throughout the country. Today, they are
people take whenever they want to be
Thus, a spirit seizes the soul of a person who,
Hence, abnormal behavior and feels disorders
physical and / or mental characteristics caused by this spirit
Tab. 8 - Diseases characteristics spiritss Mingis.
Mingis spirit impugned part of the body - sickness
Maame head: migraines
Ololiye burning sensation all over his body
Salaliye neurosis - sensasion being assaulted constantly --
Miraaf slimming and groans uninterrupted
1. calaqad To treat the sick and thus ease of spirits
honor, we need someone who can communicate with
him: Depending on symptoms,
several hypotheses on the identity of
devil; identity which ensures a preliminary ceremony,
then exorcise the patient.
2. The exorcism requires several steps,
spaced a few days or a few months, or even a few
years. Each of them spread over several days, including
number varies depending on individual circumstances.
3. The offerings made during the various ceremonies
consistent both in food (grain, meat) and drink
(tea, coffee, ...) in cattle or tissues.
4. When the patient was treated until the final stage (muul)
which is not always the case, especially if it is not rich,
organizes a final ceremony, the olkhis, where everyone's spiritss,
except one who has owned, are invited.
5. The calaqad applies a
coin money on all parts of the body
the former patient. I saw this play. This was more than a piece
the effigy of Marie-Therese of Austria, l870! (Fig. 7).
The Boorane: this family spirit is also called ayaan
It is very likely that Boorane come from Boorana,
significant fraction Oromo living in the regions of Sidamo,
Bali and northern Kenya. Ayaan is a name meaning somali
happiness. Finally, rooxaan is the plural of ruux, spirit. Of the three appellations, Boorane is the best known.
6. The spirits are very numerous and fall into
eight groups (Tab, 9). In contrast to all spiritss Mingis
Men (lab, cf), Y, among Bo orane, spirits
7. These spirits speak specific languages: Caarabiya
all employ Arabic (A on the table 9), while not Odaa
expressed that Oromo (0) and Goohiyow in soomaali (S).
The analysis of their names revealed their origin: some
are amhariques (family Amaaranya), as Tigreenya, Tigree
Hababe, Maamire Kabadhe, Abaalwarqi, Warki, etc.. Some
are ethnic Oromo: Gaalla, Tafaale Babuule, Guraa, Xayle,
Guuwaa Gutaa, Meerto, Abaalmanye, Ahaalmayte, Abaal Berri.
8. Others have an Arabic origin, like all Xaaji, which is said
they recite the Koran; some are soomaali: Caadow,
Taagane, Raamoole, Fadhicaarre ... Still others have names
9. Oromo mixed-soomaali: Magaalo Fardi, Magaalo Guraa ... So
we can see, the majority of spiritss Boorane deal
Oromo names, but there is a significant number of names
The spirits Boorane all claim to be committed to Sheekh
Huseen Baaliyaale. From his real name Sheekh Huseen Malkaawi
bin Ibraahim, Sheekh Huseen arrived in the Come to Africa
Having traveled through Egypt and Sudan. It broadcast
Islam in the peninsula, visiting Uganda, Kenya,
Ethiopia and Somalia in the early twelfth century 24. But in
region Boorana-Aruusi, the holy man ran up against the
population hostile to the new religion. Then soixantedix -
September spiritss decided to help.
10. They sent him a Sheekh Huseen
delegation consisting of four persons, namely Xaaji Shariif,
Xaaji Cabdalla, Aadan Mawd and Magaalo Fardi, which discussed
with him how such aid. The spirits asked,
cons-party assistance, the right to land on people
to demand their due (a sacrifice) and therefore possess them.
After that agreement, Sheekh Xuseen finally managed to spread
speech and the right to establish Koranic schools in this
region. He probably also due to take political power
quite important at the end of his life. He was buried at Baali, located at
heart of the same region Boorana-Aruusi.
Like Mingis, spiritss Boorane meddle
in a person, either by love or inheritance or by chance,
or is still, by revenge.
