Sunday, April 24, 2011


(Concluded with the British authority, in December 11, 1884 )
We, the undersigned Elders of the Gadabursi tribe, are desirous of entire into an agreement with the British Government for the maintenance of our independence, the preservation of the order, and other good and sufficient reasons.
Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follow:
Article I
The Gadabursi tribe do hereby declare that they are pledged and found never to cede, sell, mortgage or otherwise give for occupation, save to the British government, any portion of the territory presently inhabited by them or being under their control.
Article II
All vessels under the British flag shall have free permission to trade all ports and places in the territories of the Gadabursi tribe.
Article III
All British subjects, residing in, or visiting, the territories of the Gadabursi tribe, shall enjoy perfect safety and protection and shall be titled to travel all over the said limits under the safe conduct of the elders of the tribe.
Article IV
The traffic in slaves throughout the territories of the Gadabursi tribe shall cease for ever and the Commander of Her Majesty's vessels, or any other British Officer duly authorised, shall have the power requiring the surrender of any slave, and of supporting the demand by force of arms by land and sea.
Article V
The British Government shall have the power to appoint an agent or agents to reside in the territories of the Gadabursi tribe, and every such agent shall be treated with respect and consideration and be entitled to have for his protection such guard as the British Government deem sufficient.
The above written treaty shall come into force and have effect from the date of signing this agreement.
In token of the conclusion of this lawful and honorable bond, Iama Roblay, Mohamed Ali Balol, Ilmee Warfah (Ughaz' son), Rogay Khairi, Waberi Idlay, Roblay, Warfah, Doaly Dilbad, Amir Egal, Gaylay Shirwah, Warfah Roblay, Yunus Boh
Major Frederick Mercer Hunter, the former for themselves, their heirs and successors, and the latter on behalf of the British Government, do each and all in the presence of witnesses affix their signatures, marks, or seals at Zaila on the eleventh day of December one thousand eight hundred and eighty-four, corresponding with the twenty-fifth of Safar one thousand three hundred and two.
(Signed) F. M. Hunter, Major,
Bombay Staff Corps
Signed in presence:
(Signed) Percy Downes,
First Grade Officer, I. M.
(Signed) Dufferin,
Viceroy and Governor General of India
This agreement was ratified by the Governor General of India in Council at Calcutta on the twentieth February one thousand eight hundred and eighty-five.
(Signed) H. M. Durand,
Officiating Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department
Fort William,
The 25th February 1885


As the direct descendants of Awdal (formerly Adal Empire) inhabitants, the Samaroon people, well known as Gadabursi, are the citizens of Awdal. Despite the so-called SomaliLand Administration who wants to govern the North Regions of the former Somalia, the people of Awdal and the local authority are commited to the creation of an autonomous State of Awdal, the Northern region of the former Somalia. The people of Awdal are well known not only by the bravery, discipline and courage of their ancestors who were the rulers and the leaders of the entire East Africa, centuries ago but also, by their civilization and the consciousness of the existence of their Nation. In fact, the name Gadabursi derives from "Gado Birsi", which means expansion of land. From the 13th century up to about the 19th century, before the arrival of the British Empire, the people of Awdal were true freedom fighters. During that period of time, they have been through many conflicts and wars against the Abyssinians, the Galas and they even fought against the Portuguese. Without going into the detail of the history of that period of time in this section, let me briefly highlight one of the well-known freedom fighter who left his mark; Ahmed Guray.
Born in 1506 at Hubat located between Harar and Galdaysa, Ahmed Guray lost his father when he was still a child and, an employee of his father adopted him, treating him as his only son. Many years later, Ahmed married Baati, the daughter of the king of Zeyla, named Mahfud. With the help that he received from king Mahfud, Ahmed Guray formed a strong army to fight against the Kingdom of Harar and defeated King Abubakar of Harar. The first battle of Ahmed Guray was in fact a long waited conflict in order to get back the Region of Harar and to free the Somali people living in that region. After having defeated the throne, the brother of Ahmed Guray had replaced King Abubakar. Indeed, the inhuman ruling of that Kingdom has been changed and the people got back the joy of the live and freedom with justice. During the following years, Ahmed Guray prepared his troop to a more bigger conflict, once again to fight for the freedom of the people of the region. This time Ahmed had to confront the Abyssinians, in order to bring down their taxation ruling and their discriminatory policy against non-Abyssinian. He formed a coalition of Somali (mainly Gadabursi) and Afar people, whom were the most discriminated that the Kingdom of Abyssinia was forcing and imposing unjustifiable taxation rules. In 1535, Ahmed Guray conquered ¾ of the Abyssinians land and, at the age of 35, he became the Emperor of Abyssinia. At that time Ahmed came back to Harar, where he established his Kingdom and he was nominated the Emperor of Abyssinians, Somali and Afar people and, he created a centralised government and putted in place regional states.
As the history teaches us the reality of the past, we can find among the Samaroon people, as we do in other Somali ethics, a lot of great individuals who stood up for the freedom of their people and the dignity of their nation. The Gadabursi are civilized people, who are conform with the practices of their patriotism, respect the environment of their land and follow the changes relative to the time. Saying that, the Samaroon people are well known by their dedication to the education and business. Let me remind you that in the 1800 when the British Empire came to the East Cost of Somalia, they found civilized people who were doing business the way the western countries were doing it, from coast to coast and, from China to Central Africa. Indeed, that people were Samaroon, our ancestors. Soon, the British government sent its own business people in mission to that land, in order to understand and interact with the local people. Dear readers, let me refer you to the *Gadabursy Treaty that the authority based in Zeyla, Awdal at that time, signed with the British Empire, in 1884. In fact, this treaty tells us that the Gadabursi people were not dominated easily by the British but rather, they created a kind of business partnership with the British authority.

Nowadays, a priority for the people and the local authority of Awdal is strengthening the security situation of the northern regions of the former Somalia. Actually, while this people is working hard to keep the peace alive, improve prosperity and revitalise the socio-economic of the region by creating micro-economic business, the so-called SomaliLand Administration is engaged to disrupt the social live of the entire region. In fact, almost a decade after the collapse of the former centralised Somali State, Awdal has become a haven of peace in a conflict ridden the Horn of Africa. Unfortunately, this reality has yet to be recognized by the international communities, wrongly informed by an international media that focuses entirely on the inter-clan militia violence in central and southern areas of Somalia.
The Dir and the Alliance group (formerly known as "minorities") handed in lists of their nominees on Tuesday, after two weeks of political haggling. The Dir have been allocated 44 seats as one of the four main clan groupings. It comprises three northern Somali sub-clans - the Issak, Gadabursi and the Issa - and a cluster of southern sub-clans known as the "southern Dir". The Dir of northwestern Somalia, encompassing the self-declared state of Somaliland, have been given 22 seats, with the rest divided out between the Gadabursi and the smaller clans. The Allied group have shared out their 24 seats among very diverse representatives, including craftsmen, Bantu-speaking farmers and merchants of Arab and Persian origin. An arbitration committee established to help break the deadlock over the last two weeks, is reported to be continuing its work with the other major Somali clans: the Darod, the Hawiye and the Digil-Mirifle.

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