Tuesday, June 19, 2018

Somalia: Reports of clashes between Hawiye (or subclan Hawadle) and Dir clans/sub-clans in the area of Beledweyne [Beled Weyne, Belet Weyne] in Hiiraan [Hiiran, Hiiraan] and in Mogadishu; state of interclan relations between the Hawiye and Dir in Mogadishu (2014-April 2016)

Somalie : information sur les affrontements signalés entre les clans ou sous-clans Hawiye (ou sous-clan Hawadle) et Dir dans la région de Beledweyne [Beled Weyne, Belet Weyne], dans la région d'Hiiraan [Hiiran, Hiiraan] et à Mogadiscio; l'état des relations entre les clans Hawiye et Dir à Mogadiscio (2014-avril 2016)

Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Somalia: Reports of clashes between Hawiye (or subclan Hawadle) and Dir clans/sub-clans in the area of Beledweyne [Beled Weyne, Belet Weyne] in Hiiraan [Hiiran, Hiiraan] and in Mogadishu; state of interclan relations between the Hawiye and Dir in Mogadishu

1. Reports of Conflict in the Area of Beledweyne

Without providing further details about the clans involved, sources report that rival clan militias have clashed in the town of Beledweyne in October 2015 (Hiiraan Online 19 Oct. 2015; VOA 19 Oct. 2015). Shabelle Media Network, a Somali news agency based in Mogadishu (AllAfrica n.d.), reports that "heavy clash has erupted again between two clan militias" in Beledweyne in December 2015 (Shabelle Media Network 13 Dec. 2015). Sources state that the conflict in October was over "tax collection" (VOA 19 Oct. 2015) or "extortion" money (Hiiraan Online 19 Oct. 2015). According to sources, on 22 January 2015, "at least" 23 people were killed in a land dispute between the Dir and Hawadle clans in the towns of Burdhinle and Hada-Ogle in the Hiraan region (US 13 Apr. 2016, 13; AFP 22 Jan. 2015).
A 2015 report by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) states that there has been fighting between Dir and Hawadle clans in and around Deefow village, which is located "40km north east of Belet Weyne" (UN 25 June 2015, 1). The report states that fighting over a land dispute has been ongoing since 2013, leading to the death of "at least 100 people," which has "also resulted in displacement of about 90 percent of people from Deefow, Kabxanle and Dom-Caday villages into Belet Weyne" (ibid.). According to the report, "militia[s] from both sides clashed" on 3 June 2015, and on 22 June 2015, "militias from the Dir clan reportedly burnt down eight houses in Guri Caddo village about 28km northeast of Belet Weyne" (ibid.).
Horseed Media, a news site run by Somali diaspora in the Netherlands and Finland (Horseed Media n.d.), reports that in March 2015, militias from the Hawadle and Surre tribes clashed in Deefow: 12 people died during the fighting, and "dozens" were injured (ibid. 21 Mar. 2015). According to a 2015 UN Security Council report, the Surre is a Dir clan "with two branches, Abadalle and Qebeys, found in Mudug, Hiran, Gedo and the Jubbas" (UN 19 Oct. 2015, 241).

2. Hawiye and Dir Interclan Relations in Mogadishu

Information on clan relations between the Hawiye and Dir clans and sub-clans, including reports of conflict, could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response. According to sources, the Hawiye are a "predominant" (Mail & Guardian Africa 19 May 2015) or "the traditionally dominant" clan in Mogadishu (EU Feb. 2016, 50). In a report based on its 2015 fact-finding mission to Kenya and Somalia, the Danish Immigration Service states that Mogadishu is one of the "most complicated" towns when it comes to clan composition, due to 25 years of conflict, internal displacement and population movement (Denmark Sept. 2015, 41). For further information on the situation in Mogadishu, including diaspora returnees and the security situation, see Response to Information Request SOM105094.