11. And as Mingis, Boorane
have characteristics that make it possible to recognize them: by
example, Xaaji Sharüfrend talkative, it could even talk
a silent or a newborn; Xaaji Cabdalla is bleeding from the nose and
the mouth; Aadan Mawd one he has led the
gates of death; Fadhicaarre may cause any
physical disability. Some spiritss are sexist: Qaalati
Women attack the intestines and cause a hernia in
men. When we think have recognized the symptoms
corresponding to the possession by a 8oorane, it takes the
suffering from a Abaa Seere, who called on him all spiritss
Boorane so that they can recognize one who is responsible for
the illness of his client. The person identified, it practice exorcism.
At the ceremony, singing, dancing and we do
sacrifices. In table 10 are gathered offerings
thereto. These are very diverse: food, drinks
(including Coca-Cola and Fanta!), plants, jewellery, etc..
Some of these spirits have particular tastes: this does
bear no incense, no perfume, another wants
exorcism takes place at night. .
After passing through different stages
exorcism, the sick, healed, get up and greet the assembly.
The spirits who have just landed on the shoulders of people
-- Hence their name saar - to possess and torment, are
very many It does not much power to some
among them: we do honors more than a song or
dances, without sacrifice, or prayer or offering (Baarcadde, Batar,
Saarka Koonfur). However, it is still common in
dances - which, like all spirits, bearing the name of the
they live or soothe - young men in a trance,
mutilate arm to drink their own blood.
The Kuukuun, a game for children, is a listing of
names - Kumbulshe, Kuunbullaale, ... -- Which they say they are
those of ancient kings who govern with the assistance
. Some of these spiritss are fully dedicated to
men against payment: they are spirits in the service
a teacher who "ready" to treat a sick or help the
completion of a project; these spirits are Rooxaan.
The Abhay Siti are the spiritss that relies on for
assist a woman will give birth.
Finally, there are demons who apply to both
sacrifices and ritual dances to leave the body of the
person they have, they are classified into six major
Families, which correspond to six types of poetry and sung
danced, and sacrifices of different natures.
These spirits show their presence by causing a
disease: headaches, aches, hernias, neuroses ... The
healing the sick involves three major steps:
recognizing the spirit (or spirits) who is in him,
Conciliation (request for time to organize the third stage)
and the final ceremony which involves sacrifices, offerings
and ritual dances. The ceremony is the longest
(three to nine days) and its duration depends on the circumstances during
which has gripped the spirit of the person (by inheritance,
coincidence or revenge).
These spirits speak different languages: Oromo, Arabic,
soomaali and some are not originating in the peninsula
East African: Shixir bear the name of the city of Arabia
South from which they come (Shihir). Jumburo comes from Shaam
(Syria, Palestine, Lebanon current); Ci / mi from the city of Aden
(Yemen). Others are Oromo: Gaalla, Tafaale Babuule, Guraa,
Meerto, Abaalmanye, ...
How to explain this complex amalgam of spiritss
from so many different regions? It is likely that
number of them were local gods or spirits,
associated with the power of kings or spiritual guides of the same
regions (such as Mingis associated with Boqor Cismaan of Bari and
Boorane Attached to the Sheekh Xuseen Baaliyaale in the region
As their extension, the populations
governed by these kings integrated with their own deities those
Population defeated: this was without doubt one reason
where there are spirits of Oromo name, but according to
case, these spirits were regarded as equal to the spiritss and
indigenous deities such as Maame Nasab (Mingis) or
Tigreenya, Amaaranya (Boorane), or on the contrary, considered
spiritss as slaves (Maame bidde, Mingis). It is
also possible that the Bantu peoples forcibly imported
have retained their own idols, which were gradually
amalgamated the spiritss already honoured but by lowering a
lower level (hence bidde).
Other such spiritss have undoubtedly been made on the
Somali coast and then in the land by sailors and merchants
from there to trade, this highest since antiquity:
This would explain, perhaps, why Batar, a Persian god,
is celebrated by dancing, and why spiritss, from
Shaam or Yemen, are honoured. It is also possible for 5lue
Greek gods (as Yoose (Zeus?) or Yoole (Eole?))
Hindu or have followed the same path, but in these
last two assumptions, we must however keep
some reservations because, if there is evidence that the Somali coastline have been
relations with these regions, there is no evidence that the spirits which
the names seem foreign languages sémito-Cushitic
are actually coming from these regions.
C. Other rites beneficial
The white magic, often practised by men
Piles (unlike black magic), is not confined solely to
désenvoûtements and exorcisms.
Indeed, one can consult one of these enchanting for
make someone love. 11 then prepares a love philtre
(madiido), which "must" irreversibly attract the victim, a man
or woman, to the applicant.
I placed this paragraph here because, even if it goes against
the bewitched, this practice is not intended to harm him.
Finally, it also uses the mage to "close the mouth"
its opponents (afxidh), whether they are wild animals or
For example, when a significant portion of the herd has been
lost, appealed to the mage to protect the beasts
wild animals in their "closing the mouth": the lions will not hungry
n'attaqueront and therefore not livestock.
It also says that a man should meet
people who were hostile to him and convince them to make a
project with him. 11 took advice of a sorcerer who gave him a small
twig to keep tight between the teeth for all the time
maintenance. The effect was such that, throughout the duration of its
explanations, his interlocutors stood head down, without
oppose a single word in its proposals and it was successful.
In this first part were exposed aspects
beneficial and evil magic practised in the territory
somali, especially in agricultural areas or semiagricoles
south. These regions are mostly inhabited
by Somali Bantus sedentary or grouped into smaller
often minority communities and defenceless. The
use magic to protect them is a phenomenon
common. It is also among those minorities that are wizards
recruit. They willingly maintain an aura of mystery
around their personality: she wants to distance the aggressors
possible because they fear reprisals against occult
which their weapons or their number could do nothing.
The evidence reported here may provide a smile for
a rational spirits but in a hostile environment, from the point of view
climate and human, they have great value. Let us not forget
nor those who believe in magic are far more
receptive to these events that sceptics.
EXAMPLES OF EXORCISMES
(Mingis and Boorane)
Will be presented in this annex, two examples
of exorcisms, practiced on the spiritss of families and Mingis
But, as a first step, let's see how a spirit
can capture the soul of a person:
A - Taking possession of the soul
Somalis believe that the possession by a spirit east
"communicable disease": for example, parents often
relatives, who were formerly owned, can transmit to
their children's spiritss that they went so that teachers
they help (after being honoured by an exorcism). Those
case of inheritance (dhaxal) or bequest to love are the most
Some spiritss are free, without master, and may arise
on anyone, at random (daadufou bankarraac). Finally, in
competing with a master spirits (a former possessed), it can be
see send one (or several) spirits (s) by vengeance, but
why these former patients are feared and respected.
Since it is owned, the patient presents
characteristic symptoms (ab. 8 page 51) that allow
to identify how about some spirit in which it is the
B - Exorcism Mingis
To ascertain the identity of the demon, the healer 1
(calaqad) scent the patient and makes it breathe, in a large
1. It is said that the first of them was a man who was sick
kidnapped by spirits as he had serious. These soignèrent on him
learned their signs then renvoyèrent among men to serve
intermédiaireentre of both worlds.
sheet, the smoke of incense and spices (xeerkàfooxinta). He
mass shoulders and spoke to spirits:
"Haddaad tahay Mingis, cudur kaada waa '
Arkay ee caafimaadkaaga ha la'arka "
"Now that your symptoms have been recognized,
If you are a Mingls, tell us your name. "
This preliminary stage lasts three days. After this period, if
the patient feels better, the healer he fixed an appointment:
in general, it is a day where a ceremony is important 2
under Gole, a place where exorcisms are performed.
Indeed, during these ceremonies, all spiritss
Mi ng are present and is the head of the spiritss (ie the
healer) may then come into contact with the spirit that
possessed the person he asked to leave the quiet,
time for it to prepare and organize a festival in his
honor. At that first ceremony, known as conciliation
(samrad), the patient brings fish, rice, sugar
(xalwad), dates, tea, perfume (rihidoor),
attend the closing ceremony of exorcism another
When the time allotted to organize the festival finale is
elapsed, the ceremony takes place. It will be more or less
for a long time, depending on how the Mingis seized
Commission: if the Mingis is a daaduf ', ie a spirit
free, without master, or refuses to give his name, it will last
nine days and will take place in three stages: the shuruud (three
first after which we sacrifice a ram), gamuumo (
lasts three days; sacrifice a goat) and gondolo (three
days killing another ram). These nine days are
sometimes divided into I1lIS Mingis (which corresponds to the rituals of the six
first day) and muul (three days).