Agence France-Presse (AFP). 22 January 2015. "At Least 23 Killed in Somalia Clan Violence." [Accessed 19 Apr. 2016]
AllAfrica. N.d. "Shabelle Media Network (Mogadishu)." [Accessed 22 Apr. 2016]
Denmark. September 2015. Danish Immigration Service. South Central Somalia: Country of Origin Information for Use in the Asylum Determination Process. [Accessed 22 Apr. 2016]
European Union (EU). February 2016. European Asylum Support Office (EASO). EASO Country of Origin Information Report: Somalia Security Situation. [Accessed 19 Apr. 2016]
Hiiraan Online. 19 October 2015. "8 Killed as Rival Clan Militias Fight in Beled Weyne." [Accessed 19 Apr. 2016]
Horseed Media. 21 March 2015. A. Abdirhaman. "Deadly Clan Violence Leaves over 10 Dead in Somalia." [Accessed 19 Apr. 2016]
Horseed Media. N.d. "About Horseed." [Accessed 19 Apr. 2016]
Mail & Guardian Africa. 19 May 2015. Mikolaj Radlicki. "Who Really Rules Somalia? - The Tale of Three Big Clans and Three Countries." [Accessed 19 Apr. 2016]
Shabelle Media Network. 13 December 2015. "Somalia: Tribal Clash Erupts in Western Beledweyne City." [Accessed 19 Apr. 2016]
United Nations (UN). 19 October 2015. Security Council. Letter Dated 9 October 2015 from the Chair of the Security Council Committee Pursuant to Resolutions 751 (1992) and 1907 (2009) Concerning Somalia and Eritrea Addressed to the President of the Security Council. S/2015/801. [Accessed 26 Apr. 2016]
United Nations (UN). 25 June 2015. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). Inter-Agency Initial Investigation Report - Inter Clan Fighting in Deefow. [Accessed 5 Apr. 2016]
United States (US). 13 April 2016. Department of State. "Somalia." Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2015. [Accessed 15 Apr. 2016]
Voice of America (VOA). 19 October 2015. Harun Maruf. "Somalia Clan Clashes Kill 14." [Accessed 19 Apr. 2016]

Additional Sources Consulted

Oral sources: East and Horn of Africa Human Rights Defenders Project; professor, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London; representative, International Committee of the Red Cross, Somalia; senior research fellow, Clingendael Institute.
Internet sites, including: Africa Confidential; Amnesty International; Ayyaantu News; BBC; ecoi.net; Factiva; Freedom House; Geeska Afrika Online; Human Rights Watch; International Crisis Group; IRIN; Jane's Intelligence Review; The New York Times; UN - Refworld.
Copyright notice: This document is published with the permission of the copyright holder and producer Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB). The original version of this document may be found on the offical website of the IRB at http://www.irb-cisr.gc.ca/en/. Documents earlier than 2003 may be found only on Refworld.


 AT least 23 people been killed in Somalia in clan-related violence caused by a land dispute, officials and elders said. 

 Thursday, January 22, 2015 AP

The clashes between armed militia from two groups broke out around the villages of Burdhinle and Hada-Ogle, situated in central Somalia's Hiiran region and close to the border with Ethiopia.
"The fighting was heavy and the clan militias used armed vehicles. Twenty-three are so far confirmed dead but the toll could be higher," local elder Osman Ahmed told AFP by telephone from the region.
Another elder, Abdule Muhamed, said both sides were heavily armed and that fighting was continuing.
Fighting between the Dir and Hawadle clans started late last year but had been stopped after the Somali national army and African Union peacekeepers from Djibouti intervened.
Somali government officials in the Hiiran region confirmed the clashes.
"We hope the brotherly clans will end their hostility through mediation and not bloodshed as is happening now," said Abdi Ga'al, a Somali local government official.
"There are efforts to mediate between the sides, and the elders are about to go and solve it," he said


8 killed as rival clan militias fight in Beled Weyne

Monday October 19, 2015

 BELEDWEYNE (HOL) - Heavily armed rival militia factions have clashed in the central Somali town of Beledweyne, killing at least eight people, including civilians.


 Witnesses said the fighting followed a prolonged dispute involving an extortion money collected from cars using the toll road between the town and Ethiopian regions.

The fighting which started in the early hours of Monday has intensified after the two sides received reinforcements which spanned out the standoff.

Security officials in the town told HOL that troops from the African Union are due to be deployed in the area to mediate the two sides and deploy peacekeepers who would monitor ceasefire.