If the Mingis in question has already been treated completely
(until muuîï, then the ceremony will last only six days on
kill a goat after the first three days (or gamuumo
Nus Mingis) and a ram in the evening of the sixth day (Muul, or
Gondola). If the Mingis is that of a calaqad (leader of gole),
2. The ceremony is, for example, the last stage of a peace
ceremony does that muul (on a sacrifice then
All those participating will have a circle. Has
the place is the calaqad, the spiritual leader and
exorcist, and his three musicians with tam-tam, who place
both sides of calaqad; singer goes to his right. The
other persons constituting the circle are those who live in
the gole and former patients exorcised. They are called
jaamajoog: they punctuate the songs of their feet and resume
The opening song (Legally) is used to call the spirits;
"Soo deegeey, soo deegeey
Soo deegeey! "
or "Karooyee Karooyee
or "Saloolweyne, Saloolweyne l"
(repeated a dozen times).
Spirits of heaven
Ask yourself on us! "
"0, Karooyee, Karooyee
You who we breeze
Karooyee has (just)! "
"Pop Corn, Pop Corn!"
At the same time, a person of same sex as the
the patient brought into the circle and leads a dance. He
shouted repeatedly called the spirit that possesses.
But sometimes the devil did not want to
naming ceremony, preliminary, it is intimate:
lswari! "Ad-toi!" Or, if it fails, we assourdit
hitting the highest tam-tams, pushing and youyous
singing to kill head:
"Shack Saar calaqadeedow
Haddaad saar tahay siyaax! "
"0 you, saar chiefs, the strongest
If you are a saar screams your name! "
It also speeds up the dance rhythms so that the demon
wear and eventually fail. Her identity known, we improvised a
song in his honour, with dances appropriate and on
prepares offerings he prefers. Meanwhile, the patient
continues to dance and is entering a new phase: one sings
for all other spirits separately, and each time,
people who have been possessed by the spirit evoked in the song
fall within the circle to accompany the patient, they jump,
is rampant and put in a trance.
The ceremony continues alternating dances, songs and
offerings. It reaches the final phase of the ceremony:
muul. The spirit was peaceful, then we give the patient a ring
with a stone (kaatun) or a bracelet elbow (birmad;
Only for a woman), singing:
"Kunlow kaatun miyaadoonta
Kunlow kaatun miyaadoonta
Ku siiyana miyaadoonta "
"You who possess miles
Do you want the ring Mue / a Xudeyda el 3
Toi who possess miles
It gives you, do you want '! "
During the ceremony, the patient has offered all kinds
Fabric: Ten men loincloths, ten sails white prayer
cotton (cummamad), ten head scarves (malqabad), ten scarves
Cotton for Women (garhasaar), ten silk scarves, five
rumaan five sheydar five subeeciyad 4. During the muul,
Heads exorcists the exhibit, while one sings around
"Wa duuban yahay ee dacabiyow"
"Now Dacabiye read es dressed."
This dance is the birmad iyo libaysa: "bracelet and
clothing. "It is an expression hybrid birmad is a word
somaali, while llbaysa is an Arabic word.
After all these ceremonies, considering that the patient
is healed and that the spirit has freed his soul.
3. Muga ct Xudeyda are two cities in North Yemen.
4. Rumaan, Sheydaar ct Subccciyad are pieces of tissue, which have
each of colors, patterns ct weaving patterns.
C • Boorane Exorcism:
Like a patient possessed by a spirit Mingis, a
person by a spirit Boorane this unrest
characteristics. The Abaa Seere, healer spiritss Boorane,
appealed to all spiritss to recognize the one who had seized
the patient. It therefore covers a sheet, makes him the inhaler
smoke of incense and it raises questions (gardening), for three
days. After these three days, if the person feels better,
preparing a large cafetière of coffee (qaxwe) and a dish of popcorn.
It was frying 77 (seventy-seven) full of coffee beans
(grain and cortex) in butter. The patient sits on him and
seven grandchildren drinking glasses qaxwe 5. In the first glass is being
a spoonful of butter which was used to fry coffee, seven grains
September coffee and cooked grains popcorn.
He pointed again inhale the incense and we are asking
the spirit of the accord possessed a period to meet
money and equipment necessary to organize a festival in
the honor of the spirit.
If the patient can not meet any timely,
again the previous ceremony to wait spirits
and ask him a new deadline (muddo dhaafid), the same
gestures are made but we fry 114 (one hundred and fourteen) grains
coffee instead of 77.