Hospital sources told HOL that at least ten people have been brought to the town’s main hospital where doctors warned the imminent closure of the health facility due to shortages of medicine and supplies.

Previous heavy intra-clan fighting between the two militia groups has left dozens of people dead and many others injured.

Despite efforts aimed at rebuilding Somalia’s army, clan and freelance militias scattered throughout the country pose a greater challenge to the government which is trying to extend its rule across the country.

Checkpoints and extortion revenues often trigger fighting between militia factions in Somalia. The collapse of Somalia’s central government in 1991 had led to the reign of warlords and militias who use checkpoints as an important income source.  

The fighting broke out on Tuesday between the Sa'ad, Habar Gedir subclan and the Dir, and was concentrated in and around the villages of Towfiq and Awle, some 200 km east of Galkayo, the journalist Dahir Abdulkadir Aflow said. The two villages are populated by the Dir.

The clashes were triggered by revenge killings for the deaths of two Sa'ad men in Galkayo last week, but the ensuing escalation of violence was also attributed to disagreements over water and grazing in the area, Aflow said. "It is more about water and grazing land right now."

"Unfortunately, this is something that happens when nomads in search of pasture and water collide with each other," he said. This particular clash between the two clans had been "exacerbated by the easy availability of heavy weapons".

"Previously they used spears or guns but now both sides are using technicals [battlewagons fitted with heavy machine guns]," he said. "In an area with little cover for concealment, the casualty figures are bound to be high."

He added that the casualty toll was likely to rise once the fighting stopped and both sides could take their wounded to hospitals.

Abdullahi Dayib of the Dir clan told IRIN that among those killed from his clan were three women and four children.

The fighting has reportedly displaced hundreds of families who have no access to wells or water points, Dayib said. He stressed the need for help, "but given the lack of roads and current insecurity in the area, I doubt if anyone will come to their aid".

Mudug Conflict Over Pasturelands Fueled by Weapons From Region
Clan fighting over pasturelands between two rival Somali sub-clans in central Somalia has triggered revenge killings, land disputes and conflicts and claimed the lives of at least 15 people on Wednesday.
 Residents of the region informed Somalia Report that more than 25 others were injured in fighting that began on Wednesday afternoon in the rural areas between Amaara and Ba’adweyne villages in Somalia’s Mudug region.

Most of the injured are the disputing tribesmen, according to the residents. They were admitted to hospitals in the Galkayo and Hobyo Districts.

The area is calm as of Wednesday evening, although the two pastoral communities are arming for future rural clashes, according to Mukhtar Hussein Ahmed, a resident of Galhure village near Amaara.

He said the fighting was between two armed militias from the Saleebaan and Qubeys sub-clans who had been fighting in the rural areas during the last two years. “The latest clashes were provoked by revenge killings, disputes over pasture lands and water in the countryside between Amaara and Ba’adweyne villages in Central Somalia,” Mukhtar said.

He added the fighting started near Amaara village, and spread to the surrounding rural areas. The residents of Galhurre confirmed to Somalia Report that the rural communities living in that area are fleeing their homes due to the heavy fighting, with shells from mortars and firearms endangering their homes.

An elder from the Qubeys sub-clan of Dir has strongly criticized the administration of Himan & Heeb, based in the Adaado District of Galgaduud region, for arming rural communities to instigate the conflicts between the two sub-clans.

“The administration is equipping the pastoral communities with weapons and armored vehicles,” Mohamed Abdi Ahmed, an elder from one of the sub-clans told Somalia Report by telephone. “Elders from the two sub-clans have stepped in to help resolve the repeated conflicts, and negotiations have started to settle the situation,” he added.

Somali rural communities are largely livestock herders, and conflicts and deadly clashes over grazing lands and water are common plights among the Somalia’s many clans.

Somalia Report tried to contact the administration of Himan & Heeb to address the fighting between the two sub-clans in central Somalia, but they were not available for comment.

During this year, the conflict between the two sub-clans of Qubeys and Saleebaan has killed at least 80 people, including women and children.

No comments:

Blog Archive