The person may be possessed by several spirits to the
When they have a hierarchy and some are incompatible: a
example, two Carabiya can not coexist in the same
The spirit that occupies the first place is designated by the
madag term, for the second is godeynyo. Fadhicarre not
may be madag. If a qaalati precedes in the body of a
Women Fédhicarre particular demand the sacrifice of three roosters
which should not be black. But if it precedes a qaalati (
is in third position), he will have seven roosters. The Jaan
Odaa and can neither be madag nor godeynyo, spirits
Juveniles are soothed at the same time that the major spiritss.
The spirits Boorane often than others
spiritss.; ie people have been owned by them
5. These glasses are made of porcelain: qaxwe is prepared with the cortex and pounded
cooked coffee beans.
but who are now masters - are present as
witnesses (musakari) in offerings and sacrifices, their
number varies depending on the circumstances and their identity; Qaalati Nuur
and Carabiya need seven spirits witnesses;
Amaaranya can not have another witness that Faanow. The
Odaa did not need, but if required, it will be a Jaan.
When the spirit as a result of which the person was a careful
been pacified, it makes a final sacrifice for everyone's spiritss
who participated in the ceremony: it turns the animal seven times
around the patient, then asks him seven times on his stomach, seven
on both shoulders and seven times on the face. Afterwards, Abaa
Seere 6 pronounce words and mysterious animal
vanishes, we égorge: the patient drink his blood, or on him
painted hands, feet and she washes her face with the rest of
It is again inhale the incense the patient
asking the spirit to go. The exorcism ends there.
6. It Ya seven grades of healing: Pupils (qaaduni are the servants
camp; grade Supreme cst that of Abaa Seere
Abaa Seere: Healer (exorcist) diseases
Afagaal: star above Spica in the constellation of
Afxidh: practice of witchcraft which must "close the mouth"
Agaali: Bellatrix (in the constellation Orion).
Baal name of a god; Canaanite god of thunder and rain,
often mentioned in the Bible and the Koran.
hankarraac: chance; term used when a spirit takes
possession of a person by accident.
Bari: towards the east, north-east Somalia which
the chief town east Qardho.
Batar: God of Malveillance.
Baxaari Webi: sorcerer who claims to be able to use
crocodiles (see Diraaï.
Bayaxow: zodiacal sign of the Balance; constellation of
Balance (see Mlisaanï.
Beehe name of a family of spiritss owners; ceremony
of exorcism performed for this particular family
spirits and dance that is performed during this
Beer abuur: Feast of sowing, announcing the new year
(see Dabshid, Dabtuur, lstunï.
bidde: slave; spirits (owner) slave.
birmad: bracelet elbow reserved for women.
Boolimoog: mountain located in the region of Bari.
Boon: tribe belonging to the caste marginal living in the
southern Somalia and northern Kenya, whose
members are virtually all hunters.
Boorane name of a family of spiritss owners, but
includes several sub-families (Caarabiya, Odaa,
Jaan, Goohiyow, Faanow, Fadhicaarre, Amaaranya).
bukuti: specific disease of cattle and making them swell;
it is treated by applying the animal reached an iron
shaped red Star of David.
Butaaco weyne: combination of the constellation Virgo
(Dirir) with the Full Moon (Dayax iyo tobnaadi afar.
Cadceed: Sun (see Mille, Qorrax).
Calaqad: Healer (exorcist) diseases due to the spirits
candhuufqaad: practice of black magic which is to use the
saliva from the one you want to bewitch.
cummamad: veil of white cotton prayer, whose men
cover their heads.
Cuudin: ceremony three days through which the trainer
determines whether the patient is a victim of a spirit
daaduf: chance; term used when a spirit takes possession
of a person by chance; free spirit, without a master.
daariile: belief is that if you bury a person
died on a Tuesday, while three others of his
family die. The body is, in this case, filed on
Dabshid: Day fire, which marks the beginning of the new year
(see Beer abbur, Dabtuur, lstuni.
Dabtuur: Day fire which marks the beginning of the new year
(see Beer abbur, Dabshid, Istun).
Dayax afar iyo tobnaad: Full Moon (Moon at the fourteenth day
dhaxal: inheritance; spirit that possessed a parent, which was
exorcised (treated) and who then took possession of
children to the death of a parent.
Dhiigmaris: term black magic; means a preparation
basis of blood (dhiig) that is poured on the walls of
stables (or houses), during a ceremony
of bewitchment, to perish livestock that is kept
(or people who live there).
Dibi: zodiacal sign of Taurus; constellation Taurus.
Dibqallooc: zodiacal sign of the Scorpion; constellation
dibyaal: geomancy term designating a fourth min
mother-matrix (see min).
Diraa: sorcerer who claims to be able to use crocodiles (see
Dirir: the constellation Virgo.
Dirir Sagaaro: combination of the constellation of the Virgin with
the Moon, the thirteenth day of its cycle (bad
Ducaycad: star opposite Spica in the constellation of
dumaal: custom that a wife a widow of his brother
deceased husband or another male relative expanded
the latter. This custom is reminiscent of the Jewish custom of
Lévirat. It has a complement: xigsiisan.
Eyl: perhaps the name of a god; town on the coast.
faal: astrology, divination.
gabagabo: conclusion, in geomancy, a term which refers to the min
final, obtained after reducing min and hooyooyin
min gabdho in min gabanno and ganuuno (see min).
gabanno: granddaughters, in geomancy, a term which means
min obtained by reducing min and hooyooyin
gabdho (see min).
gabdho: girls, in geomancy, min obtained by transposition
min of hooyooyin they are also the number of
four (see min).
Galdiid: combination of the constellation Virgo (Dirir)
the Moon, the fifteenth day of its cycle.
gallaydh: milan, bird-happiness.
gambo: head scarf worn by Somali women married.
ganuunno: great-granddaughters; in geomancy, a term which
means min obtained by reducing min gabanno
garab daar: person accompanied by one or more spiritss;
these spirits may have been loaned by their master in
exchange for a fee. A person who can predict the future
thanks to the spirit that accompanies it.
garbasaar: large cotton scarf, very colorful, that
women wear on the shoulders; part of
offerings made by some spirits in ceremonies
geedjinni: TB shrub to small tleurs bright red;
According to legend, tree behind which was concealed
the one who killed the Chamelle Allah Udin Ba'saï.
gole: location, camp, which practice exorcism.
Hirimaadey: God of the Sea
hooyo: Wednesday, in geomancy, matrix-mother.
hooy oyi o n: mothers, in geomancy, four minutes
up the matrix-mother.
Iidobexay: family spirits owners.
lsaawe: sorcerer who practice black magic, very powerful.
isdhaafin: practice of magic which is to release a person
possessed by a spirit by sending this spirit on a
else: practice on an exchange.
Istun: battle; feast which celebrates the new year, during
that men are fighting with big poles
Wood (see Dabshid, Dabtuur, Beer abuur).
jaamajoog: meeting people who circle around
exorcist and the patient's (owned); their role is to
rhythm songs hitting the ground at their feet and
Jiiddu: tribe Somalia.
. loorre: region of low-J ura (southern Somalia).
kaatun: ring with a precious stone or feel valuable.
Kalluun: zodiacal sign of Pisces; constellation
kow faal: geomancy, the first minutes of a matrix-mother (see
kow mooro: geomancy, the second min of a matrix-mother
Kuraysi: ceremony organized by women in a camp
when one of them is in its ninth month
pregnancy; it invokes "Abbay Siti" for it
protects the mother and child during childbirth (see
Madax shub, Sagaalaysii.
kuunkuun: children Thursday during which they list any
a list of names which, they say, are those of former kings.
Kuxdin: Zavijaba, the constellation of the Virgin.
laab: chest, geomancy, the third line of a min (see
labaad mooro: geomancy, the third min of a matrix-mother
Libaax: zodiacal sign of the Lion, the constellation Leo.
luqun: neck, geomancy, the second line of a min (see min).
Luumbi name of a family of spiritss owners; ceremony
of exorcism performed for this particular family
spirits and dance that is performed during this
madax: head, in geomancy, the first line of a min (see min).
Madax shub: ceremony organized by women in a
camp when one of them is at its
ninth month of pregnancy, it invokes "Abbay
Siti "to protect the mother and child during
delivery (see Kuraysi, Sagaalaysîï.
madheedh: tree the tasty red fruit.
madiido: philtre love.
Makaraan: amulet that a sorcerer Yibir offers a newborn
in exchange for a donation of parents (Samaanyo).
malqabad: head scarf for women, is part of
offerings made during an exorcism.
masar: head scarf worn by Somali women married
Mataano: zodiacal sign of Gemini; constellation
Mawliid: month of birth of the Prophet Muhammad.
Miisaan: zodiacal sign of the Balance; constellation of
Balance (see Bayaxow).
Milic: Sun (see Cadceed, Qorraxi.
Low: home, in geomancy, the nin is a column
with four lines, each of them with a
Symbol: • or • •. Each of these lines have an
1st row: madax
2nd row: luqun
3rd row: laab
4th row: minjo.
Low hooyooyin: matrix mother with four four-min
lines each. Each min has a name:
1cr MM: kow Fall
2nd MM: kow mooro
3rd min: labaad mooro
4èmc MM: dibyaal.
A mother-matrix (min hooyooyini perhaps transposed into a
daughter-matrix (min gadhoi, according to the sc
Mingis name of a family of spiritss owners, it regroups
several sub-families spiritss owners (Yoose,
Maame. wadaagsiin, etc.)
Low guuris: geomancy, is practiced in interpreting min.
minjo: feet of a min: its fourth line (see min).
mooro: geomancy, the four central figures of a matricemère
(min hooyoovini; mooro are interpreted by
muul: ceremony of a final exorcism: it shows that the
patient (owned) was recovered. During this
ceremony, it exposes all the offerings (
food, livestock, fabrics ... ) Made in spirits that
had taken possession of the patient. The ceremony did
concerns that the spirits Mingis.
nasab: noble; qualifier given, as opposed to persons
outside the caste marginal.
okhole: wooden bucket. "
olkhis: coin, silver, the effigy of Marie-Therese
Austria, dating back to 1870. It is used during
some exorcisms to dispel people's spiritss.
Org i: zodiacal sign of Capricorn; constellation
Qaanso: zodiacal sign of Sagittarius; constellation
Qorrax: Sun (see Cadceed, Milic).
Raad qaad: practice of black magic which is to use the
footprints feet (naked) from the one you want
ribidoor: perfume made in offerings during ceremonies
Rooxaan: family spirits owners.
saar: arise, lay above; dance; spiritss.
Sag aalaysi: ceremony organized by women in a
camp when one of them is at its
ninth month of pregnancy, it invokes "Abbay
Siti "to protect the mother and child during
delivery (see Kuraysi, Madax shub).
Samaanyo: offering made the first sorcerer who Yiblr
This after the birth of a child, in exchange,
Yibir gives an amulet (makaraan), which protects the
newborn. If parents refuse to do this
offering, we say that the child will be the Yibir:
or it will die, or it will become invalid.
samrad: ceremony to reconcile a spirit.
Sardaan: zodiacal sign of Cancer; constellation Cancer.
Shaam: term designating the region including Syria,
Palestine and Lebanon.
shaash: head scarf worn by Somali women married
(see gambo, masari.
Shareero: musical instrument resembling a guitar;
family owners spiritss that it heals by
sheekh: male Muslim cleric.
Shixir: family spirits owners from Arabia
sixir: black magic.
Sumbula: zodiacal sign of the Virgin; constellation of the Virgin
Tubaal: marginal caste grouping blacksmiths.
Urur: the Pleiades, the seven stars of the constellation
Ururdhac: period of the year corresponding to the disappearance of the
Waaq: a term meaning God or heaven, supreme God.
Wadaan: zodiacal sign of Aquarius: constellation of Aquarius.
Wajiira: zodiacal sign of the Scorpion; constellation Scorpius.
Wan: zodiacal sign of Aries; constellation of Aries.
xalwad: sweets that one brings offerings during the
Xanfalay wind which carries the Yibir applicant to become
sorcerers when they are not deemed fit to hold this
Xayaad: family spirits owners.
xigsiisan: custom that a widower marries a sister,
still single, his wife deceased. This custom
is particularly respected when the couple have
children. It has a complement: dumaal.
Yabaro: pacification ceremony of a spirit possessor.
Yibir: marginal caste tribe, the Yibir are considered
as sorcerers, when a child is born,
must make a donation to the first Yibir who comes forward to
it protects the newborn giving an amulet
(makaraan); him if this gift is refused, the Yibir may
curse the child.
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